xxd.c   [plain text]


/* xxd: my hexdump facility. jw
 *
 *  2.10.90 changed to word output
 *  3.03.93 new indent style, dumb bug inserted and fixed.
 *	    -c option, mls
 * 26.04.94 better option parser, -ps, -l, -s added.
 *  1.07.94 -r badly needs - as input file.  Per default autoskip over
 *	       consecutive lines of zeroes, as unix od does.
 *	    -a shows them too.
 *	    -i dump as c-style #include "file.h"
 *  1.11.95 if "xxd -i" knows the filename, an 'unsigned char filename_bits[]'
 *	    array is written in correct c-syntax.
 *	    -s improved, now defaults to absolute seek, relative requires a '+'.
 *	    -r improved, now -r -s -0x... is supported.
 *	       change/suppress leading '\0' bytes.
 *	    -l n improved: stops exactly after n bytes.
 *	    -r improved, better handling of partial lines with trailing garbage.
 *	    -r improved, now -r -p works again!
 *	    -r improved, less flushing, much faster now! (that was silly)
 *  3.04.96 Per repeated request of a single person: autoskip defaults to off.
 * 15.05.96 -v added. They want to know the version.
 *	    -a fixed, to show last line inf file ends in all zeros.
 *	    -u added: Print upper case hex-letters, as preferred by unix bc.
 *	    -h added to usage message. Usage message extended.
 *	    Now using outfile if specified even in normal mode, aehem.
 *	    No longer mixing of ints and longs. May help doze people.
 *	    Added binify ioctl for same reason. (Enough Doze stress for 1996!)
 * 16.05.96 -p improved, removed occasional superfluous linefeed.
 * 20.05.96 -l 0 fixed. tried to read anyway.
 * 21.05.96 -i fixed. now honours -u, and prepends __ to numeric filenames.
 *	    compile -DWIN32 for NT or W95. George V. Reilly, * -v improved :-)
 *	    support --gnuish-longhorn-options
 * 25.05.96 MAC support added: CodeWarrior already uses ``outline'' in Types.h
 *	    which is included by MacHeaders (Axel Kielhorn). Renamed to
 *	    xxdline().
 *  7.06.96 -i printed 'int' instead of 'char'. *blush*
 *	    added Bram's OS2 ifdefs...
 * 18.07.96 gcc -Wall @ SunOS4 is now slient.
 *	    Added osver for MSDOS/DJGPP/WIN32.
 * 29.08.96 Added size_t to strncmp() for Amiga.
 * 24.03.97 Windows NT support (Phil Hanna). Clean exit for Amiga WB (Bram)
 * 02.04.97 Added -E option, to have EBCDIC translation instead of ASCII
 *	    (azc10@yahoo.com)
 * 22.05.97 added -g (group octets) option (jcook@namerica.kla.com).
 * 23.09.98 nasty -p -r misfeature fixed: slightly wrong output, when -c was
 *	    missing or wrong.
 * 26.09.98 Fixed: 'xxd -i infile outfile' did not truncate outfile.
 * 27.10.98 Fixed: -g option parser required blank.
 *	    option -b added: 01000101 binary output in normal format.
 * 16.05.00 Added VAXC changes by Stephen P. Wall
 * 16.05.00 Improved MMS file and merge for VMS by Zoltan Arpadffy
 *
 * (c) 1990-1998 by Juergen Weigert (jnweiger@informatik.uni-erlangen.de)
 *
 * Small changes made afterwards by Bram Moolenaar et al.
 *
 * Distribute freely and credit me,
 * make money and share with me,
 * lose money and don't ask me.
 */

/* Visual Studio 2005 has 'deprecated' many of the standard CRT functions */
#if _MSC_VER >= 1400
# define _CRT_SECURE_NO_DEPRECATE
# define _CRT_NONSTDC_NO_DEPRECATE
#endif
#if !defined(CYGWIN) && (defined(CYGWIN32) || defined(__CYGWIN__) || defined(__CYGWIN32__))
# define CYGWIN
#endif

