uucp.info-7   [plain text]


This is uucp.info, produced by makeinfo version 4.1 from uucp.texi.

START-INFO-DIR-ENTRY
* UUCP: (uucp).                 Transfer mail and news across phone lines.
END-INFO-DIR-ENTRY

   This file documents Taylor UUCP, version 1.07.

   Copyright (C) 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 2002 Ian Lance Taylor

   Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are
preserved on all copies.

   Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of
this manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided also
that the section entitled "Copying" are included exactly as in the
original, and provided that the entire resulting derived work is
distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this
one.

   Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this
manual into another language, under the above conditions for modified
versions, except that the section entitled "Copying" may be included in
a translation approved by the author instead of in the original English.


File: uucp.info,  Node: i Protocol,  Next: j Protocol,  Prev: Big G Protocol,  Up: Protocols

UUCP `i' Protocol
=================

   The `i' protocol was written by Ian Lance Taylor (who also wrote this
manual).  It was first used by Taylor UUCP version 1.04.

   It is a sliding window packet protocol, like the `g' protocol, but
it supports bidirectional transfers (i.e., file transfers in both
directions simultaneously).  It requires an eight bit clear connection.
Several ideas for the protocol were taken from the paper `A
High-Throughput Message Transport System' by P. Lauder.  I don't know
where the paper was published, but the author's e-mail address is
<piers@cs.su.oz.au>.  The `i' protocol does not adopt his main idea,
which is to dispense with windows entirely.  This is because some links
still do require flow control and, more importantly, because using
windows sets a limit to the amount of data which the protocol must be
able to resend upon request.  To reduce the costs of window
acknowledgements, the protocol uses a large window and only requires an
ack at the halfway point.

   Each packet starts with a six byte header, optionally followed by
data bytes with a four byte checksum.  There are currently five defined
packet types (`DATA', `SYNC', `ACK', `NAK', `SPOS', `CLOSE') which are
described below.  Although any packet type may include data, any data
provided with an `ACK', `NAK' or `CLOSE' packet is ignored.

   Every `DATA', `SPOS' and `CLOSE' packet has a sequence number.  The
sequence numbers are independent for each side.  The first packet sent
by each side is always number 1.  Each packet is numbered one greater
than the previous packet, modulo 32.

   Every packet has a local channel number and a remote channel number.
For all packets at least one channel number is zero.  When a UUCP
command is sent to the remote system, it is assigned a non-zero local
channel number.  All packets associated with that UUCP command sent by
the local system are given the selected local channel number.  All
associated packets sent by the remote system are given the selected
number as the remote channel number.  This permits each UUCP command to
be uniquely identified by the channel number on the originating system,
and therefore each UUCP package can associate all file data and UUCP
command responses with the appropriate command.  This is a requirement
for bidirectional UUCP transfers.

   The protocol maintains a single global file position, which starts
at 0.  For each incoming packet, any associated data is considered to
occur at the current file position, and the file position is
incremented by the amount of data contained.  The exception is a packet
of type `SPOS', which is used to change the file position.  The reason
for keeping track of the file position is described below.

   The header is as follows:

`\007'
     Every packet begins with `^G'.

`(PACKET << 3) + LOCCHAN'
     The five bit packet number combined with the three bit local
     channel number.  `DATA', `SPOS' and `CLOSE' packets use the packet
     sequence number for the PACKET field.  `NAK' packet types use the
     PACKET field for the sequence number to be resent.  `ACK' and
     `SYNC' do not use the PACKET field, and generally leave it set to
     0.  Packets which are not associated with a UUCP command from the
     local system use a local channel number of 0.

`(ACK << 3) + REMCHAN'
     The five bit packet acknowledgement combined with the three bit
     remote channel number.  The packet acknowledgement is the number
     of the last packet successfully received; it is used by all packet
     types.  Packets which are not sent in response to a UUCP command
     from the remote system use a remote channel number of 0.

`(TYPE << 5) + (CALLER << 4) + LEN1'
     The three bit packet type combined with the one bit packet
     direction combined with the upper four bits of the data length.
     The packet direction bit is always 1 for packets sent by the
     calling UUCP, and 0 for packets sent by the called UUCP.  This
     prevents confusion caused by echoed packets.

LEN2
     The lower eight bits of the data length.  The twelve bits of data
     length permit packets ranging in size from 0 to 4095 bytes.

CHECK
     The exclusive or of the second through fifth bytes of the header.
     This provides an additional check that the header is valid.

   If the data length is non-zero, the packet is immediately followed by
the specified number of data bytes.  The data bytes are followed by a
four byte CRC 32 checksum, with the most significant byte first.  The
CRC is calculated over the contents of the data field.

   The defined packet types are as follows:

0 `DATA'
     This is a plain data packet.

1 `SYNC'
     `SYNC' packets are exchanged when the protocol is initialized, and
     are described further below.  `SYNC' packets do not carry sequence
     numbers (that is, the PACKET field is ignored).

2 `ACK'
     This is an acknowledgement packet.  Since `DATA' packets also carry
     packet acknowledgements, `ACK' packets are only used when one side
     has no data to send.  `ACK' packets do not carry sequence numbers.

3 `NAK'
     This is a negative acknowledgement.  This is sent when a packet is
     received incorrectly, and means that the packet number appearing
     in the PACKET field must be resent.  `NAK' packets do not carry
     sequence numbers (the PACKET field is already used).

4 `SPOS'
     This packet changes the file position.  The packet contains four
     bytes of data holding the file position, most significant byte
     first.  The next packet received will be considered to be at the
     named file position.

5 `CLOSE'
     When the protocol is shut down, each side sends a `CLOSE' packet.
     This packet does have a sequence number, which could be used to
     ensure that all packets were correctly received (this is not
     needed by UUCP, however, which uses the higher level `H' command
     with an `HY' response).

   When the protocol starts up, both systems send a `SYNC' packet.  The
`SYNC' packet includes at least three bytes of data.  The first two
bytes are the maximum packet size the remote system should send, most
significant byte first.  The third byte is the window size the remote
system should use.  The remote system may send packets of any size up
to the maximum.  If there is a fourth byte, it is the number of
channels the remote system may use (this must be between 1 and 7,
inclusive).  Additional data bytes may be defined in the future.

