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SENDMAIL(1)                                                        SENDMAIL(1)

       sendmail - Postfix to Sendmail compatibility interface

       <b>sendmail</b> [<i>option ...</i>] [<i>recipient ...</i>]

       <b>sendmail -bp</b>

       <b>sendmail -I</b>

       The  Postfix <a href="sendmail.1.html"><b>sendmail</b>(1)</a> command implements the Postfix to
       Sendmail compatibility interface.  For the sake of compat-
       ibility with existing applications, some Sendmail command-
       line options are recognized but silently ignored.

       By default, Postfix <a href="sendmail.1.html"><b>sendmail</b>(1)</a> reads a message from stan-
       dard  input until EOF or until it reads a line with only a
       <b>.</b> character, and arranges  for  delivery.   Postfix  <a href="sendmail.1.html"><b>send-</b></a>
       <a href="sendmail.1.html"><b>mail</b>(1)</a>  relies  on  the  <a href="postdrop.1.html"><b>postdrop</b>(1)</a>  command to create a
       queue file in the <b>maildrop</b> directory.

       Specific command aliases are  provided  for  other  common
       modes of operation:

       <b>mailq</b>  List  the  mail  queue.  Each entry shows the queue
              file ID, message size, arrival  time,  sender,  and
              the recipients that still need to be delivered.  If
              mail could not be delivered upon the last  attempt,
              the  reason  for  failure  is  shown.  The queue ID
              string is followed by an optional status character:

              <b>*</b>      The message is in the <b>active</b> queue, i.e. the
                     message is selected for delivery.

              <b>!</b>      The message is in the <b>hold</b>  queue,  i.e.  no
                     further  delivery attempt will be made until
                     the mail is taken off hold.

              This mode of operation is implemented by  executing
              the <a href="postqueue.1.html"><b>postqueue</b>(1)</a> command.

              Initialize the alias database.  If no input file is
              specified (with the <b>-oA</b>  option,  see  below),  the
              program  processes  the  file(s) specified with the
              <b><a href="postconf.5.html#alias_database">alias_database</a></b>  configuration  parameter.   If   no
              alias  database type is specified, the program uses
              the type specified with  the  <b><a href="postconf.5.html#default_database_type">default_database_type</a></b>
              configuration parameter.  This mode of operation is
              implemented by running the <a href="postalias.1.html"><b>postalias</b>(1)</a> command.

              Note: it may take a minute or so  before  an  alias
              database  update  becomes visible. Use the "<b>postfix</b>
              <b>reload</b>" command to eliminate this delay.

       These and other features can be selected by specifying the
       appropriate combination of command-line options. Some fea-
       tures are controlled by parameters in the <a href="postconf.5.html"><b></b></a> configu-
       ration file.

       The following options are recognized:

       <b>-Am</b> (ignored)

       <b>-Ac</b> (ignored)
              Postfix  sendmail  uses the same configuration file
              regardless of whether or not a message is  an  ini-
              tial submission.

       <b>-B</b> <i>body</i><b>_</b><i>type</i>
              The message body MIME type: <b>7BIT</b> or <b>8BITMIME</b>.

       <b>-bd</b>    Go  into  daemon  mode.  This  mode of operation is
              implemented by executing the "<b>postfix  start</b>"  com-

       <b>-bh</b> (ignored)

       <b>-bH</b> (ignored)
              Postfix has no persistent host status database.

       <b>-bi</b>    Initialize  alias database. See the <b>newaliases</b> com-
              mand above.

       <b>-bm</b>    Read mail  from  standard  input  and  arrange  for
              delivery.  This is the default mode of operation.

       <b>-bp</b>    List the mail queue. See the <b>mailq</b> command above.

       <b>-bs</b>    Stand-alone  SMTP  server  mode. Read SMTP commands
              from standard input, and write responses  to  stan-
              dard output.  In stand-alone SMTP server mode, mail
              relaying and other access controls are disabled  by
              default.  To  enable  them,  run the process as the
              <b><a href="postconf.5.html#mail_owner">mail_owner</a></b> user.