#include <stdio.h>
#ifdef VAXC
# include <file.h>
#else
# include <fcntl.h>
#endif
#ifdef __TSC__
# define MSDOS
#endif
#if !defined(OS2) && defined(__EMX__)
# define OS2
#endif
#if defined(MSDOS) || defined(WIN32) || defined(OS2) || defined(__BORLANDC__) \
  || defined(CYGWIN)
# include <io.h>	/* for setmode() */
#else
# ifdef UNIX
#  include <unistd.h>
# endif
#endif
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>	/* for strncmp() */
#include <ctype.h>	/* for isalnum() */
#if __MWERKS__ && !defined(BEBOX)
# include <unix.h>	/* for fdopen() on MAC */
#endif

#if defined(__BORLANDC__) && __BORLANDC__ <= 0x0410 && !defined(fileno)
/* Missing define and prototype grabbed from the BC 4.0 <stdio.h> */
# define fileno(f)       ((f)->fd)
FILE   _FAR *_Cdecl _FARFUNC fdopen(int __handle, char _FAR *__type);
#endif


/*  This corrects the problem of missing prototypes for certain functions
 *  in some GNU installations (e.g. SunOS 4.1.x).
 *  Darren Hiebert <darren@hmi.com> (sparc-sun-sunos4.1.3_U1/2.7.2.2)
 */
#if defined(__GNUC__) && defined(__STDC__)
# ifndef __USE_FIXED_PROTOTYPES__
#  define __USE_FIXED_PROTOTYPES__
# endif
#endif

#ifndef __USE_FIXED_PROTOTYPES__
/*
 * This is historic and works only if the compiler really has no prototypes:
 *
 * Include prototypes for Sun OS 4.x, when using an ANSI compiler.
 * FILE is defined on OS 4.x, not on 5.x (Solaris).
 * if __SVR4 is defined (some Solaris versions), don't include this.
 */
#if defined(sun) && defined(FILE) && !defined(__SVR4) && defined(__STDC__)
#  define __P(a) a
/* excerpt from my sun_stdlib.h */
extern int fprintf __P((FILE *, char *, ...));
extern int fputs   __P((char *, FILE *));
extern int _flsbuf __P((unsigned char, FILE *));
extern int _filbuf __P((FILE *));
extern int fflush  __P((FILE *));
extern int fclose  __P((FILE *));
extern int fseek   __P((FILE *, long, int));
extern int rewind  __P((FILE *));

extern void perror __P((char *));
# endif
#endif

extern long int strtol();
extern long int ftell();

char version[] = "xxd V1.10 27oct98 by Juergen Weigert";
#ifdef WIN32
char osver[] = " (Win32)";
#else
# ifdef DJGPP
char osver[] = " (dos 32 bit)";
# else
#  ifdef MSDOS
char osver[] = " (dos 16 bit)";
#  else
char osver[] = "";
#  endif
# endif
#endif

#if defined(MSDOS) || defined(WIN32) || defined(OS2)
# define BIN_READ(yes)  ((yes) ? "rb" : "rt")
# define BIN_WRITE(yes) ((yes) ? "wb" : "wt")
# define BIN_CREAT(yes) ((yes) ? (O_CREAT|O_BINARY) : O_CREAT)
# define BIN_ASSIGN(fp, yes) setmode(fileno(fp), (yes) ? O_BINARY : O_TEXT)
# define PATH_SEP '\\'
#elif defined(CYGWIN)
# define BIN_READ(yes)  ((yes) ? "rb" : "rt")
# define BIN_WRITE(yes) ((yes) ? "wb" : "w")
# define BIN_CREAT(yes) ((yes) ? (O_CREAT|O_BINARY) : O_CREAT)
# define BIN_ASSIGN(fp, yes) ((yes) ? (void) setmode(fileno(fp), O_BINARY) : (void) (fp))
# define PATH_SEP '/'
#else
# ifdef VMS
#  define BIN_READ(dummy)  "r"
#  define BIN_WRITE(dummy) "w"
#  define BIN_CREAT(dummy) O_CREAT
#  define BIN_ASSIGN(fp, dummy) fp
#  define PATH_SEP ']'
#  define FILE_SEP '.'
# else
#  define BIN_READ(dummy)  "r"
#  define BIN_WRITE(dummy) "w"
#  define BIN_CREAT(dummy) O_CREAT
#  define BIN_ASSIGN(fp, dummy) fp
#  define PATH_SEP '/'
# endif
#endif