   The window size is the number of packets that may be sent before a
packet is acknowledged.  There is no requirement that every packet be
acknowledged; any acknowledgement is considered to acknowledge all
packets through the number given.  In the current implementation, if one
side has no data to send, it sends an `ACK' when half the window is
received.

   Note that the `NAK' packet corresponds to the unused `g' protocol
`SRJ' packet type, rather than to the `RJ' packet type.  When a `NAK'
is received, only the named packet should be resent, not any subsequent
packets.

   Note that if both sides have data to send, but a packet is lost, it
is perfectly reasonable for one side to continue sending packets, all of
which will acknowledge the last packet correctly received, while the
system whose packet was lost will be unable to send a new packet because
the send window will be full.  In this circumstance, neither side will
time out and one side of the communication will be effectively shut down
for a while.  Therefore, any system with outstanding unacknowledged
packets should arrange to time out and resend a packet even if data is
being received.

   Commands are sent as a sequence of data packets with a non-zero local
channel number.  The last data packet for a command includes a trailing
null byte (normally a command will fit in a single data packet).  Files
are sent as a sequence of data packets ending with one of length zero.

   The channel numbers permit a more efficient implementation of the
UUCP file send command.  Rather than send the command and then wait for
the `SY' response before sending the file, the file data is sent
beginning immediately after the `S' command is sent.  If an `SN'
response is received, the file send is aborted, and a final data packet
of length zero is sent to indicate that the channel number may be
reused.  If an `SY' reponse with a file position indicator is received,
the file send adjusts to the file position; this is why the protocol
maintains a global file position.

   Note that the use of channel numbers means that each UUCP system may
send commands and file data simultaneously.  Moreover, each UUCP system
may send multiple files at the same time, using the channel number to
disambiguate the data.  Sending a file before receiving an
acknowledgement for the previous file helps to eliminate the round trip
delays inherent in other UUCP protocols.


File: uucp.info,  Node: j Protocol,  Next: x Protocol,  Prev: i Protocol,  Up: Protocols

UUCP `j' Protocol
=================

   The `j' protocol is a variant of the `i' protocol.  It was also
written by Ian Lance Taylor, and first appeared in Taylor UUCP version
1.04.

   The `j' protocol is a version of the `i' protocol designed for
communication links which intercept a few characters, such as XON or
XOFF.  It is not efficient to use it on a link which intercepts many
characters, such as a seven bit link.  The `j' protocol performs no
error correction or detection; that is presumed to be the responsibility
of the `i' protocol.

   When the `j' protocol starts up, each system sends a printable ASCII
string indicating which characters it wants to avoid using.  The string
begins with the ASCII character `^' (octal 136) and ends with the ASCII
character `~' (octal 176).  After sending this string, each system
looks for the corresponding string from the remote system.  The strings
are composed of escape sequences: `\ooo', where `o' is an octal digit.
For example, sending the string `^\021\023~' means that the ASCII XON
and XOFF characters should be avoided.  The union of the characters
described in both strings (the string which is sent and the string
which is received) is the set of characters which must be avoided in
this conversation.  Avoiding a printable ASCII character (octal 040 to
octal 176, inclusive) is not permitted.

   After the exchange of characters to avoid, the normal `i' protocol
start up is done, and the rest of the conversation uses the normal `i'
protocol.  However, each `i' protocol packet is wrapped to become a `j'
protocol packet.

   Each `j' protocol packet consists of a seven byte header, followed
by data bytes, followed by index bytes, followed by a one byte trailer.
The packet header looks like this:

`^'
     Every packet begins with the ASCII character `^', octal 136.

HIGH
LOW
     These two characters give the total number of bytes in the packet.
     Both HIGH and LOW are printable ASCII characters.  The length of
     the packet is `(HIGH - 040) * 0100 + (LOW - 040)', where `040 <=
     HIGH < 0177' and `040 <= LOW < 0140'.  This permits a length of
     6079 bytes, but there is a further restriction on packet size
     described below.

`='
     The ASCII character `=', octal 075.

DATA-HIGH
DATA-LOW
     These two characters give the total number of data bytes in the
     packet.  The encoding is as described for HIGH and LOW.  The number
     of data bytes is the size of the `i' protocol packet wrapped inside
     this `j' protocol packet.

`@'
     The ASCII character `@', octal 100.

   The header is followed by the number of data bytes given in
DATA-HIGH and DATA-LOW.  These data bytes are the `i' protocol packet
which is being wrapped in the `j' protocol packet.  However, each
character in the `i' protocol packet which the `j' protocol must avoid
is transformed into a printable ASCII character (recall that avoiding a
printable ASCII character is not permitted).  Two index bytes are used
for each character which must be transformed.

   The index bytes immediately follow the data bytes.  The index bytes
are created in pairs.  Each pair of index bytes encodes the location of
a character in the `i' protocol packet which was transformed to become
a printable ASCII character.  Each pair of index bytes also encodes the
precise transformation which was performed.

   When the sender finds a character which must be avoided, it will
transform it using one or two operations.  If the character is 0200 or
greater, it will subtract 0200.  If the resulting character is less than
020, or is equal to 0177, it will xor by 020.  The result is a printable
ASCII character.

   The zero based byte index of the character within the `i' protocol
packet is determined.  This index is turned into a two byte printable
ASCII index, INDEX-HIGH and INDEX-LOW, such that the index is
`(INDEX-HIGH - 040) * 040 + (INDEX-LOW - 040)'.  INDEX-LOW is
restricted such that `040 <= INDEX-LOW < 0100'.  INDEX-HIGH is not
permitted to be 0176, so `040 <= INDEX-HIGH < 0176'.  INDEX-LOW is then
modified to encode the transformation:

   * If the character transformation only had to subtract 0200, then
     INDEX-LOW is used as is.

   * If the character transformation only had to xor by 020, then 040
     is added to INDEX-LOW.