              This mode of operation is  implemented  by  running
              the <a href="smtpd.8.html"><b>smtpd</b>(8)</a> daemon.

       <b>-bv</b>    Do  not collect or deliver a message. Instead, send
              an email  report  after  verifying  each  recipient
              address.    This  is  useful  for  testing  address
              rewriting and routing configurations.

              This feature is available in  Postfix  version  2.1
              and later.

       <b>-C</b> <i>config</i><b>_</b><i>file</i>

       <b>-C</b> <i>config</i><b>_</b><i>dir</i>
              The  path  name  of the Postfix <a href="postconf.5.html"><b></b></a> file, or of
              its parent directory. This information  is  ignored
              with Postfix versions before 2.3.

              With all Postfix versions, you can specify a direc-
              tory  pathname  with  the  MAIL_CONFIG  environment
              variable  to override the location of configuration

       <b>-F</b> <i>full</i><b>_</b><i>name</i>
              Set the sender full name. This overrides  the  NAME
              environment  variable,  and  is used only with mes-
              sages that have no <b>From:</b> message header.

       <b>-f</b> <i>sender</i>
              Set  the  envelope  sender  address.  This  is  the
              address  where  delivery problems are sent to. With
              Postfix versions before 2.1, the <b>Errors-To:</b> message
              header overrides the error return address.

       <b>-G</b>     Gateway  (relay)  submission, as opposed to initial
              user submission.  Either do not  rewrite  addresses
              at  all,  or  update  incomplete addresses with the
              domain information specified with <b>remote_header_re-</b>

              This  option is ignored before Postfix version 2.3.

       <b>-h</b> <i>hop</i><b>_</b><i>count</i> (ignored)
              Hop count limit. Use the <b><a href="postconf.5.html#hopcount_limit">hopcount_limit</a></b>  configura-
              tion parameter instead.

       <b>-I</b>     Initialize  alias database. See the <b>newaliases</b> com-
              mand above.

       <b>-i</b>     When reading a message from standard  input,  don't
              treat  a line with only a <b>.</b> character as the end of

       <b>-L</b> <i>label</i> (ignored)
              The logging label. Use the  <b><a href="postconf.5.html#syslog_name">syslog_name</a></b>  configura-
              tion parameter instead.

       <b>-m</b> (ignored)
              Backwards compatibility.

       <b>-N</b> <i>dsn</i> (default: 'delay, failure')
              Delivery   status   notification  control.  Specify
              either a comma-separated list with one or  more  of
              <b>failure</b>  (send  notification  when delivery fails),
              <b>delay</b> (send notification when delivery is delayed),
              or  <b>success</b>  (send notification when the message is
              delivered); or specify <b>never</b> (don't send any  noti-
              fications at all).

              This feature is available in Postfix 2.3 and later.

       <b>-n</b> (ignored)
              Backwards compatibility.

              Non-default alias  database.  Specify  <i>pathname</i>  or
              <i>type</i>:<i>pathname</i>. See <a href="postalias.1.html"><b>postalias</b>(1)</a> for details.

       <b>-O</b> <i>option=value</i> (ignored)
              Backwards compatibility.

       <b>-o7</b> (ignored)

       <b>-o8</b> (ignored)
              To send 8-bit or binary content, use an appropriate
              MIME encapsulation and specify the  appropriate  <b>-B</b>
              command-line option.

       <b>-oi</b>    When  reading  a message from standard input, don't
              treat a line with only a <b>.</b> character as the end  of

       <b>-om</b> (ignored)
              The  sender  is  never  eliminated  from alias etc.

       <b>-o</b> <i>x value</i> (ignored)
              Set option <i>x</i> to <i>value</i>. Use the equivalent  configu-
              ration parameter in <a href="postconf.5.html"><b></b></a> instead.

       <b>-r</b> <i>sender</i>
              Set  the  envelope  sender  address.  This  is  the
              address where delivery problems are sent  to.  With
              Postfix versions before 2.1, the <b>Errors-To:</b> message
              header overrides the error return address.

