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This is uucp.info, produced by makeinfo version 4.1 from uucp.texi.

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* UUCP: (uucp).                 Transfer mail and news across phone lines.
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   This file documents Taylor UUCP, version 1.07.

   Copyright (C) 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 2002 Ian Lance Taylor

   Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are
preserved on all copies.

   Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of
this manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided also
that the section entitled "Copying" are included exactly as in the
original, and provided that the entire resulting derived work is
distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this
one.

   Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this
manual into another language, under the above conditions for modified
versions, except that the section entitled "Copying" may be included in
a translation approved by the author instead of in the original English.


File: uucp.info,  Node: port File,  Next: dial File,  Prev: sys File,  Up: Configuration Files

The Port Configuration File
===========================

   The port files may be used to name and describe ports.  By default
there is a single port file, named `port' in the directory
NEWCONFIGDIR.  This may be overridden by the `portfile' command in the
main configuration file; see *Note Configuration File Names::.

   Any commands in a port file before the first `port' command specify
defaults for all ports in the file; however, since the `type' command
must appear before all other commands for a port, the defaults are only
useful if all ports in the file are of the same type (this restriction
may be lifted in a later version).  All commands after a `port' command
up to the next `port' command then describe that port.  There are
different types of ports; each type supports its own set of commands.
Each command indicates which types of ports support it.  There may be
many ports with the same name; if a system requests a port by name then
each port with that name will be tried until an unlocked one is found.

`port STRING'
     Introduces and names a port.

`type STRING'
     Define the type of port.  The default is `modem'.  If this command
     appears, it must immediately follow the `port' command.  The type
     defines what commands are subsequently allowed.  Currently the
     types are:

    `modem'
          For a modem hookup.

    `stdin'
          For a connection through standard input and standard output,
          as when `uucico' is run as a login shell.

    `direct'
          For a direct connection to another system.

    `tcp'
          For a connection using TCP.

    `tli'
          For a connection using TLI.

    `pipe'
          For a connection through a pipe running another program.

`protocol STRING'
     Specify a list of protocols to use for this port.  This is just
     like the corresponding command for a system (*note Protocol
     Selection::).  A protocol list for a system takes precedence over
     a list for a port.

`protocol-parameter CHARACTER STRINGS [ any type ]'
     The same command as the `protocol-parameter' command used for
     systems (*note Protocol Selection::).  This one takes precedence.

`seven-bit BOOLEAN [ any type ]'
     This is only used during protocol negotiation; if the argument is
     true, it forces the selection of a protocol which works across a
     seven-bit link.  It does not prevent eight bit characters from
     being transmitted.  The default is false.

`reliable BOOLEAN [ any type ]'
     This is only used during protocol negotiation; if the argument is
     false, it forces the selection of a protocol which works across an
     unreliable communication link.  The default is true.  It would be
     more common to specify this for a dialer rather than a port.

`half-duplex BOOLEAN [ any type ]'
     If the argument is true, it means that the port only supports
     half-duplex connections.  This only affects bidirectional
     protocols, and causes them to not do bidirectional transfers.

`device STRING [ modem, direct and tli only ]'
     Names the device associated with this port.  If the device is not
     named, the port name is taken as the device.  Device names are
     system dependent.  On Unix, a modem or direct connection might be
     something like `/dev/ttyd0'; a TLI port might be `/dev/inet/tcp'.

`speed NUMBER [modem and direct only ]'

`baud NUMBER [ modem and direct only ]'
     The speed this port runs at.  If a system specifies a speed but no
     port name, then all ports which match the speed will be tried in
     order.  If the speed is not specified here and is not specified by
     the system, the natural speed of the port will be used by default.

`speed-range NUMBER NUMBER [ modem only ]'

`baud-range NUMBER NUMBER [ modem only ]'
     Specify a range of speeds this port can run at.  The first number
     is the minimum speed, the second number is the maximum speed.
     These numbers will be used when matching a system which specifies
     a desired speed.  The simple `speed' (or `baud') command is still
     used to determine the speed to run at if the system does not
     specify a speed.  For example, the command `speed-range 300 19200'
     means that the port will match any system which uses a speed from
     300 to 19200 baud (and will use the speed specified by the
     system); this could be combined with `speed 2400', which means
     that when this port is used with a system that does not specify a
     speed, the port will be used at 2400 baud.

`carrier BOOLEAN [ modem and direct only ]'
     The argument indicates whether the port supports carrier.

     If a modem port does not support carrier, the carrier detect
     signal will never be required on this port, regardless of what the
     modem chat script indicates.  The default for a modem port is true.

     If a direct port supports carrier, the port will be set to expect
     carrier whenever it is used.  The default for a direct port is
     false.