/* open has only to arguments on the Mac */
#if __MWERKS__
# define OPEN(name, mode, umask) open(name, mode)
#else
# define OPEN(name, mode, umask) open(name, mode, umask)
#endif

#ifdef AMIGA
# define STRNCMP(s1, s2, l) strncmp(s1, s2, (size_t)l)
#else
# define STRNCMP(s1, s2, l) strncmp(s1, s2, l)
#endif

#ifndef __P
# if defined(__STDC__) || defined(MSDOS) || defined(WIN32) || defined(OS2) \
		|| defined(__BORLANDC__)
#  define __P(a) a
# else
#  define __P(a) ()
# endif
#endif

/* Let's collect some prototypes */
/* CodeWarrior is really picky about missing prototypes */
static void exit_with_usage __P((char *));
static int huntype __P((FILE *, FILE *, FILE *, char *, int, int, long));
static void xxdline __P((FILE *, char *, int));

#define TRY_SEEK	/* attempt to use lseek, or skip forward by reading */
#define COLS 256	/* change here, if you ever need more columns */
#define LLEN (11 + (9*COLS-1)/1 + COLS + 2)

char hexxa[] = "0123456789abcdef0123456789ABCDEF", *hexx = hexxa;

/* the different hextypes known by this program: */
#define HEX_NORMAL 0
#define HEX_POSTSCRIPT 1
#define HEX_CINCLUDE 2
#define HEX_BITS 3		/* not hex a dump, but bits: 01111001 */

static void
exit_with_usage(pname)
char *pname;
{
  fprintf(stderr, "Usage:\n       %s [options] [infile [outfile]]\n", pname);
  fprintf(stderr, "    or\n       %s -r [-s [-]offset] [-c cols] [-ps] [infile [outfile]]\n", pname);
  fprintf(stderr, "Options:\n");
  fprintf(stderr, "    -a          toggle autoskip: A single '*' replaces nul-lines. Default off.\n");
  fprintf(stderr, "    -b          binary digit dump (incompatible with -ps,-i,-r). Default hex.\n");
  fprintf(stderr, "    -c cols     format <cols> octets per line. Default 16 (-i: 12, -ps: 30).\n");
  fprintf(stderr, "    -E          show characters in EBCDIC. Default ASCII.\n");
  fprintf(stderr, "    -g          number of octets per group in normal output. Default 2.\n");
  fprintf(stderr, "    -h          print this summary.\n");
  fprintf(stderr, "    -i          output in C include file style.\n");
  fprintf(stderr, "    -l len      stop after <len> octets.\n");
  fprintf(stderr, "    -ps         output in postscript plain hexdump style.\n");
  fprintf(stderr, "    -r          reverse operation: convert (or patch) hexdump into binary.\n");
  fprintf(stderr, "    -r -s off   revert with <off> added to file positions found in hexdump.\n");
  fprintf(stderr, "    -s %sseek  start at <seek> bytes abs. %sinfile offset.\n",
#ifdef TRY_SEEK
	  "[+][-]", "(or +: rel.) ");
#else
	  "", "");
#endif
  fprintf(stderr, "    -u          use upper case hex letters.\n");
  fprintf(stderr, "    -v          show version: \"%s%s\".\n", version, osver);
  exit(1);
}

/*
 * Max. cols binary characters are decoded from the input stream per line.
 * Two adjacent garbage characters after evaluated data delimit valid data.
 * Everything up to the next newline is discarded.
 *
 * The name is historic and came from 'undo type opt h'.
 */
static int
huntype(fpi, fpo, fperr, pname, cols, hextype, base_off)
FILE *fpi, *fpo, *fperr;
char *pname;
int cols, hextype;
long base_off;
{
  int c, ign_garb = 1, n1 = -1, n2 = 0, n3, p = cols;
  long have_off = 0, want_off = 0;

  rewind(fpi);

  while ((c = getc(fpi)) != EOF)
    {
      if (c == '\r')	/* Doze style input file? */
	continue;