       <b>-R</b> <i>return</i><b>_</b><i>limit</i> (ignored)
              Limit  the  size   of   bounced   mail.   Use   the
              <b><a href="postconf.5.html#bounce_size_limit">bounce_size_limit</a></b>  configuration parameter instead.

       <b>-q</b>     Attempt to deliver all queued mail. This is  imple-
              mented by executing the <a href="postqueue.1.html"><b>postqueue</b>(1)</a> command.

              Warning:  flushing  undeliverable  mail  frequently
              will result in poor  delivery  performance  of  all
              other mail.

       <b>-q</b><i>interval</i> (ignored)
              The   interval   between   queue   runs.   Use  the
              <b><a href="postconf.5.html#queue_run_delay">queue_run_delay</a></b> configuration parameter instead.

              Schedule immediate delivery of mail with the speci-
              fied  queue ID.  This option is implemented by exe-
              cuting the <a href="postqueue.1.html"><b>postqueue</b>(1)</a> command, and  is  available
              with Postfix version 2.4 and later.

              Schedule  immediate  delivery  of  all mail that is
              queued for the named <i>site</i>. This option accepts only
              <i>site</i>  names  that are eligible for the "fast flush"
              service,  and  is  implemented  by  executing   the
              <a href="postqueue.1.html"><b>postqueue</b>(1)</a> command.  See <a href="flush.8.html"><b>flush</b>(8)</a> for more infor-
              mation about the "fast flush" service.

              This command is not  implemented.  Use  the  slower
              "<b>sendmail -q</b>" command instead.

       <b>-t</b>     Extract  recipients from message headers. These are
              added to any recipients specified  on  the  command

              With  Postfix  versions  prior  to 2.1, this option
              requires that no recipient addresses are  specified
              on the command line.

       <b>-U</b> (ignored)
              Initial user submission.

       <b>-V</b> <i>envid</i>
              Specify the envelope ID for notification by servers
              that support DSN.

              This feature is available in Postfix 2.3 and later.

       <b>-XV</b> (Postfix 2.2 and earlier: <b>-V</b>)
              Variable  Envelope  Return  Path. Given an envelope
              sender address of the  form  <i>owner-listname</i>@<i>origin</i>,
              each  recipient  <i>user</i>@<i>domain</i>  receives  mail with a
              personalized envelope sender address.

              By  default,  the  personalized   envelope   sender
              address  is  <i>owner-listname</i><b>+</b><i>user</i><b>=</b><i>domain</i>@<i>origin</i>. The
              default <b>+</b> and <b>=</b> characters  are  configurable  with
              the  <b><a href="postconf.5.html#default_verp_delimiters">default_verp_delimiters</a></b>  configuration parame-

       <b>-XV</b><i>xy</i> (Postfix 2.2 and earlier: <b>-V</b><i>xy</i>)
              As <b>-XV</b>, but uses <i>x</i> and  <i>y</i>  as  the  VERP  delimiter
              characters,  instead  of  the  characters specified
              with  the   <b><a href="postconf.5.html#default_verp_delimiters">default_verp_delimiters</a></b>   configuration

       <b>-v</b>     Send  an email report of the first delivery attempt
              (Postfix versions 2.1  and  later).  Mail  delivery
              always  happens in the background. When multiple <b>-v</b>
              options  are  given,  enable  verbose  logging  for
              debugging purposes.

       <b>-X</b> <i>log</i><b>_</b><i>file</i> (ignored)
              Log  mailer  traffic.  Use  the <b><a href="postconf.5.html#debug_peer_list">debug_peer_list</a></b> and
              <b><a href="postconf.5.html#debug_peer_level">debug_peer_level</a></b> configuration parameters  instead.

       By  design,  this  program  is not set-user (or group) id.
       However, it must  handle  data  from  untrusted,  possibly
       remote,  users.   Thus,  the  usual precautions need to be
       taken against malicious inputs.

       Problems are logged to  <b>syslogd</b>(8)  and  to  the  standard
       error stream.