`hardflow BOOLEAN [ modem and direct only ]'
     The argument indicates whether the port supports hardware flow
     control.  If it does not, hardware flow control will not be turned
     on for this port.  The default is true.  Hardware flow control is
     only supported on some systems.

`dial-device STRING [ modem only ]'
     Dialing instructions should be output to the named device, rather
     than to the normal port device.  The default is to output to the
     normal port device.

`dialer STRING [ modem only ]'
     Name a dialer to use.  The information is looked up in the dial
     file.  There is no default.  Some sort of dialer information must
     be specified to call out on a modem.

`dialer STRING ... [ modem only ]'
     If more than one string follows the `dialer' command, the strings
     are treated as a command that might appear in the dial file (*note
     dial File::).  If a dialer is named (by using the first form of
     this command, described just above), these commands are ignored.
     They may be used to specify dialer information directly in simple
     situations without needing to go to a separate file.  There is no
     default.  Some sort of dialer information must be specified to
     call out on a modem.

`dialer-sequence STRINGS [ modem or tcp or tli only ]'
     Name a sequence of dialers and tokens (phone numbers) to use.  The
     first argument names a dialer, and the second argument names a
     token.  The third argument names another dialer, and so on.  If
     there are an odd number of arguments, the phone number specified
     with a `phone' command in the system file is used as the final
     token.  The token is what is used for `\D' or `\T' in the dialer
     chat script.  If the token in this string is `\D', the system
     phone number will be used; if it is `\T', the system phone number
     will be used after undergoing dialcodes translation.  A missing
     final token is taken as `\D'.

     This command currently does not work if `dial-device' is specified;
     to handle this correctly will require a more systematic notion of
     chat scripts.  Moreover, the `complete' and `abort' chat scripts,
     the protocol parameters, and the `carrier' and `dtr-toggle'
     commands are ignored for all but the first dialer.

     This command basically lets you specify a sequence of chat scripts
     to use.  For example, the first dialer might get you to a local
     network and the second dialer might describe how to select a
     machine from the local network.  This lets you break your dialing
     sequence into simple modules, and may make it easier to share
     dialer entries between machines.

     This command is to only way to use a chat script with a TCP port.
     This can be useful when using a modem which is accessed via TCP.

     When this command is used with a TLI port, then if the first
     dialer is `TLI' or `TLIS' the first token is used as the address to
     connect to.  If the first dialer is something else, or if there is
     no token, the address given by the `address' command is used
     (*note Placing the Call::).  Escape sequences in the address are
     expanded as they are for chat script expect strings (*note Chat
     Scripts::).  The different between `TLI' and `TLIS' is that the
     latter implies the command `stream true'.  These contortions are
     all for HDB compatibility.  Any subsequent dialers are treated as
     they are for a TCP port.

`lockname STRING [ modem and direct only ]'
     Give the name to use when locking this port.  On Unix, this is the
     name of the file that will be created in the lock directory.  It
     is used as is, so on Unix it should generally start with `LCK..'.
     For example, if a single port were named both `/dev/ttycu0' and
     `/dev/tty0' (perhaps with different characteristics keyed on the
     minor device number), then the command `lockname LCK..ttycu0' could
     be used to force the latter to use the same lock file name as the
     former.

`service STRING [ tcp only ]'
     Name the TCP port number to use.  This may be a number.  If not,
     it will be looked up in `/etc/services'.  If this is not
     specified, the string `uucp' is looked up in `/etc/services'.  If
     it is not found, port number 540 (the standard UUCP-over-TCP port
     number) will be used.

`version STRING [ tcp only ]'
     Specify the IP version number to use.  The default is `0', which
     permits any version.  The other possible choices are `4', which
     requires `IPv4', or `6', which requires `IPv6'.  Normally it is
     not necessary to use this command, but in some cases, as `IPv6' is
     rolled out across the Internet, it may be necessary to require
     UUCP to use a particular type of connection.

`push STRINGS [ tli only ]'
     Give a list of modules to push on to the TLI stream.

`stream BOOLEAN [ tli only ]'
     If this is true, and the `push' command was not used, the `tirdwr'
     module is pushed on to the TLI stream.

`server-address STRING [ tli only ]'
     Give the address to use when running as a TLI server.  Escape
     sequences in the address are expanded as they are for chat script
     expect strings (*note Chat Scripts::).

     The string is passed directly to the TLI `t_bind' function.  The
     value needed may depend upon your particular TLI implementation.
     Check the manual pages, and, if necessary, try writing some sample
     programs.