   * If both operations had to be performed, then 0100 is added to
     INDEX-LOW.  However, if the value of INDEX-LOW was initially 077,
     then adding 0100 would result in 0177, which is not a printable
     ASCII character.  For that special case, INDEX-HIGH is set to
     0176, and INDEX-LOW is set to the original value of INDEX-HIGH.

   The receiver decodes the index bytes as follows (this is the reverse
of the operations performed by the sender, presented here for additional
clarity):

   * The first byte in the index is INDEX-HIGH, and the second is
     INDEX-LOW.

   * If `040 <= INDEX-HIGH < 0176', the index refers to the data byte
     at position `(INDEX-HIGH - 040) * 040 + INDEX-LOW % 040'.

   * If `040 <= INDEX-LOW < 0100', then 0200 must be added to indexed
     byte.

   * If `0100 <= INDEX-LOW < 0140', then 020 must be xor'ed to the
     indexed byte.

   * If `0140 <= INDEX-LOW < 0177', then 0200 must be added to the
     indexed byte, and 020 must be xor'ed to the indexed byte.

   * If `INDEX-HIGH == 0176', the index refers to the data byte at
     position `(INDEX-LOW - 040) * 040 + 037'.  0200 must be added to
     the indexed byte, and 020 must be xor'ed to the indexed byte.

   This means the largest `i' protocol packet which may be wrapped
inside a `j' protocol packet is `(0175 - 040) * 040 + (077 - 040) ==
3007' bytes.

   The final character in a `j' protocol packet, following the index
bytes, is the ASCII character `~' (octal 176).

   The motivation behind using an indexing scheme, rather than escape
characters, is to avoid data movement.  The sender may simply add a
header and a trailer to the `i' protocol packet.  Once the receiver has
loaded the `j' protocol packet, it may scan the index bytes,
transforming the data bytes, and then pass the data bytes directly on to
the `i' protocol routine.


File: uucp.info,  Node: x Protocol,  Next: y Protocol,  Prev: j Protocol,  Up: Protocols

UUCP `x' Protocol
=================

   The `x' protocol is used in Europe (and probably elsewhere) with
machines that contain an builtin X.25 card and can send eight bit data
transparently across X.25 circuits, without interference from the X.28
or X.29 layers.  The protocol sends packets of 512 bytes, and relies on
a write of zero bytes being read as zero bytes without stopping
communication.  It first appeared in the original System V UUCP
implementation.


File: uucp.info,  Node: y Protocol,  Next: d Protocol,  Prev: x Protocol,  Up: Protocols

UUCP `y' Protocol
=================

   The `y' protocol was developed by Jorge Cwik for use in FX UUCICO, a
PC uucico program.  It is designed for communication lines which handle
error correction and flow control.  It requires an eight bit clean
connection.  It performs error detection, but not error correction:
when an error is detected, the line is dropped.  It is a streaming
protocol, like the `f' protocol; there are no packet acknowledgements,
so the protocol is efficient over a half-duplex communication line such
as PEP.

   Every packet contains a six byte header:

sequence low byte
sequence high byte
     A two byte sequence number, in little endian order.  The first
     sequence number is 0.  Since the first packet is always a sync
     packet (described below) the sequence number of the first data
     packet is always 1.  Each system counts sequence numbers
     independently.

length low byte
length high byte
     A two byte data length, in little endian order.  If the high bit
     of the sixteen bit field is clear, this is the number of data
     bytes which follow the six byte header.  If the high bit is set,
     there is no data, and the length field is a type of control packet.

checksum low byte
checksum high byte
     A two byte checksum, in little endian order.  The checksum is
     computed over the data bytes.  The checksum algorithm is described
     below.  If there are no data bytes, the checksum is sent as 0.

   When the protocol starts up, each side must send a sync packet.
This is a packet with a normal six byte header followed by data.  The
sequence number of the sync packet should be 0.  Currently at least
four bytes of data must be sent with the sync packet.  Additional bytes
should be ignored.  They are defined as follows:

version
     The version number of the protocol.  Currently this must be 1.
     Larger numbers should be ignored; it is the responsibility of the
     newer version to accommodate the older one.

packet size
     The maximum data length to use divided by 256.  This is sent as a
     single byte.  The maximum data length permitted is 32768, which
     would be sent as 128.  Customarily both systems will use the same
     maximum data length, the lower of the two requested.

flags low byte
flags high byte
     Two bytes of flags.  None are currently defined.  These bytes
     should be sent as 0, and ignored by the receiver.

   A length field with the high bit set is a control packet.  The
following control packet types are defined:

0xfffe `YPKT_ACK'
     Acknowledges correct receipt of a file.

0xfffd `YPKT_ERR'
     Indicates an incorrect checksum.

0xfffc `YPKT_BAD'
     Indicates a bad sequence number, an invalid length, or some other
     error.

   If a control packet other than `YPKT_ACK' is received, the
connection is dropped.  If a checksum error is detected for a received
packet, a `YPKT_ERR' control packet is sent, and the connection is
dropped.  If a packet is received out of sequence, a `YPKT_BAD' control
packet is sent, and the connection is dropped.

   The checksum is initialized to 0xffff.  For each data byte in a
packet it is modified as follows (where B is the byte before it has been
transformed as described above):

           /* Rotate the checksum left.  */
           if ((ichk & 0x8000) == 0)
             ichk <<= 1;
           else
             {
               ichk <<= 1;
               ++ichk;
             }
     
           /* Add the next byte into the checksum.  */
           ichk += B;

   This is the same algorithm as that used by the `f' protocol.

   A command is sent as a sequence of data packets followed by a null
byte.  In the normal case, a command will fit into a single packet.
The packet should be exactly the length of the command plus a null
byte.  If the command is too long, more packets are sent as required.

   A file is sent as a sequence of data packets, ending with a zero
length packet.  The data packets may be of any length greater than zero
and less than or equal to the maximum permitted packet size specified
in the initial sync packet.