      /* Allow multiple spaces.  This doesn't work when there is normal text
       * after the hex codes in the last line that looks like hex, thus only
       * use it for PostScript format. */
      if (hextype == HEX_POSTSCRIPT && (c == ' ' || c == '\n' || c == '\t'))
	continue;

      n3 = n2;
      n2 = n1;

      if (c >= '0' && c <= '9')
	n1 = c - '0';
      else if (c >= 'a' && c <= 'f')
	n1 = c - 'a' + 10;
      else if (c >= 'A' && c <= 'F')
	n1 = c - 'A' + 10;
      else
	{
	  n1 = -1;
	  if (ign_garb)
	    continue;
	}

      ign_garb = 0;

      if (p >= cols)
	{
	  if (!hextype)
	    {
	      if (n1 < 0)
		{
		  p = 0;
		  continue;
		}
	      want_off = (want_off << 4) | n1;
	      continue;
	    }
	  else
	    p = 0;
	}

      if (base_off + want_off != have_off)
	{
	  fflush(fpo);
#ifdef TRY_SEEK
	  c = fseek(fpo, base_off + want_off - have_off, 1);
	  if (c >= 0)
	    have_off = base_off + want_off;
#endif
	  if (base_off + want_off < have_off)
	    {
	      fprintf(fperr, "%s: sorry, cannot seek backwards.\n", pname);
	      return 5;
	    }
	  for (; have_off < base_off + want_off; have_off++)
	    putc(0, fpo);
	}

      if (n2 >= 0 && n1 >= 0)
	{
	  putc((n2 << 4) | n1, fpo);
	  have_off++;
	  want_off++;
	  n1 = -1;
	  if ((++p >= cols) && !hextype)
	    {
	      /* skip rest of line as garbage */
	      want_off = 0;
	      while ((c = getc(fpi)) != '\n' && c != EOF)
		;
	      ign_garb = 1;
	    }
	}
      else if (n1 < 0 && n2 < 0 && n3 < 0)
	{
	  /* already stumbled into garbage, skip line, wait and see */
	  if (!hextype)
	    want_off = 0;
	  while ((c = getc(fpi)) != '\n' && c != EOF)
	    ;
	  ign_garb = 1;
	}
    }
  fflush(fpo);
#ifdef TRY_SEEK
  fseek(fpo, 0L, 2);
#endif
  fclose(fpo);
  fclose(fpi);
  return 0;
}

/*
 * Print line l. If nz is false, xxdline regards the line a line of
 * zeroes. If there are three or more consecutive lines of zeroes,
 * they are replaced by a single '*' character.
 *
 * If the output ends with more than two lines of zeroes, you
 * should call xxdline again with l being the last line and nz
 * negative. This ensures that the last line is shown even when
 * it is all zeroes.
 *
 * If nz is always positive, lines are never suppressed.
 */
static void
xxdline(fp, l, nz)
FILE *fp;
char *l;
int nz;
{
  static char z[LLEN+1];
  static int zero_seen = 0;

  if (!nz && zero_seen == 1)
    strcpy(z, l);

  if (nz || !zero_seen++)
    {
      if (nz)
	{
	  if (nz < 0)
	    zero_seen--;
	  if (zero_seen == 2)
	    fputs(z, fp);
	  if (zero_seen > 2)
	    fputs("*\n", fp);
	}
      if (nz >= 0 || zero_seen > 0)
	fputs(l, fp);
      if (nz)
	zero_seen = 0;
    }
}