     For AT&T 3B2 System V Release 3 using the Wollongong TCP/IP stack,
     which is probably typical, the format of TLI string is `SSPPIIII',
     where `SS' is the service number (for TCP, this is 2), `PP' is the
     TCP port number, and `IIII' is the Internet address.  For example,
     to accept a connection from on port 540 from any interface, use
     `server-address \x00\x02\x02\x1c\x00\x00\x00\x00'.  To only accept
     connections from a particular interface, replace the last four
     digits with the network address of the interface.  (Thanks to Paul
     Pryor for the information in this paragraph).

`command STRINGS [ pipe only ]'
     Give the command, with arguments, to run when using a pipe port
     type.  When a port of this type is used, the command is executed
     and `uucico' communicates with it over a pipe.  This permits
     `uucico' or `cu' to communicate with another system which can only
     be reached through some unusual means.  A sample use might be
     `command /bin/rlogin -E -8 -l LOGIN SYSTEM'.  The command is run
     with the full privileges of UUCP; it is responsible for
     maintaining security.


File: uucp.info,  Node: dial File,  Next: UUCP Over TCP,  Prev: port File,  Up: Configuration Files

The Dialer Configuration File
=============================

   The dialer configuration files define dialers.  By default there is a
single dialer file, named `dial' in the directory NEWCONFIGDIR.  This
may be overridden by the `dialfile' command in the main configuration
file; see *Note Configuration File Names::.

   Any commands in the file before the first `dialer' command specify
defaults for all the dialers in the file.  All commands after a
`dialer' command up to the next `dialer' command are associated with
the named dialer.

`dialer STRING'
     Introduces and names a dialer.

`chat STRINGS'

`chat-timeout NUMBER'

`chat-fail STRING'

`chat-seven-bit BOOLEAN'

`chat-program STRINGS'
     Specify a chat script to be used to dial the phone.  This chat
     script is used before the login chat script in the `sys' file, if
     any (*note Logging In::).  For full details on chat scripts, see
     *Note Chat Scripts::.

     The `uucico' daemon will sleep for one second between attempts to
     dial out on a modem.  If your modem requires a longer wait period,
     you must start your chat script with delays (`\d' in a send
     string).

     The chat script will be read from and sent to the port specified
     by the `dial-device' command for the port, if there is one.

     The following escape addition escape sequences may appear in send
     strings:

    `\D'
          send phone number without dialcode translation

    `\T'
          send phone number with dialcode translation

     See the description of the dialcodes file (*note Configuration
     File Names::) for a description of dialcode translation.

     If both the port and the dialer support carrier, as set by the
     `carrier' command in the port file and the `carrier' command in
     the dialer file, then every chat script implicitly begins with
     `\M' and ends with `\m'.

     There is no default chat script for dialers.

     The following additional escape sequences may be used in
     `chat-program':

    `\D'
          phone number without dialcode translation

    `\T'
          phone number with dialcode translation

     If the program changes the port in any way (e.g., sets parity) the
     changes will be preserved during protocol negotiation, but once the
     protocol is selected it will change the port settings.

`dialtone STRING'
     A string to output when dialing the phone number which causes the
     modem to wait for a secondary dial tone.  This is used to
     translate the `=' character in a phone number.  The default is a
     comma.

`pause STRING'
     A string to output when dialing the phone number which causes the
     modem to wait for 1 second.  This is used to translate the `-'
     character in a phone number.  The default is a comma.

`carrier BOOLEAN'
     An argument of true means that the dialer supports the modem
     carrier signal.  After the phone number is dialed, `uucico' will
     require that carrier be on.  One some systems, it will be able to
     wait for it.  If the argument is false, carrier will not be
     required.  The default is true.

`carrier-wait NUMBER'
     If the port is supposed to wait for carrier, this may be used to
     indicate how many seconds to wait.  The default is 60 seconds.
     Only some systems support waiting for carrier.

`dtr-toggle BOOLEAN BOOLEAN'
     If the first argument is true, then DTR is toggled before using
     the modem.  This is only supported on some systems and some ports.
     The second BOOLEAN need not be present; if it is, and it is true,
     the program will sleep for 1 second after toggling DTR.  The
     default is to not toggle DTR.

`complete-chat STRINGS'

`complete-chat-timeout NUMBER'

`complete-chat-fail STRING'

`complete-chat-seven-bit BOOLEAN'

`complete-chat-program STRINGS'
     These commands define a chat script (*note Chat Scripts::) which
     is run when a call is finished normally.  This allows the modem to
     be reset.  There is no default.  No additional escape sequences
     may be used.

`complete STRING'
     This is a simple use of `complete-chat'.  It is equivalent to
     `complete-chat "" STRING'; this has the effect of sending STRING
     to the modem when a call finishes normally.

`abort-chat STRINGS'

`abort-chat-timeout NUMBER'

`abort-chat-fail STRING'

`abort-chat-seven-bit BOOLEAN'

`abort-chat-program STRINGS'
     These commands define a chat script (*note Chat Scripts::) to be
     run when a call is aborted.  They may be used to interrupt and
     reset the modem.  There is no default.  No additional escape
     sequences may be used.

