.\" Copyright (c) 1989, 1991, 1993, 1994 .\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. .\" .\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without .\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions .\" are met: .\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. .\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the .\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. .\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software .\" must display the following acknowledgement: .\" This product includes software developed by the University of .\" California, Berkeley and its contributors. .\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors .\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software .\" without specific prior written permission. .\" .\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND .\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE .\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE .\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE .\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL .\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS .\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) .\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT .\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY .\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF .\" SUCH DAMAGE. .\" .\" @(#)vis.1 8.4 (Berkeley) 4/19/94 .\" $FreeBSD: src/usr.bin/vis/vis.1,v 1.12 2005/02/13 22:25:25 ru Exp $ .\" .Dd June 25, 2004 .Dt VIS 1 .Os .Sh NAME .Nm vis .Nd display non-printable characters in a visual format .Sh SYNOPSIS .Nm .Op Fl cbflnostw .Op Fl F Ar foldwidth .Op Ar .Sh DESCRIPTION The .Nm utility is a filter for converting non-printable characters into a visual representation. It differs from .Ql cat -v in that the form is unique and invertible. By default, all non-graphic characters except space, tab, and newline are encoded. A detailed description of the various visual formats is given in .Xr vis 3 . .Pp The options are as follows: .Bl -tag -width Ds .It Fl b Turns off prepending of backslash before up-arrow control sequences and meta characters, and disables the doubling of backslashes. This produces output which is neither invertible or precise, but does represent a minimum of change to the input. It is similar to .Dq Li cat -v . .It Fl c Request a format which displays a small subset of the non-printable characters using C-style backslash sequences. .It Fl F Causes .Nm to fold output lines to foldwidth columns (default 80), like .Xr fold 1 , except that a hidden newline sequence is used, (which is removed when inverting the file back to its original form with .Xr unvis 1 ) . If the last character in the encoded file does not end in a newline, a hidden newline sequence is appended to the output. This makes the output usable with various editors and other utilities which typically do not work with partial lines. .It Fl f Same as .Fl F . .It Fl l Mark newlines with the visible sequence .Ql \e$ , followed by the newline. .It Fl n Turns off any encoding, except for the fact that backslashes are still doubled and hidden newline sequences inserted if .Fl f or .Fl F is selected. When combined with the .Fl f flag, .Nm becomes like an invertible version of the .Xr fold 1 utility. That is, the output can be unfolded by running the output through .Xr unvis 1 . .It Fl o Request a format which displays non-printable characters as an octal number, \eddd. .It Fl s Only characters considered unsafe to send to a terminal are encoded. This flag allows backspace, bell, and carriage return in addition to the default space, tab and newline. .It Fl t Tabs are also encoded. .It Fl w White space (space-tab-newline) is also encoded. .El .Sh SEE ALSO .Xr unvis 1 , .Xr vis 3 .Sh HISTORY The .Nm command appeared in .Bx 4.4 . .Sh BUGS Due to limitations in the underlying .Xr vis 3 function, the .Nm utility does not recognize multibyte characters, and thus may consider them to be non-printable when they are in fact printable (and vice versa).