/* This is an EBCDIC to ASCII conversion table */
/* from a proposed BTL standard April 16, 1979 */
static unsigned char etoa64[] =
{
    0040,0240,0241,0242,0243,0244,0245,0246,
    0247,0250,0325,0056,0074,0050,0053,0174,
    0046,0251,0252,0253,0254,0255,0256,0257,
    0260,0261,0041,0044,0052,0051,0073,0176,
    0055,0057,0262,0263,0264,0265,0266,0267,
    0270,0271,0313,0054,0045,0137,0076,0077,
    0272,0273,0274,0275,0276,0277,0300,0301,
    0302,0140,0072,0043,0100,0047,0075,0042,
    0303,0141,0142,0143,0144,0145,0146,0147,
    0150,0151,0304,0305,0306,0307,0310,0311,
    0312,0152,0153,0154,0155,0156,0157,0160,
    0161,0162,0136,0314,0315,0316,0317,0320,
    0321,0345,0163,0164,0165,0166,0167,0170,
    0171,0172,0322,0323,0324,0133,0326,0327,
    0330,0331,0332,0333,0334,0335,0336,0337,
    0340,0341,0342,0343,0344,0135,0346,0347,
    0173,0101,0102,0103,0104,0105,0106,0107,
    0110,0111,0350,0351,0352,0353,0354,0355,
    0175,0112,0113,0114,0115,0116,0117,0120,
    0121,0122,0356,0357,0360,0361,0362,0363,
    0134,0237,0123,0124,0125,0126,0127,0130,
    0131,0132,0364,0365,0366,0367,0370,0371,
    0060,0061,0062,0063,0064,0065,0066,0067,
    0070,0071,0372,0373,0374,0375,0376,0377
};

int
main(argc, argv)
int argc;
char *argv[];
{
  FILE *fp, *fpo;
  int c, e, p = 0, relseek = 1, negseek = 0, revert = 0;
  int cols = 0, nonzero = 0, autoskip = 0, hextype = HEX_NORMAL;
  int ebcdic = 0;
  int octspergrp = -1;	/* number of octets grouped in output */
  int grplen;		/* total chars per octet group */
  long length = -1, n = 0, seekoff = 0;
  char l[LLEN+1];
  char *pname, *pp;

#ifdef AMIGA
  /* This program doesn't work when started from the Workbench */
  if (argc == 0)
    exit(1);
#endif

  pname = argv[0];
  for (pp = pname; *pp; )
    if (*pp++ == PATH_SEP)
      pname = pp;
#ifdef FILE_SEP
  for (pp = pname; *pp; pp++)
    if (*pp == FILE_SEP)
      {
	*pp = '\0';
	break;
      }
#endif

  while (argc >= 2)
    {
      pp = argv[1] + (!STRNCMP(argv[1], "--", 2) && argv[1][2]);
	   if (!STRNCMP(pp, "-a", 2)) autoskip = 1 - autoskip;
      else if (!STRNCMP(pp, "-b", 2)) hextype = HEX_BITS;
      else if (!STRNCMP(pp, "-u", 2)) hexx = hexxa + 16;
      else if (!STRNCMP(pp, "-p", 2)) hextype = HEX_POSTSCRIPT;
      else if (!STRNCMP(pp, "-i", 2)) hextype = HEX_CINCLUDE;
      else if (!STRNCMP(pp, "-r", 2)) revert++;
      else if (!STRNCMP(pp, "-E", 2)) ebcdic++;
      else if (!STRNCMP(pp, "-v", 2))
	{
	  fprintf(stderr, "%s%s\n", version, osver);
	  exit(0);
	}
      else if (!STRNCMP(pp, "-c", 2))
	{
	  if (pp[2] && STRNCMP("ols", pp + 2, 3))
	    cols = (int)strtol(pp + 2, NULL, 0);
	  else
	    {
	      if (!argv[2])
		exit_with_usage(pname);
	      cols = (int)strtol(argv[2], NULL, 0);
	      argv++;
	      argc--;
	    }
	}
      else if (!STRNCMP(pp, "-g", 2))
	{
	  if (pp[2] && STRNCMP("roupsize", pp + 2, 8))
	    octspergrp = (int)strtol(pp + 2, NULL, 0);
	  else
	    {
	      if (!argv[2])
		exit_with_usage(pname);
	      octspergrp = (int)strtol(argv[2], NULL, 0);
	      argv++;
	      argc--;
	    }
	}
      else if (!STRNCMP(pp, "-s", 2))
	{
	  relseek = 0;
	  negseek = 0;
	  if (pp[2] && STRNCMP("kip", pp+2, 3) && STRNCMP("eek", pp+2, 3))
	    {
#ifdef TRY_SEEK
	      if (pp[2] == '+')
		relseek++;
	      if (pp[2+relseek] == '-')
		negseek++;
#endif
	      seekoff = strtol(pp + 2+relseek+negseek, (char **)NULL, 0);
	    }
	  else
	    {
	      if (!argv[2])
		exit_with_usage(pname);
#ifdef TRY_SEEK
	      if (argv[2][0] == '+')
		relseek++;
	      if (argv[2][relseek] == '-')
		negseek++;
#endif
	      seekoff = strtol(argv[2] + relseek+negseek, (char **)NULL, 0);
	      argv++;
	      argc--;
	    }
	}
      else if (!STRNCMP(pp, "-l", 2))
	{
	  if (pp[2] && STRNCMP("en", pp + 2, 2))
	    length = strtol(pp + 2, (char **)NULL, 0);
	  else
	    {
	      if (!argv[2])
		exit_with_usage(pname);
	      length = strtol(argv[2], (char **)NULL, 0);
	      argv++;
	      argc--;
	    }
	}
      else if (!strcmp(pp, "--"))	/* end of options */
	{
	  argv++;
	  argc--;
	  break;
	}
      else if (pp[0] == '-' && pp[1])	/* unknown option */
	exit_with_usage(pname);
      else
	break;				/* not an option */