`abort STRING'
     This is a simple use of `abort-chat'.  It is equivalent to
     `abort-chat "" STRING'; this has the effect of sending STRING to
     the modem when a call is aborted.

`protocol-parameter CHARACTER STRINGS'
     Set protocol parameters, just like the `protocol-parameter' command
     in the system configuration file or the port configuration file;
     see *Note Protocol Selection::.  These parameters take precedence,
     then those for the port, then those for the system.

`seven-bit BOOLEAN'
     This is only used during protocol negotiation; if it is true, it
     forces selection of a protocol which works across a seven-bit
     link.  It does not prevent eight bit characters from being
     transmitted.  The default is false.  It would be more common to
     specify this for a port than for a dialer.

`reliable BOOLEAN'
     This is only used during protocol negotiation; if it is false, it
     forces selection of a protocol which works across an unreliable
     communication link.  The default is true.

`half-duplex BOOLEAN [ any type ]'
     If the argument is true, it means that the dialer only supports
     half-duplex connections.  This only affects bidirectional
     protocols, and causes them to not do bidirectional transfers.


File: uucp.info,  Node: UUCP Over TCP,  Next: Security,  Prev: dial File,  Up: Configuration Files

UUCP Over TCP
=============

   If your system has a Berkeley style socket library, or a System V
style TLI interface library, you can compile the code to permit making
connections over TCP.  Specifying that a system should be reached via
TCP is easy, but nonobvious.

* Menu:

* TCP Client::                  Connecting to Another System Over TCP
* TCP Server::                  Running a TCP Server


File: uucp.info,  Node: TCP Client,  Next: TCP Server,  Prev: UUCP Over TCP,  Up: UUCP Over TCP

Connecting to Another System Over TCP
-------------------------------------

   If you are using the new style configuration files (*note
Configuration Files::), add the line `port type tcp' to the entry in the
`sys' file.  By default UUCP will get the port number by looking up
`uucp' in `/etc/services'; if the `uucp' service is not defined, port
540 will be used.  You can set the port number to use with the command
`port service XXX', where XXX can be either a number or a name to look
up in `/etc/services'.  You can specify the address of the remote host
with `address A.B.C'; if you don't give an address, the remote system
name will be used.  You should give an explicit chat script for the
system when you use TCP; the default chat script begins with a carriage
return, which will not work with some UUCP TCP servers.

   If you are using V2 configuration files, add a line like this to
`L.sys':
     SYS Any TCP uucp HOST.DOMAIN chat-script
   This will make an entry for system SYS, to be called at any time,
over TCP, using port number `uucp' (as found in `/etc/services'; this
may be specified as a number), using remote host `HOST.DOMAIN', with
some chat script.

   If you are using HDB configuration files, add a line like this to
Systems:
     SYS Any TCP - HOST.DOMAIN chat-script
   and a line like this to `Devices':
     TCP uucp - -
   You only need one line in `Devices' regardless of how many systems
you contact over TCP.  This will make an entry for system SYS, to be
called at any time, over TCP, using port number `uucp' (as found in
`/etc/services'; this may be specified as a number), using remote host
`HOST.DOMAIN', with some chat script.


File: uucp.info,  Node: TCP Server,  Prev: TCP Client,  Up: UUCP Over TCP

Running a TCP Server
--------------------

   The `uucico' daemon may be run as a TCP server.  To use the default
port number, which is a reserved port, `uucico' must be invoked by the
superuser (or it must be set user ID to the superuser, but I don't
recommend doing that).

   You must define a port, either using the port file (*note port
File::), if you are using the new configuration method, or with an
entry in `Devices' if you are using HDB; there is no way to define a
port using V2.  If you are using HDB the port must be named `TCP'; a
line as shown above will suffice.  You can then start `uucico' as
`uucico -p TCP' (after the `-p', name the port; in HDB it must be
`TCP').  This will wait for incoming connections, and fork off a child
for each one.  Each connection will be prompted with `login:' and
`Password:'; the results will be checked against the UUCP (not the
system) password file (*note Configuration File Names::).

   Another way to run a UUCP TCP server is to use the BSD `uucpd'
program.

   Yet another way to run a UUCP TCP server is to use `inetd'.  Arrange
for `inetd' to start up `uucico' with the `-l' switch.  This will cause
`uucico' to prompt with `login:' and `Password:' and check the results
against the UUCP (not the system) password file (you may want to also
use the `-D' switch to avoid a fork, which in this case is unnecessary).