   After the zero length packet ending a file transfer has been
received, the receiving system sends a `YPKT_ACK' control packet.  The
sending system waits for the `YPKT_ACK' control packet before
continuing; this wait should be done with a large timeout, since there
may be a considerable amount of data buffered on the communication path.


File: uucp.info,  Node: d Protocol,  Next: h Protocol,  Prev: y Protocol,  Up: Protocols

UUCP `d' Protocol
=================

   The `d' protocol is apparently used for DataKit muxhost (not RS-232)
connections.  No file size is sent.  When a file has been completely
transferred, a write of zero bytes is done; this must be read as zero
bytes on the other end.


File: uucp.info,  Node: h Protocol,  Next: v Protocol,  Prev: d Protocol,  Up: Protocols

UUCP `h' Protocol
=================

   The `h' protocol is apparently used in some places with HST modems.
It does no error checking, and is not that different from the `t'
protocol.  I don't know the details.


File: uucp.info,  Node: v Protocol,  Prev: h Protocol,  Up: Protocols

UUCP `v' Protocol
=================

   The `v' protocol is used by UUPC/extended, a PC UUCP program.  It is
simply a version of the `g' protocol which supports packets of any
size, and also supports sending packets of different sizes during the
same conversation.  There are many `g' protocol implementations which
support both, but there are also many which do not.  Using `v' ensures
that everything is supported.


File: uucp.info,  Node: Hacking,  Next: Acknowledgements,  Prev: Protocols,  Up: Top

Hacking Taylor UUCP
*******************

   This chapter provides the briefest of guides to the Taylor UUCP
source code itself.

* Menu:

* System Dependence::           System Dependence
* Naming Conventions::          Naming Conventions
* Patches::                     Patches


File: uucp.info,  Node: System Dependence,  Next: Naming Conventions,  Prev: Hacking,  Up: Hacking

System Dependence
=================

   The code is carefully segregated into a system independent portion
and a system dependent portion.  The system dependent code is in the
`unix' subdirectory, and also in the file `sysh.unx' (also known as
`sysdep.h').

   With the right configuration parameters, the system independent code
calls only ANSI C functions.  Some of the less common ANSI C functions
are also provided in the `lib' directory.  The replacement function
`strtol' in `lib/strtol.c' assumes that the characters `A' to `F' and
`a' to `f' appear in strictly sequential order.  The function
`igradecmp' in `uuconf/grdcmp.c' assumes that the upper and lower case
letters appear in order.  Both assumptions are true for ASCII and
EBCDIC, but neither is guaranteed by ANSI C.  Disregarding these
caveats, I believe that the system independent portion of the code is
strictly conforming.

   That's not too exciting, since all the work is done in the system
dependent code.  I think that this code can conform to POSIX 1003.1,
given the right compilation parameters.  I'm a bit less certain about
this, though.

   The code has been used on a 16 bit segmented system with no function
prototypes, so I'm fairly certain that all casts to long and pointers
are done when necessary.


File: uucp.info,  Node: Naming Conventions,  Next: Patches,  Prev: System Dependence,  Up: Hacking

Naming Conventions
==================

   I use a modified Hungarian naming convention for my variables and
functions.  As with all naming conventions, the code is rather opaque if
you are not familiar with it, but becomes clear and easy to use with
time.

   The first character indicates the type of the variable (or function
return value).  Sometimes additional characters are used.  I use the
following type prefixes:

`a'
     array; the next character is the type of an element

`b'
     byte or character

`c'
     count of something

`e'
     stdio FILE *

`f'
     boolean

`i'
     generic integer

`l'
     double

`o'
     file descriptor (as returned by open, creat, etc.)

`p'
     generic pointer

`q'
     pointer to structure

`s'
     structure

`u'
     void (function return values only)

`z'
     character string

   A generic pointer (`p') is sometimes a `void *', sometimes a
function pointer in which case the prefix is pf, and sometimes a pointer
to another type, in which case the next character is the type to which
it points (pf is overloaded).

   An array of strings (`char *[]') would be named `az' (array of
string).  If this array were passed to a function, the function
parameter would be named `paz' (pointer to array of string).

   Note that the variable name prefixes do not necessarily indicate the
type of the variable.  For example, a variable prefixed with `i' may be
int, long or short.  Similarly, a variable prefixed with `b' may be a
char or an int; for example, the return value of `getchar' would be
caught in an int variable prefixed with `b'.

   For a non-local variable (extern or file static), the first character
after the type prefix is capitalized.

   Most static variables and functions use another letter after the type
prefix to indicate which module they come from.  This is to help
distinguish different names in the debugger.  For example, all static
functions in `protg.c', the `g' protocol source code, use a module
prefix of `g'.  This isn't too useful, as a number of modules use a
module prefix of `s'.


File: uucp.info,  Node: Patches,  Prev: Naming Conventions,  Up: Hacking

Patches
=======

   I am always grateful for any patches sent in.  Much of the
flexibility and portability of the code is due to other people.  Please
do not hesitate to send me any changes you have found necessary or
useful.

   When sending a patch, please send the output of the Unix `diff'
program invoked with the `-c' option (if you have the GNU version of
`diff', use the `-p' option).  Always invoke `diff' with the original
file first and the modified file second.

   If your `diff' does not support `-c' (or you don't have `diff'),
send a complete copy of the modified file (if you have just changed a
single function, you can just send the new version of the function).
In particular, please do not send `diff' output without the `-c'
option, as it is useless.

   If you have made a number of changes, it is very convenient for me if
you send each change as a separate mail message.  Sometimes I will think
that one change is useful but another one is not.  If they are in
different messages it is much easier for me to apply one but not the
other.

   I rarely apply the patches directly.  Instead I work my way through
the hunks and apply each one separately.  This ensures that the naming
remains consistent, and that I understand all the code.

   If you can not follow all these rules, then don't.  But if you do, it
makes it more likely that I will incorporate your changes.  I am not
paid for my UUCP work, and my available time is unfortunately very
restricted.  The package is important to me, and I do what I can, but I
can not do all that I would like, much less all that everybody else
would like.

   Finally, please do not be offended if I do not reply to messages for
some time, even a few weeks.  I am often behind on my mail, and if I
think your message deserves a considered reply I will often put it aside
until I have time to deal with it.