      argv++;				/* advance to next argument */
      argc--;
    }

  if (!cols)
    switch (hextype)
      {
      case HEX_POSTSCRIPT:	cols = 30; break;
      case HEX_CINCLUDE:	cols = 12; break;
      case HEX_BITS:		cols = 6; break;
      case HEX_NORMAL:
      default:			cols = 16; break;
      }

  if (octspergrp < 0)
    switch (hextype)
      {
      case HEX_BITS:		octspergrp = 1; break;
      case HEX_NORMAL:		octspergrp = 2; break;
      case HEX_POSTSCRIPT:
      case HEX_CINCLUDE:
      default:			octspergrp = 0; break;
      }

  if (cols < 1 || ((hextype == HEX_NORMAL || hextype == HEX_BITS)
							    && (cols > COLS)))
    {
      fprintf(stderr, "%s: invalid number of columns (max. %d).\n", pname, COLS);
      exit(1);
    }

  if (octspergrp < 1)
    octspergrp = cols;

  if (argc > 3)
    exit_with_usage(pname);

  if (argc == 1 || (argv[1][0] == '-' && !argv[1][1]))
    BIN_ASSIGN(fp = stdin, !revert);
  else
    {
      if ((fp = fopen(argv[1], BIN_READ(!revert))) == NULL)
	{
	  fprintf(stderr,"%s: ", pname);
	  perror(argv[1]);
	  return 2;
	}
    }

  if (argc < 3 || (argv[2][0] == '-' && !argv[2][1]))
    BIN_ASSIGN(fpo = stdout, revert);
  else
    {
      int fd;
      int mode = revert ? O_WRONLY : (O_TRUNC|O_WRONLY);

      if (((fd = OPEN(argv[2], mode | BIN_CREAT(revert), 0666)) < 0) ||
	  (fpo = fdopen(fd, BIN_WRITE(revert))) == NULL)
	{
	  fprintf(stderr, "%s: ", pname);
	  perror(argv[2]);
	  return 3;
	}
      rewind(fpo);
    }

  if (revert)
    {
      if (hextype && (hextype != HEX_POSTSCRIPT))
	{
	  fprintf(stderr, "%s: sorry, cannot revert this type of hexdump\n", pname);
	  return -1;
	}
      return huntype(fp, fpo, stderr, pname, cols, hextype,
		negseek ? -seekoff : seekoff);
    }

  if (seekoff || negseek || !relseek)
    {
#ifdef TRY_SEEK
      if (relseek)
	e = fseek(fp, negseek ? -seekoff : seekoff, 1);
      else
	e = fseek(fp, negseek ? -seekoff : seekoff, negseek ? 2 : 0);
      if (e < 0 && negseek)
	{
	  fprintf(stderr, "%s: sorry cannot seek.\n", pname);
	  return 4;
	}
      if (e >= 0)
	seekoff = ftell(fp);
      else
#endif
	{
	  long s = seekoff;