File: uucp.info,  Node: Security,  Prev: UUCP Over TCP,  Up: Configuration Files

Security
========

   This discussion of UUCP security applies only to Unix.  It is a bit
cursory; suggestions for improvement are solicited.

   UUCP is traditionally not very secure.  Taylor UUCP addresses some
security issues, but is still far from being a secure system.

   If security is very important to you, then you should not permit any
external access to your computer, including UUCP.  Any opening to the
outside world is a potential security risk.

   When local users use UUCP to transfer files, Taylor UUCP can do
little to secure them from each other.  You can allow somewhat increased
security by putting the owner of the UUCP programs (normally `uucp')
into a separate group; the use of this is explained in the following
paragraphs, which refer to this separate group as `uucp-group'.

   When the `uucp' program is invoked to copy a file to a remote
system, it will, by default, copy the file into the UUCP spool
directory.  When the `uux' program is used, the `-C' switch must be
used to copy the file into the UUCP spool directory.  In any case, once
the file has been copied into the spool directory, other local users
will not be able to access it.

   When a file is requested from a remote system, UUCP will only permit
it to be placed in a directory which is writable by the requesting user.
The directory must also be writable by UUCP.  A local user can create a
directory with a group of `uucp-group' and set the mode to permit group
write access.  This will allow the file be requested without permitting
it to be viewed by any other user.

   There is no provision for security for `uucp' requests (as opposed
to `uux' requests) made by a user on a remote system.  A file sent over
by a remote request may only be placed in a directory which is world
writable, and the file will be world readable and writable.  This will
permit any local user to destroy or replace the contents of the file.
A file requested by a remote system must be world readable, and the
directory it is in must be world readable.  Any local user will be able
to examine, although not necessarily modify, the file before it is sent.

   There are some security holes and race conditions that apply to the
above discussion which I will not elaborate on.  They are not hidden
from anybody who reads the source code, but they are somewhat technical
and difficult (though scarcely impossible) to exploit.  Suffice it to
say that even under the best of conditions UUCP is not completely
secure.

   For many sites, security from remote sites is a more important
consideration.  Fortunately, Taylor UUCP does provide some support in
this area.

   The greatest security is provided by always dialing out to the other
site.  This prevents anybody from pretending to be the other site.  Of
course, only one side of the connection can do this.

   If remote dialins must be permitted, then it is best if the dialin
line is used only for UUCP.  If this is the case, then you should
create a call-in password file (*note Configuration File Names::) and
let `uucico' do its own login prompting.  For example, to let remote
sites log in on a port named `entry' in the port file (*note port
File::), you might invoke `uucico -e -p entry'.  This would cause
`uucico' to enter an endless loop of login prompts and daemon
executions.  The advantage of this approach is that even if remote users
break into the system by guessing or learning the password, they will
only be able to do whatever `uucico' permits them to do.  They will not
be able to start a shell on your system.

   If remote users can dial in and log on to your system, then you have
a security hazard more serious than that posed by UUCP.  But then, you
probably knew that already.

   Once your system has connected with the remote UUCP, there is a fair
amount of control you can exercise.  You can use the `remote-send' and
`remote-receive' commands to control the directories the remote UUCP
can access.  You can use the `request' command to prevent the remote
UUCP from making any requests of your system at all; however, if you do
this it will not even be able to send you mail or news.  If you do
permit remote requests, you should be careful to restrict what commands
may be executed at the remote system's request.  The default is `rmail'
and `rnews', which will suffice for most systems.

   If different remote systems call in and they must be granted
different privileges (perhaps some systems are within the same
organization and some are not) then the `called-login' command should
be used for each system to require that they use different login names.
Otherwise, it would be simple for a remote system to use the `myname'
command and pretend to be a different system.  The `sequence' command
can be used to detect when one system pretended to be another, but,
since the sequence numbers must be reset manually after a failed
handshake, this can sometimes be more trouble than it's worth.


File: uucp.info,  Node: Protocols,  Next: Hacking,  Prev: Configuration Files,  Up: Top

UUCP Protocol Internals
***********************

   This chapter describes how the various UUCP protocols work, and
discusses some other internal UUCP issues.

   This chapter is quite technical.  You do not need to understand it,
or even read it, in order to use Taylor UUCP.  It is intended for people
who are interested in how the UUCP code works.

   The information in this chapter is posted monthly to the Usenet
newsgroups `comp.mail.uucp', `news.answers', and `comp.answers'.  The
posting is available from any `news.answers' archive site, such as
`rtfm.mit.edu'.  If you plan to use this information to write a UUCP
program, please make sure you get the most recent version of the
posting, in case there have been any corrections.