              Directory with Postfix configuration files.

       <b>MAIL_VERBOSE</b> (value does not matter)
              Enable verbose logging for debugging purposes.

       <b>MAIL_DEBUG</b> (value does not matter)
              Enable debugging with an external command, as spec-
              ified  with  the   <b><a href="postconf.5.html#debugger_command">debugger_command</a></b>   configuration

       <b>NAME</b>   The  sender  full name. This is used only with mes-
              sages that have no <b>From:</b> message header.  See  also
              the <b>-F</b> option above.

       The  following  <a href="postconf.5.html"><b></b></a> parameters are especially relevant
       to this program.  The text below provides only a parameter
       summary.  See <a href="postconf.5.html"><b>postconf</b>(5)</a> for more details including exam-

       Available with Postfix 2.9 and later:

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#sendmail_fix_line_endings">sendmail_fix_line_endings</a> (always)</b>
              Controls how the Postfix sendmail command  converts
              email  message line endings from &lt;CR&gt;&lt;LF&gt; into UNIX
              format (&lt;LF&gt;).

       The <a href="DEBUG_README.html">DEBUG_README</a> file gives examples  of  how  to  trouble
       shoot a Postfix system.

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#debugger_command">debugger_command</a> (empty)</b>
              The external command to execute when a Postfix dae-
              mon program is invoked with the -D option.

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#debug_peer_level">debug_peer_level</a> (2)</b>
              The increment  in  verbose  logging  level  when  a
              remote  client  or  server matches a pattern in the
              <a href="postconf.5.html#debug_peer_list">debug_peer_list</a> parameter.

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#debug_peer_list">debug_peer_list</a> (empty)</b>
              Optional list of remote client or  server  hostname
              or  network address patterns that cause the verbose
              logging level to increase by the  amount  specified
              in $<a href="postconf.5.html#debug_peer_level">debug_peer_level</a>.

       Available in Postfix version 2.2 and later:

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#authorized_flush_users">authorized_flush_users</a> (<a href="DATABASE_README.html#types">static</a>:anyone)</b>
              List  of  users  who  are  authorized  to flush the

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#authorized_mailq_users">authorized_mailq_users</a> (<a href="DATABASE_README.html#types">static</a>:anyone)</b>
              List of users who are authorized to view the queue.

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#authorized_submit_users">authorized_submit_users</a> (<a href="DATABASE_README.html#types">static</a>:anyone)</b>
              List  of  users  who  are authorized to submit mail
              with the <a href="sendmail.1.html"><b>sendmail</b>(1)</a> command (and with  the  privi-
              leged <a href="postdrop.1.html"><b>postdrop</b>(1)</a> helper command).

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#bounce_size_limit">bounce_size_limit</a> (50000)</b>
              The maximal amount of original message text that is
              sent in a non-delivery notification.

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#fork_attempts">fork_attempts</a> (5)</b>
              The maximal number of attempts to  fork()  a  child

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#fork_delay">fork_delay</a> (1s)</b>
              The  delay  between  attempts  to  fork()  a  child

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#hopcount_limit">hopcount_limit</a> (50)</b>
              The maximal number of  Received:   message  headers
              that is allowed in the primary message headers.

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#queue_run_delay">queue_run_delay</a> (300s)</b>
              The  time between <a href="QSHAPE_README.html#deferred_queue">deferred queue</a> scans by the queue
              manager; prior to Postfix 2.4 the default value was

       The <a href="ETRN_README.html">ETRN_README</a> file describes configuration and operation
       details for the Postfix "fast flush" service.

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#fast_flush_domains">fast_flush_domains</a> ($<a href="postconf.5.html#relay_domains">relay_domains</a>)</b>
              Optional list of destinations that are eligible for
              per-destination  logfiles  with mail that is queued
              to those destinations.

       The <a href="VERP_README.html">VERP_README</a> file describes configuration and operation
       details  of  Postfix  support for variable envelope return
       path addresses.

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#default_verp_delimiters">default_verp_delimiters</a> (+=)</b>
              The two default VERP delimiter characters.