	  while (s--)
	    (void)getc(fp);
	}
    }

  if (hextype == HEX_CINCLUDE)
    {
      if (fp != stdin)
	{
	  fprintf(fpo, "unsigned char %s", isdigit((int)argv[1][0]) ? "__" : "");
	  for (e = 0; (c = argv[1][e]) != 0; e++)
	    putc(isalnum(c) ? c : '_', fpo);
	  fputs("[] = {\n", fpo);
	}

      p = 0;
      while ((length < 0 || p < length) && (c = getc(fp)) != EOF)
	{
	  fprintf(fpo, (hexx == hexxa) ? "%s0x%02x" : "%s0X%02X",
	    (p % cols) ? ", " : ",\n  "+2*!p,  c);
	  p++;
	}

      if (p)
	fputs("\n};\n"+3*(fp == stdin), fpo);

      if (fp != stdin)
	{
	  fprintf(fpo, "unsigned int %s", isdigit((int)argv[1][0]) ? "__" : "");
	  for (e = 0; (c = argv[1][e]) != 0; e++)
	    putc(isalnum(c) ? c : '_', fpo);
	  fprintf(fpo, "_len = %d;\n", p);
	}

      fclose(fp);
      fclose(fpo);
      return 0;
    }

  if (hextype == HEX_POSTSCRIPT)
    {
      p = cols;
      while ((length < 0 || n < length) && (e = getc(fp)) != EOF)
	{
	  putchar(hexx[(e >> 4) & 0xf]);
	  putchar(hexx[(e     ) & 0xf]);
	  n++;
	  if (!--p)
	    {
	      putchar('\n');
	      p = cols;
	    }
	}
      if (p < cols)
	putchar('\n');
      fclose(fp);
      fclose(fpo);
      return 0;
    }

  /* hextype: HEX_NORMAL or HEX_BITS */

  if (hextype == HEX_NORMAL)
    grplen = octspergrp + octspergrp + 1;	/* chars per octet group */
  else	/* hextype == HEX_BITS */
    grplen = 8 * octspergrp + 1;

  while ((length < 0 || n < length) && (e = getc(fp)) != EOF)
    {
      if (p == 0)
	{
	  sprintf(l, "%07lx: ", n + seekoff);
	  for (c = 9; c < LLEN; l[c++] = ' ');
	}
      if (hextype == HEX_NORMAL)
	{
	  l[c = (9 + (grplen * p) / octspergrp)] = hexx[(e >> 4) & 0xf];
	  l[++c]			       = hexx[ e       & 0xf];
	}
      else /* hextype == HEX_BITS */
	{
	  int i;

	  c = (9 + (grplen * p) / octspergrp) - 1;
	  for (i = 7; i >= 0; i--)
	    l[++c] = (e & (1 << i)) ? '1' : '0';
	}
      if (ebcdic)
	e = (e < 64) ? '.' : etoa64[e-64];
      /* When changing this update definition of LLEN above. */
      l[11 + (grplen * cols - 1)/octspergrp + p] =
#ifdef __MVS__
	  (e >= 64)
#else
	  (e > 31 && e < 127)
#endif
	  ? e : '.';
      if (e)
	nonzero++;
      n++;
      if (++p == cols)
	{
	  l[c = (11 + (grplen * cols - 1)/octspergrp + p)] = '\n'; l[++c] = '\0';
	  xxdline(fpo, l, autoskip ? nonzero : 1);
	  nonzero = 0;
	  p = 0;
	}
    }
  if (p)
    {
      l[c = (11 + (grplen * cols - 1)/octspergrp + p)] = '\n'; l[++c] = '\0';
      xxdline(fpo, l, 1);
    }
  else if (autoskip)
    xxdline(fpo, l, -1);	/* last chance to flush out suppressed lines */

  fclose(fp);
  fclose(fpo);
  return 0;
}