* Menu:

* UUCP Protocol Sources::       Sources for UUCP Protocol Information
* UUCP Grades::                 UUCP Grades
* UUCP Lock Files::             UUCP Lock Files
* Execution File Format::       Execution File Format
* UUCP Protocol::               UUCP Protocol
* g Protocol::                  g protocol
* f Protocol::                  f protocol
* t Protocol::                  t protocol
* e Protocol::                  e protocol
* Big G Protocol::              G protocol
* i Protocol::                  i protocol
* j Protocol::                  j protocol
* x Protocol::                  x protocol
* y Protocol::                  y protocol
* d Protocol::                  d protocol
* h Protocol::                  h protocol
* v Protocol::                  v protocol


File: uucp.info,  Node: UUCP Protocol Sources,  Next: UUCP Grades,  Prev: Protocols,  Up: Protocols

UUCP Protocol Sources
=====================

     "Unix-to-Unix Copy Program," said PDP-1.  "You will never find a
     more wretched hive of bugs and flamers.  We must be cautious."
                                                              --DECWars

   I took a lot of the information from Jamie E. Hanrahan's paper in the
Fall 1990 DECUS Symposium, and from `Managing UUCP and Usenet' by Tim
O'Reilly and Grace Todino (with contributions by several other people).
The latter includes most of the former, and is published by
     O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.
     103 Morris Street, Suite A
     Sebastopol, CA 95472
   It is currently in its tenth edition.  The ISBN number is
`0-937175-93-5'.

   Some information is originally due to a Usenet article by Chuck
Wegrzyn.  The information on execution files comes partially from Peter
Honeyman.  The information on the `g' protocol comes partially from a
paper by G.L. Chesson of Bell Laboratories, partially from Jamie E.
Hanrahan's paper, and partially from source code by John Gilmore.  The
information on the `f' protocol comes from the source code by Piet
Berteema.  The information on the `t' protocol comes from the source
code by Rick Adams.  The information on the `e' protocol comes from a
Usenet article by Matthias Urlichs.  The information on the `d'
protocol comes from Jonathan Clark, who also supplied information about
QFT.  The UUPlus information comes straight from Christopher J. Ambler,
of UUPlus Development; it applies to version 1.52 and up of the
shareware version of UUPlus Utilities, called FSUUCP 1.52, but referred
to in this article as UUPlus.

   Although there are few books about UUCP, there are many about
networks and protocols in general.  I recommend two non-technical books
which describe the sorts of things that are available on the network:
`The Whole Internet', by Ed Krol, and `Zen and the Art of the
Internet', by Brendan P. Kehoe.  Good technical discussions of
networking issues can be found in `Internetworking with TCP/IP', by
Douglas E. Comer and David L. Stevens and in `Design and Validation of
Computer Protocols' by Gerard J. Holzmann.


File: uucp.info,  Node: UUCP Grades,  Next: UUCP Lock Files,  Prev: UUCP Protocol Sources,  Up: Protocols

UUCP Grades
===========

   Modern UUCP packages support a priority grade for each command.  The
grades generally range from `A' (the highest) to `Z' followed by `a' to
`z'.  Some UUCP packages (including Taylor UUCP) also support `0' to
`9' before `A'.  Some UUCP packages may permit any ASCII character as a
grade.

   On Unix, these grades are encoded in the name of the command file
created by `uucp' or `uux'.  A command file name generally has the form
`C.nnnngssss' where `nnnn' is the remote system name for which the
command is queued, `g' is a single character grade, and `ssss' is a
four character sequence number.  For example, a command file created
for the system `airs' at grade `Z' might be named `C.airsZ2551'.

   The remote system name will be truncated to seven characters, to
ensure that the command file name will fit in the 14 character file
name limit of the traditional Unix file system.  UUCP packages which
have no other means of distinguishing which command files are intended
for which systems thus require all systems they connect to to have
names that are unique in the first seven characters.  Some UUCP
packages use a variant of this format which truncates the system name
to six characters.  HDB and Taylor UUCP use a different spool directory
format, which allows up to fourteen characters to be used for each
system name.

   The sequence number in the command file name may be a decimal
integer, or it may be a hexadecimal integer, or it may contain any
alphanumeric character.  Different UUCP packages are different.  Taylor
UUCP uses any alphanumeric character.

   UUPlus Utilities (as FSUUCP, a shareware DOS based UUCP and news
package) uses up to 8 characters for file names in the spool (this is a
DOS file system limitation; actually, with the extension, 11 characters
are available, but FSUUCP reserves that for future use).  FSUUCP
defaults mail to grade `D', and news to grade `N', except that when the
grade of incoming mail can be determined, that grade is preserved if
the mail is forwarded to another system. The default grades may be
changed by editing the `LIB/MAILRC' file for mail, or the `UUPLUS.CFG'
file for news.