File: uucp.info,  Node: Acknowledgements,  Next: Index (concepts),  Prev: Hacking,  Up: Top

Acknowledgements
****************

   This is a list of people who gave help or suggestions while I was
working on the Taylor UUCP project.  Appearance on this list does not
constitute endorsement of the program, particularly since some of the
comments were criticisms.  I've probably left some people off, and I
apologize for any oversight; it does not mean your contribution was
unappreciated.

   First of all, I would like to thank the people at Infinity
Development Systems (formerly AIRS, which lives on in the domain name)
for permitting me to use their computers and `uunet' access.  I would
also like to thank Richard Stallman <rms@gnu.org> for founding the Free
Software Foundation, and John Gilmore <gnu@toad.com> for writing the
initial version of gnuucp (based on uuslave) which was a direct
inspiration for this somewhat larger project.  Chip Salzenberg
<chip@tct.com> has contributed many patches.  Franc,ois Pinard
<pinard@iro.umontreal.ca> tirelessly tested the code and suggested many
improvements.  He also put together the initial version of this manual.
Doug Evans contributed the zmodem protocol.  Marc Boucher
<marc@CAM.ORG> contributed the code supporting the pipe port type.
Jorge Cwik <jorge@laser.satlink.net> contributed the `y' protocol code.
Finally, Verbus M. Counts <verbus@westmark.com> and Centel Federal
Systems, Inc., deserve special thanks, since they actually paid me
money to port this code to System III.

   In alphabetical order:

     Meno Abels <Meno.Abels@Technical.Adviser.com>
     "Earle F. Ake - SAIC" <ake@Dayton.SAIC.COM>
     <mra@searchtech.com> (Michael Almond)
     <cambler@zeus.calpoly.edu> (Christopher J. Ambler)
     Brian W. Antoine <briana@tau-ceti.isc-br.com>
     <jantypas@soft21.s21.com> (John Antypas)
     <james@bigtex.cactus.org> (James Van Artsdalen)
     <jima@netcom.com> (Jim Avera)
     <nba@sysware.DK> (Niels Baggesen)
     <uunet!hotmomma!sdb> (Scott Ballantyne)
     Zacharias Beckman <zac@dolphin.com>
     <mike@mbsun.ann-arbor.mi.us> (Mike Bernson)
     <bob@usixth.sublink.org> (Roberto Biancardi)
     <statsci!scott@coco.ms.washington.edu> (Scott Blachowicz)
     <bag%wood2.cs.kiev.ua@relay.ussr.eu.net> (Andrey G Blochintsev)
     <spider@Orb.Nashua.NH.US> (Spider Boardman)
     Gregory Bond <gnb@bby.com.au>
     Marc Boucher <marc@CAM.ORG>
     Ard van Breemen <ard@cstmel.hobby.nl>
     <dean@coplex.com> (Dean Brooks)
     <jbrow@radical.com> (Jim Brownfield)
     <dave@dlb.com> (Dave Buck)
     <gordon@sneaky.lonestar.org> (Gordon Burditt)
     <dburr@sbphy.physics.ucsb.edu> (Donald Burr)
     <mib@gnu.ai.mit.edu> (Michael I Bushnell)
     Brian Campbell <brianc@quantum.on.ca>
     Andrew A. Chernov <ache@astral.msk.su>
     <jhc@iscp.bellcore.com> (Jonathan Clark)
     <mafc!frank@bach.helios.de> (Frank Conrad)
     Ed Carp <erc@apple.com>
     <mpc@mbs.linet.org> (Mark Clements)
     <verbus@westmark.westmark.com> (Verbus M. Counts)
     <cbmvax!snark.thyrsus.com!cowan> (John Cowan)
     Bob Cunningham <bob@soest.hawaii.edu>
     <jorge@laser.satlink.net> (Jorge Cwik)
     <kdburg@incoahe.hanse.de> (Klaus Dahlenburg)
     Damon <d@exnet.co.uk>
     <celit!billd@UCSD.EDU> (Bill Davidson)
     <hubert@arakis.fdn.org> (Hubert Delahaye)
     <markd@bushwire.apana.org.au> (Mark Delany)
     Allen Delaney <allen@brc.ubc.ca>
     Gerriet M. Denkmann <gerriet@hazel.north.de>
     <denny@dakota.alisa.com> (Bob Denny)
     Drew Derbyshire <ahd@kew.com>
     <ssd@nevets.oau.org> (Steven S. Dick)
     <gert@greenie.gold.sub.org> (Gert Doering)
     <gemini@geminix.in-berlin.de> (Uwe Doering)
     Hans-Dieter Doll <hd2@Insel.DE>
     <deane@deane.teleride.on.ca> (Dean Edmonds)
     Mark W. Eichin <eichin@cygnus.com>
     <erik@pdnfido.fidonet.org>
     Andrew Evans <andrew@airs.com>
     <dje@cygnus.com> (Doug Evans)
     Marc Evans <marc@synergytics.com>
     Dan Everhart <dan@dyndata.com>
     <kksys!kegworks!lfahnoe@cs.umn.edu> (Larry Fahnoe)
     Matthew Farwell <dylan@ibmpcug.co.uk>
     <fenner@jazz.psu.edu> (Bill Fenner)
     <jaf@inference.com> (Jose A. Fernandez)
     "David J. Fiander" <golem!david@news.lsuc.on.ca>
     Thomas Fischer <batman@olorin.dark.sub.org>
     Mister Flash <flash@sam.imash.ras.ru>
     <louis@marco.de> (Ju"rgen Fluk)
     <erik@eab.retix.com> (Erik Forsberg)
     <andy@scp.caltech.edu> (Andy Fyfe)
     Lele Gaifax <piggy@idea.sublink.org>
     <Peter.Galbavy@micromuse.co.uk>
     <hunter@phoenix.pub.uu.oz.au> (James Gardiner [hunter])
     Terry Gardner <cphpcom!tjg01>
     <dgilbert@gamiga.guelphnet.dweomer.org> (David Gilbert)
     <ol@infopro.spb.su> (Oleg Girko)
     <jimmy@tokyo07.info.com> (Jim Gottlieb)
     Benoit Grange <ben@fizz.fdn.org>
     <elg@elgamy.jpunix.com> (Eric Lee Green)
     <ryan@cs.umb.edu> (Daniel R. Guilderson)
     <greg@gagme.chi.il.us> (Gregory Gulik)
     Richard H. Gumpertz <rhg@cps.com>
     Scott Guthridge <scooter@cube.rain.com>
     Michael Haberler <mah@parrot.prv.univie.ac.at>
     Daniel Hagerty <hag@eddie.mit.edu>
     <jh@moon.nbn.com> (John Harkin)
     <guy@auspex.auspex.com> (Guy Harris)
     <hsw1@papa.attmail.com> (Stephen Harris)
     Tom Ivar Helbekkmo <tih@Norway.EU.net>
     Petri Helenius <pete@fidata.fi>
     <gabe@edi.com> (B. Gabriel Helou)
     Bob Hemedinger <bob@dalek.mwc.com>
     Andrew Herbert <andrew@werple.pub.uu.oz.au>
     <kherron@ms.uky.edu> (Kenneth Herron)
     Peter Honeyman <honey@citi.umich.edu>
     <jhood@smoke.marlboro.vt.us> (John Hood)
     Mark Horsburgh <markh@kcbbs.gen.nz>
     John Hughes <john@Calva.COM>
     Mike Ipatow <mip@fido.itc.e-burg.su>
     Bill Irwin <bill@twg.bc.ca>
     <pmcgw!personal-media.co.jp!ishikawa> (Chiaki Ishikawa)
     <ai@easy.in-chemnitz.de> (Andreas Israel)
     <iverson@lionheart.com> (Tim Iverson)
     <bei@dogface.austin.tx.us> (Bob Izenberg)
     <djamiga!djjames@fsd.com> (D.J.James)
     Rob Janssen <cmgit!rob@relay.nluug.nl>
     <harvee!esj> (Eric S Johansson)
     Kevin Johnson <kjj@pondscum.phx.mcd.mot.com>
     <rj@rainbow.in-berlin.de> (Robert Joop)
     Alan Judge <aj@dec4ie.IEunet.ie>
     <chris@cj_net.in-berlin.de> (Christof Junge)
     Romain Kang <romain@pyramid.com>
     <tron@Veritas.COM> (Ronald S. Karr)
     Brendan Kehoe <brendan@cs.widener.edu>
     <warlock@csuchico.edu> (John Kennedy)
     <kersing@nlmug.nl.mugnet.org> (Jac Kersing)
     <ok@daveg.PFM-Mainz.de> (Olaf Kirch)
     Gabor Kiss <kissg@sztaki.hu>
     <gero@gkminix.han.de> (Gero Kuhlmann)
     <rob@pact.nl> (Rob Kurver)
     "C.A. Lademann" <cal@zls.gtn.com>
     <kent@sparky.IMD.Sterling.COM> (Kent Landfield)
     Tin Le <tin@saigon.com>
     <lebaron@inrs-telecom.uquebec.ca>  (Gregory LeBaron)
     <karl@sugar.NeoSoft.Com> (Karl Lehenbauer)
     <alex@hal.rhein-main.de> (Alexander Lehmann)
     <merlyn@digibd.com> (Merlyn LeRoy)
     <clewis@ferret.ocunix.on.ca> (Chris Lewis)
     <gdonl@ssi1.com> (Don Lewis)
     <libove@libove.det.dec.com> (Jay Vassos-Libove)
     <bruce%blilly@Broadcast.Sony.COM> (Bruce Lilly)
     Godfrey van der Linden <Godfrey_van_der_Linden@NeXT.COM>
     Ted Lindgreen <tlindgreen@encore.nl>
     <andrew@cubetech.com> (Andrew Loewenstern)
     "Arne Ludwig" <arne@rrzbu.hanse.de>
     Matthew Lyle <matt@mips.mitek.com>
     <djm@eng.umd.edu> (David J. MacKenzie)
     John R MacMillan <chance!john@sq.sq.com>
     <jum@helios.de> (Jens-Uwe Mager)
