.\" $OpenBSD: pwd_mkdb.8,v 1.17 2003/06/12 12:59:52 jmc Exp $ .\" .\" Copyright (c) 1991, 1993 .\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. .\" .\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without .\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions .\" are met: .\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. .\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the .\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. .\" 3. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors .\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software .\" without specific prior written permission. .\" .\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND .\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE .\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE .\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE .\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL .\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS .\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) .\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT .\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY .\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF .\" SUCH DAMAGE. .\" .\" from: @(#)pwd_mkdb.8 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/6/93 .\" .Dd June 6, 1993 .Dt PWD_MKDB 8 .Os .Sh NAME .Nm pwd_mkdb .Nd generate the password databases .Sh SYNOPSIS .Nm pwd_mkdb .Op Fl c .Op Fl p | Fl s .Op Fl d Ar directory .Op Fl u Ar username .Ar file .Sh DESCRIPTION .Nm pwd_mkdb creates .Xr db 3 style secure and insecure databases for the specified file. These databases are then installed into .Pa /etc/spwd.db and .Pa /etc/pwd.db , respectively. The file is installed into .Pa /etc/master.passwd . The file must be in the correct format (see .Xr passwd 5 ) . It is important to note that the format used in this system is different from the historic Version 7 style format. .Pp The options are as follows: .Bl -tag -width Ds .\" ========== .It Fl c Check if the password file is in the correct format. Do not change, add, or remove any files. .\" ========== .It Fl d Ar directory Operate in a base directory other than the default of .Pa /etc . All absolute paths (including .Ar file ) will be made relative to .Ar directory . Any directories specified as a part of .Ar file will be stripped off. This option is used to create password databases in directories other than .Pa etc ; for instance in a .Xr chroot 8 jail. .\" ========== .It Fl p Create a Version 7 style password file and install it into .Pa /etc/passwd . .\" ========== .It Fl s Only update the secure version of the database. This is most commonly used in conjunction with the .Fl u flag during a password change. Because the insecure database doesn't contain the password there is no reason to update it if the only change is in the password field. Cannot be used in conjunction with the .Fl p flag. .\" ========== .It Fl u Ar username Only update the record for the specified user. Utilities that operate on a single user can use this option to avoid the overhead of rebuilding the entire database. This option must never be used if the line number of the user's record in .Pa /etc/master.passwd has changed. .\" ========== .It Ar file The absolute path to a file in .Ar master.passwd format, as described in .Xr passwd 5 . .El .Pp The two databases differ in that the secure version contains the user's encrypted password and the insecure version has an asterisk .Pq Sq \&* . .Pp The databases are used by the C library password routines (see .Xr getpwent 3 ) . .Pp .Nm pwd_mkdb exits zero on success, non-zero on failure. .Sh FILES .Bl -tag -width /etc/master.passwd -compact .It Pa /etc/master.passwd current password file .It Pa /etc/passwd a Version 7 format password file .It Pa /etc/pwd.db insecure password database file .It Pa /etc/pwd.db.tmp temporary file .It Pa /etc/spwd.db secure password database file .It Pa /etc/spwd.db.tmp temporary file .El .Sh SEE ALSO .Xr chpass 1 , .Xr passwd 1 , .Xr db 3 , .Xr getpwent 3 , .Xr passwd 5 , .Xr vipw 8 .Sh STANDARDS Previous versions of the system had a program similar to .Nm pwd_mkdb , .Xr mkpasswd , which built .Xr dbm 3 style databases for the password file but depended on the calling programs to install them. The program was renamed in order that previous users of the program not be surprised by the changes in functionality. .Sh BUGS Because of the necessity for atomic update of the password files, .Nm pwd_mkdb uses .Xr rename 2 to install them. This, however, requires that the file specified on the command line live on the same file system as the .Pa /etc directory. .Pp There are the obvious races with multiple people running .Nm pwd_mkdb on different password files at the same time. The front-ends to .Nm pwd_mkdb , .Xr chpass 1 , .Xr passwd 1 , and .Xr vipw 8 handle the locking necessary to avoid this problem.