   UUPC/extended for DOS, OS/2 and Windows NT handles mail at grade
`C', news at grade `d', and file transfers at grade `n'.  The
UUPC/extended `UUCP' and `RMAIL' commands accept grades to override the
default, the others do not.

   I do not know how command grades are handled in other non-Unix UUCP
packages.

   Modern UUCP packages allow you to restrict file transfer by grade
depending on the time of day.  Typically this is done with a line in
the `Systems' (or `L.sys') file like this:
         airs Any/Z,Any2305-0855 ...
   This allows grades `Z' and above to be transferred at any time.
Lower grades may only be transferred at night.  I believe that this
grade restriction applies to local commands as well as to remote
commands, but I am not sure.  It may only apply if the UUCP package
places the call, not if it is called by the remote system.

   Taylor UUCP can use the `timegrade' and `call-timegrade' commands to
achieve the same effect.  *Note When to Call::.  It supports the above
format when reading `Systems' or `L.sys'.

   UUPC/extended provides the `symmetricgrades' option to announce the
current grade in effect when calling the remote system.

   UUPlus allows specification of the highest grade accepted on a
per-call basis with the `-g' option in `UUCICO'.

   This sort of grade restriction is most useful if you know what grades
are being used at the remote site.  The default grades used depend on
the UUCP package.  Generally `uucp' and `uux' have different defaults.
A particular grade can be specified with the `-g' option to `uucp' or
`uux'.  For example, to request execution of `rnews' on `airs' with
grade `d', you might use something like
         uux -gd - airs!rnews < article

   Uunet queues up mail at grade `C', but increases the grade based on
the size.  News is queued at grade `d', and file transfers at grade
`n'.  The example above would allow mail (below some large size) to be
received at any time, but would only permit news to be transferred at
night.


File: uucp.info,  Node: UUCP Lock Files,  Next: Execution File Format,  Prev: UUCP Grades,  Up: Protocols

UUCP Lock Files
===============

   This discussion applies only to Unix.  I have no idea how UUCP locks
ports on other systems.

   UUCP creates files to lock serial ports and systems.  On most, if not
all, systems, these same lock files are also used by `cu' to coordinate
access to serial ports.  On some systems `getty' also uses these lock
files, often under the name `uugetty'.

   The lock file normally contains the process ID of the locking
process.  This makes it easy to determine whether a lock is still
valid.  The algorithm is to create a temporary file and then link it to
the name that must be locked.  If the link fails because a file with
that name already exists, the existing file is read to get the process
ID.  If the process still exists, the lock attempt fails.  Otherwise
the lock file is deleted and the locking algorithm is retried.

   Older UUCP packages put the lock files in the main UUCP spool
directory, `/usr/spool/uucp'.  HDB UUCP generally puts the lock files
in a directory of their own, usually `/usr/spool/locks' or `/etc/locks'.

   The original UUCP lock file format encodes the process ID as a four
byte binary number.  The order of the bytes is host-dependent.  HDB UUCP
stores the process ID as a ten byte ASCII decimal number, with a
trailing newline.  For example, if process 1570 holds a lock file, it
would contain the eleven characters space, space, space, space, space,
space, one, five, seven, zero, newline.  Some versions of UUCP add a
second line indicating which program created the lock (`uucp', `cu', or
`getty/uugetty').  I have also seen a third type of UUCP lock file
which does not contain the process ID at all.

   The name of the lock file is traditionally `LCK..' followed by the
base name of the device.  For example, to lock `/dev/ttyd0' the file
`LCK..ttyd0' would be created.  On SCO Unix, the last letter of the
lock file name is always forced to lower case even if the device name
ends with an upper case letter.

   System V Release 4 UUCP names the lock file using the major and minor
device numbers rather than the device name.  The file is named
`LK.XXX.YYY.ZZZ', where XXX, YYY and ZZZ are all three digit decimal
numbers.  XXX is the major device number of the device holding the
directory holding the device file (e.g., `/dev').  YYY is the major
device number of the device file itself.  ZZZ is the minor device
number of the device file itself.  If `s' holds the result of passing
the device to the stat system call (e.g., `stat ("/dev/ttyd0", &s)'),
the following line of C code will print out the corresponding lock file
name:
         printf ("LK.%03d.%03d.%03d", major (s.st_dev),
                 major (s.st_rdev), minor (s.st_rdev));
   The advantage of this system is that even if there are several links
to the same device, they will all use the same lock file name.

   When two or more instances of `uuxqt' are executing, some sort of
locking is needed to ensure that a single execution job is only started
once.  I don't know how most UUCP packages deal with this.  Taylor UUCP
uses a lock file for each execution job.  The name of the lock file is
the same as the name of the `X.*' file, except that the initial `X' is
changed to an `L'.  The lock file holds the process ID as described
above.