     Giles D Malet <shrdlu!gdm@provar.kwnet.on.ca>
     <mem@mv.MV.COM> (Mark E. Mallett)
     <pepe@dit.upm.es> (Jose A. Manas)
     <peter@xpoint.ruessel.sub.org> (Peter Mandrella)
     <martelli@cadlab.sublink.org> (Alex Martelli)
     W Christopher Martin <wcm@geek.ca.geac.com>
     Yanek Martinson <yanek@mthvax.cs.miami.edu>
     <thomasm@mechti.wupper.de> (Thomas Mechtersheimer)
     <jm@aristote.univ-paris8.fr> (Jean Mehat)
     <me@halfab.freiburg.sub.org> (Udo Meyer)
     <les@chinet.chi.il.us> (Leslie Mikesell)
     <bug@cyberdex.cuug.ab.ca> (Trever Miller)
     <mmitchel@digi.lonestar.org> (Mitch Mitchell)
     Emmanuel Mogenet <mgix@krainte.jpn.thomson-di.fr>
     <rmohr@infoac.rmi.de> (Rupert Mohr)
     Jason Molenda <molenda@sequent.com>
     <ianm@icsbelf.co.uk> (Ian Moran)
     <jmorriso@bogomips.ee.ubc.ca> (John Paul Morrison)
     <brian@ilinx.wimsey.bc.ca> (Brian J. Murrell)
     <service@infohh.rmi.de> (Dirk Musstopf)
     <lyndon@cs.athabascau.ca> (Lyndon Nerenberg)
     <rolf@saans.north.de> (Rolf Nerstheimer)
     <tom@smart.bo.open.de> (Thomas Neumann)
     <mnichols@pacesetter.com>
     Richard E. Nickle <trystro!rick@Think.COM>
     <stephan@sunlab.ka.sub.org> (Stephan Niemz)
     <raymond@es.ele.tue.nl> (Raymond Nijssen)
     <nolan@helios.unl.edu> (Michael Nolan)
     david nugent <david@csource.oz.au>
     Jim O'Connor <jim@bahamut.fsc.com>
     <kevin%kosman.uucp@nrc.com> (Kevin O'Gorman)
     Petri Ojala <ojala@funet.fi>
     <oneill@cs.ulowell.edu> (Brian 'Doc' O'Neill)
     <Stephen.Page@prg.oxford.ac.uk>
     Peter Palfrader <peter@palfrader.org>
     <abekas!dragoman!mikep@decwrl.dec.com> (Mike Park)
     Tim Peiffer <peiffer@cs.umn.edu>
     <don@blkhole.resun.com> (Don Phillips)
     "Mark Pizzolato 415-369-9366" <mark@infocomm.com>
     John Plate <plate@infotek.dk>
     <dplatt@ntg.com> (Dave Platt)
     <eldorado@tharr.UUCP> (Mark Powell)
     Mark Powell <mark@inet-uk.co.uk>
     <pozar@kumr.lns.com> (Tim Pozar)
     <joey@tessi.UUCP> (Joey Pruett)
     Paul Pryor <ptp@fallschurch-acirs2.army.mil>
     <putsch@uicc.com> (Jeff Putsch)
     <ar@nvmr.robin.de> (Andreas Raab)
     Vadim Radionov <rvp@zfs.lg.ua>
     Jarmo Raiha <jarmo@ksvltd.FI>
     James Revell <revell@uunet.uu.net>
     Scott Reynolds <scott@clmqt.marquette.Mi.US>
     <mcr@Sandelman.OCUnix.On.Ca> (Michael Richardson)
     Kenji Rikitake <kenji@rcac.astem.or.jp>
     <arnold@cc.gatech.edu> (Arnold Robbins)
     <steve@Nyongwa.cam.org> (Steve M. Robbins)
     Ollivier Robert <Ollivier.Robert@keltia.frmug.fr.net>
     Serge Robyns <sr@denkart.be>
     Lawrence E. Rosenman <ler@lerami.lerctr.org>
     Jeff Ross <jeff@wisdom.bubble.org>
     Aleksey P. Rudnev <alex@kiae.su>
     "Heiko W.Rupp" <hwr@pilhuhn.ka.sub.org>
     <wolfgang@wsrcc.com> (Wolfgang S. Rupprecht)
     <tbr@tfic.bc.ca> (Tom Rushworth)
     Peter Rye <prye@picu-sgh.demon.co.uk>
     <jsacco@ssl.com> (Joseph E. Sacco)
     <rsalz@bbn.com> (Rich Salz)
     Curt Sampson <curt@portal.ca>
     <sojurn!mike@hobbes.cert.sei.cmu.edu> (Mike Sangrey)
     Nickolay Saukh <nms@ussr.EU.net>
     Ignatios Souvatzis <is@jocelyn.rhein.de>
     <heiko@lotte.sax.de> (Heiko Schlittermann)
     Eric Schnoebelen <eric@cirr.com>
     <russell@alpha3.ersys.edmonton.ab.ca> (Russell Schulz)
     <scott@geom.umn.edu>
     Igor V. Semenyuk <iga@argrd0.argonaut.su>
     Christopher Sawtell <chris@gerty.equinox.gen.nz>
     <schuler@bds.sub.org> (Bernd Schuler)
     <uunet!gold.sub.org!root> (Christian Seyb)
     Marcus Shang <marcus.shang@canada.cdev.com>
     <s4mjs!mjs@nirvo.nirvonics.com> (M. J. Shannon Jr.)
     <shields@tembel.org> (Michael Shields)
     <peter@ficc.ferranti.com> (Peter da Silva)
     <vince@victrola.sea.wa.us> (Vince Skahan)
     <frumious!pat> (Patrick Smith)
     <roscom!monty@bu.edu> (Monty Solomon)
     <sommerfeld@orchard.medford.ma.us> (Bill Sommerfeld)
     Julian Stacey <stacey@guug.de>
     <evesg@etlrips.etl.go.jp> (Gjoen Stein)
     Harlan Stenn <harlan@mumps.pfcs.com>
     Ralf Stephan <ralf@ark.abg.sub.org>
     <johannes@titan.westfalen.de> (Johannes Stille)
     <chs@antic.apu.fi> (Hannu Strang)
     <ralf@reswi.ruhr.de> (Ralf E. Stranzenbach)
     <sullivan@Mathcom.com> (S. Sullivan)
     Shigeya Suzuki <shigeya@dink.foretune.co.jp>
     <kls@ditka.Chicago.COM> (Karl Swartz)
     <swiers@plains.NoDak.edu>
     Oleg Tabarovsky <olg@olghome.pccentre.msk.su>
     <ikeda@honey.misystems.co.jp> (Takatoshi Ikeda)
     John Theus <john@theus.rain.com>
     <rd@aii.com> (Bob Thrush)
     ppKarsten Thygesen <karthy@dannug.dk>
     Graham Toal <gtoal@pizzabox.demon.co.uk>
     <rmtodd@servalan.servalan.com> (Richard Todd)
     Michael Ju. Tokarev <mjt@tls.msk.ru>
     Martin Tomes <mt00@controls.eurotherm.co.uk>
     Len Tower <tower-prep@ai.mit.edu>
     Mark Towfiq <justice!towfiq@Eingedi.Newton.MA.US>
     <mju@mudos.ann-arbor.mi.us> (Marc Unangst)
     Matthias Urlichs <urlichs@smurf.noris.de>
     Tomi Vainio <tomppa@fidata.fi>
     <a3@a3.xs4all.nl> (Adri Verhoef)
     Andrew Vignaux <ajv@ferrari.datamark.co.nz>
     <vogel@omega.ssw.de> (Andreas Vogel)
     Dima Volodin <dvv@hq.demos.su>
     <jos@bull.nl> (Jos Vos)
     <jv@nl.net> (Johan Vromans)
     David Vrona <dave@sashimi.wwa.com>
     <Marcel.Waldvogel@nice.usergroup.ethz.ch> (Marcel Waldvogel)
     <steve@nshore.org> (Stephen J. Walick)
     <syd@dsinc.dsi.com> (Syd Weinstein)
     <gerben@rna.indiv.nluug.nl> (Gerben Wierda)
     <jbw@cs.bu.edu> (Joe Wells)
     <frnkmth!twwells.com!bill> (T. William Wells)
     Peter Wemm <Peter_Wemm@zeus.dialix.oz.au>
     <mauxci!eci386!woods@apple.com> (Greg A. Woods)
     <John.Woods@proteon.com> (John Woods)
     Michael Yu.Yaroslavtsev <mike@yaranga.ipmce.su>
     Alexei K. Yushin <root@july.elis.crimea.ua>
     <jon@console.ais.org> (Jon Zeeff)
     Matthias Zepf <agnus@amylnd.stgt.sub.org>
     Eric Ziegast <uunet!ziegast>