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#verp_delimiter_filter">verp_delimiter_filter</a> (-=+)</b>
              The characters Postfix accepts  as  VERP  delimiter
              characters  on the Postfix <a href="sendmail.1.html"><b>sendmail</b>(1)</a> command line
              and in SMTP commands.

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#alias_database">alias_database</a> (see 'postconf -d' output)</b>
              The alias databases for <a href="local.8.html"><b>local</b>(8)</a> delivery that  are
              updated with "<b>newaliases</b>" or with "<b>sendmail -bi</b>".

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#command_directory">command_directory</a> (see 'postconf -d' output)</b>
              The  location  of  all  postfix administrative com-

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#config_directory">config_directory</a> (see 'postconf -d' output)</b>
              The default location of  the  Postfix  <a href="postconf.5.html"></a>  and
              <a href="master.5.html"></a> configuration files.

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#daemon_directory">daemon_directory</a> (see 'postconf -d' output)</b>
              The  directory  with  Postfix  support programs and
              daemon programs.

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#default_database_type">default_database_type</a> (see 'postconf -d' output)</b>
              The default database type for use in <a href="newaliases.1.html"><b>newaliases</b>(1)</a>,
              <a href="postalias.1.html"><b>postalias</b>(1)</a> and <a href="postmap.1.html"><b>postmap</b>(1)</a> commands.

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#delay_warning_time">delay_warning_time</a> (0h)</b>
              The  time  after which the sender receives the mes-
              sage headers of mail that is still queued.

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#enable_errors_to">enable_errors_to</a> (no)</b>
              Report mail delivery errors to the  address  speci-
              fied   with  the  non-standard  Errors-To:  message
              header, instead  of  the  envelope  sender  address
              (this  feature is removed with Postfix version 2.2,
              is turned off by default with Postfix version  2.1,
              and  is  always  turned  on with older Postfix ver-

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#mail_owner">mail_owner</a> (postfix)</b>
              The UNIX system account that owns the Postfix queue
              and most Postfix daemon processes.

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#queue_directory">queue_directory</a> (see 'postconf -d' output)</b>
              The  location of the Postfix top-level queue direc-

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#remote_header_rewrite_domain">remote_header_rewrite_domain</a> (empty)</b>
              Don't rewrite message headers from  remote  clients
              at all when this parameter is empty; otherwise, re-
              write message  headers  and  append  the  specified
              domain name to incomplete addresses.

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#syslog_facility">syslog_facility</a> (mail)</b>
              The syslog facility of Postfix logging.

       <b><a href="postconf.5.html#syslog_name">syslog_name</a> (see 'postconf -d' output)</b>
              The  mail  system  name  that  is  prepended to the
              process name in syslog  records,  so  that  "smtpd"
              becomes, for example, "postfix/smtpd".

       /var/spool/postfix, mail queue
       /etc/postfix, configuration files

<b>SEE ALSO</b>
       <a href="pickup.8.html">pickup(8)</a>, mail pickup daemon
       <a href="qmgr.8.html">qmgr(8)</a>, queue manager
       <a href="smtpd.8.html">smtpd(8)</a>, SMTP server
       <a href="flush.8.html">flush(8)</a>, fast flush service
       <a href="postsuper.1.html">postsuper(1)</a>, queue maintenance
       <a href="postalias.1.html">postalias(1)</a>, create/update/query alias database
       <a href="postdrop.1.html">postdrop(1)</a>, mail posting utility
       <a href="postfix.1.html">postfix(1)</a>, mail system control
       <a href="postqueue.1.html">postqueue(1)</a>, mail queue control
       syslogd(8), system logging

       <a href="DEBUG_README.html">DEBUG_README</a>, Postfix debugging howto
       <a href="ETRN_README.html">ETRN_README</a>, Postfix ETRN howto
       <a href="VERP_README.html">VERP_README</a>, Postfix VERP howto

       The Secure Mailer license must be  distributed  with  this

       Wietse Venema
       IBM T.J. Watson Research
       P.O. Box 704
       Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA

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