File: uucp.info,  Node: Execution File Format,  Next: UUCP Protocol,  Prev: UUCP Lock Files,  Up: Protocols

Execution File Format
=====================

   UUCP `X.*' files control program execution.  They are created by
`uux'.  They are transferred between systems just like any other file.
The `uuxqt' daemon reads them to figure out how to execute the job
requested by `uux'.

   An `X.*' file is simply a text file.  The first character of each
line is a command, and the remainder of the line supplies arguments.
The following commands are defined:

`C command'
     This gives the command to execute, including the program and all
     arguments.  For example, `rmail ian@airs.com'.

`U user system'
     This names the user who requested the command, and the system from
     which the request came.

`I standard-input'
     This names the file from which standard input is taken.  If no
     standard input file is given, the standard input will probably be
     attached to `/dev/null'.  If the standard input file is not from
     the system on which the execution is to occur, it will also appear
     in an `F' command.

`O standard-output [system]'
     This names the standard output file.  The optional second argument
     names the system to which the file should be sent.  If there is no
     second argument, the file should be created on the executing
     system.

`F required-file [filename-to-use]'
     The `F' command can appear multiple times.  Each `F' command names
     a file which must exist before the execution can proceed.  This
     will usually be a file which is transferred from the system on
     which `uux' was executed, but it can also be a file from the local
     system or some other system.  If the file is not from the local
     system, then the command will usually name a file in the spool
     directory.  If the optional second argument appears, then the file
     should be copied to the execution directory under that name.  This
     is necessary for any file other than the standard input file.  If
     the standard input file is not from the local system, it will
     appear in both an `F' command and an `I' command.

`R requestor-address'
     This is the address to which mail about the job should be sent.
     It is relative to the system named in the `U' command.  If the `R'
     command does not appear, then mail is sent to the user named in the
     `U' command.

`Z'
     This command takes no arguments.  It means that a mail message
     should be sent if the command failed.  This is the default
     behaviour for most modern UUCP packages, and for them the `Z'
     command does not actually do anything.

`N'
     This command takes no arguments.  It means that no mail message
     should be sent, even if the command failed.

`n'
     This command takes no arguments.  It means that a mail message
     should be sent if the command succeeded.  Normally a message is
     sent only if the command failed.

`B'
     This command takes no arguments.  It means that the standard input
     should be returned with any error message.  This can be useful in
     cases where the input would otherwise be lost.

`e'
     This command takes no arguments.  It means that the command should
     be processed with `/bin/sh'.  For some packages this is the default
     anyhow.  Most packages will refuse to execute complex commands or
     commands containing wildcards, because of the security holes this
     opens.

`E'
     This command takes no arguments.  It means that the command should
     be processed with the `execve' system call.  For some packages
     this is the default anyhow.

`M status-file'
     This command means that instead of mailing a message, the message
     should be copied to the named file on the system named by the `U'
     command.

`Q'
     This command takes no arguments.  It means that the string
     arguments to all the other commands are backslash quoted.  Any
     backslash in one of the strings should be followed by either a
     backslash or three octal digits.  The backslash quoting is
     interpreted as in a C string.  If the `Q' command does not appear,
     backslashes in the strings are not treated specially.  The `Q'
     command was introduced in Taylor UUCP version 1.07.

`# comment'
     This command is ignored, as is any other unrecognized command.

   Here is an example.  Given the following command executed on system
test1
         uux - test2!cat - test2!~ian/bar !qux '>~/gorp'
   (this is only an example, as most UUCP systems will not permit the
cat command to be executed) Taylor UUCP will produce something like the
following `X.'  file:
     U ian test1
     F D.test1N003r qux
     O /usr/spool/uucppublic/gorp test1
     F D.test1N003s
     I D.test1N003s
     C cat - ~ian/bar qux
   The standard input will be read into a file and then transferred to
the file `D.test1N003s' on system `test2'.  The file `qux' will be
transferred to `D.test1N003r' on system `test2'.  When the command is
executed, the latter file will be copied to the execution directory
under the name `qux'.  Note that since the file `~ian/bar' is already
on the execution system, no action need be taken for it.  The standard
output will be collected in a file, then copied to the file
`/usr/spool/uucppublic/gorp' on the system `test1'.


File: uucp.info,  Node: UUCP Protocol,  Next: g Protocol,  Prev: Execution File Format,  Up: Protocols

UUCP Protocol
=============

   The UUCP protocol is a conversation between two UUCP packages.  A
UUCP conversation consists of three parts: an initial handshake, a
series of file transfer requests, and a final handshake.

* Menu:

* The Initial Handshake::       The Initial Handshake
* UUCP Protocol Commands::      UUCP Protocol Commands
* The Final Handshake::         The Final Handshake