File: uucp.info,  Node: Index (concepts),  Next: Index (configuration file),  Prev: Acknowledgements,  Up: Top

Concept Index
*************

* Menu:

* .Corrupt:                              Execution Subdirectories.
* .Failed:                               Execution Subdirectories.
* .Preserve:                             Other Spool Subdirectories.
* .Received:                             Other Spool Subdirectories.
* .Sequence:                             Other Spool Subdirectories.
* .Status:                               Status Directory.
* .Temp:                                 Other Spool Subdirectories.
* .Xqtdir:                               Execution Subdirectories.
* /usr/spool/uucp:                       Miscellaneous (config).
* /usr/spool/uucppublic:                 Miscellaneous (config).
* accepting calls:                       Accepting Calls.
* anonymous UUCP:                        config File Examples.
* call configuration file:               Configuration File Names.
* call in login name:                    Configuration File Names.
* call in password:                      Configuration File Names.
* call out file:                         Configuration File Names.
* call out login name:                   Configuration File Names.
* call out password:                     Configuration File Names.
* calling in:                            Accepting Calls.
* calling out:                           Calling Other Systems.
* changing spool directory:              config File Examples.
* chat scripts:                          Chat Scripts.
* cleaning the spool directory:          Spool Directory Cleaning.
* config file:                           config File.
* config file examples:                  config File Examples.
* configuration file (call):             Configuration File Names.
* configuration file (config):           config File.
* configuration file (dial):             dial File.
* configuration file (dialcode):         Configuration File Names.
* configuration file (passwd):           Configuration File Names.
* configuration file (port):             port File.
* configuration file (sys):              sys File.
* d protocol:                            d Protocol.
* debugging file:                        Log File Names.
* dial file:                             dial File.
* dialcode configuration file:           Configuration File Names.
* dialcode file:                         Configuration File Names.
* dialer configuration file:             dial File.
* e protocol:                            e Protocol.
* E UUCP protocol command:               The E Command.
* execution file format:                 Execution File Format.
* f protocol:                            f Protocol.
* final handshake:                       The Final Handshake.
* G protocol:                            Big G Protocol.
* g protocol:                            g Protocol.
* gateway:                               Gateway Example.
* grades:                                When to Call.
* grades implementation:                 UUCP Grades.
* h protocol:                            h Protocol.
* H UUCP protocol command:               The H Command.
* i protocol:                            i Protocol.
* initial handshake:                     The Initial Handshake.
* j protocol:                            j Protocol.
* L.XXX:                                 Spool Lock Files.
* LCK..SYS:                              Spool Lock Files.
* LCK.XQT.NN:                            Spool Lock Files.
* leaf site:                             Leaf Example.
* lock directory:                        Miscellaneous (config).
* lock files:                            UUCP Lock Files.
* lock files in spool directory:         Spool Lock Files.
* log file:                              Log File Names.
* LXQ.CMD:                               Spool Lock Files.
* mail:                                  Mail and News.
* main configuration file:               config File.
* news:                                  Mail and News.
* parity in login names:                 Miscellaneous (config).
* passwd configuration file:             Configuration File Names.
* passwd file:                           Configuration File Names.
* port configuration file:               port File.
* port file:                             port File.
* protocol d:                            d Protocol.
* protocol e:                            e Protocol.
* protocol f:                            f Protocol.
* protocol G:                            Big G Protocol.
* protocol g:                            g Protocol.
* protocol h:                            h Protocol.
* protocol i:                            i Protocol.
* protocol j:                            j Protocol.
* protocol t:                            t Protocol.
* protocol v:                            v Protocol.
* protocol x:                            x Protocol.
* protocol y:                            y Protocol.
* protocol, UUCP:                        UUCP Protocol.
* public directory:                      Miscellaneous (config).
* R UUCP protocol command:               The R Command.
* S UUCP protocol command:               The S Command.
* spool directory:                       The Spool Directory Layout.
* spool directory, changing:             config File Examples.
* spool directory, cleaning:             Spool Directory Cleaning.
* spool directory, setting:              Miscellaneous (config).
* statistics file:                       Log File Names.
* status files:                          Status Directory.
* sys file:                              sys File.
* sys file example (gateway):            Gateway Example.
* sys file example (leaf):               Leaf Example.
* system configuration file:             sys File.
* system lock files:                     Spool Lock Files.
* system name:                           Miscellaneous (config).
* system spool directories:              System Spool Directories.
* t protocol:                            t Protocol.
* time strings:                          Time Strings.
* unknown systems:                       Miscellaneous (config).
* UUCP protocol:                         UUCP Protocol.
* UUCP protocol E command:               The E Command.
* UUCP protocol H command:               The H Command.
* UUCP protocol R command:               The R Command.
* UUCP protocol S command:               The S Command.
* UUCP protocol X command:               The X Command.
* UUCP system name:                      Miscellaneous (config).
* uucppublic:                            Miscellaneous (config).
* v protocol:                            v Protocol.
* x protocol:                            x Protocol.
* X UUCP protocol command:               The X Command.
* X.* file format:                       Execution File Format.
* y protocol:                            y Protocol.