.\" Copyright (c) 1980, 1990, 1993 .\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. .\" .\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without .\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions .\" are met: .\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. .\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the .\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. .\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software .\" must display the following acknowledgement: .\" This product includes software developed by the University of .\" California, Berkeley and its contributors. .\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors .\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software .\" without specific prior written permission. .\" .\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND .\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE .\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE .\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE .\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL .\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS .\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) .\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT .\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY .\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF .\" SUCH DAMAGE. .\" .\" @(#)login.1 8.2 (Berkeley) 5/5/94 .\" $FreeBSD: src/usr.bin/login/login.1,v 1.33 2007/11/30 11:02:36 philip Exp $ .\" .Dd September 13, 2006 .Dt LOGIN 1 .Os .Sh NAME .Nm login .Nd log into the computer .Sh SYNOPSIS .Nm .Op Fl pq .Op Fl h Ar hostname .Op Ar user .Nm .Fl f .Op Fl lpq .Op Fl h Ar hostname .Op Ar user Op Ar prog Op Ar args... .Sh DESCRIPTION The .Nm utility logs users (and pseudo-users) into the computer system. .Pp If no user is specified, or if a user is specified and authentication of the user fails, .Nm prompts for a user name. Authentication of users is configurable via .Xr pam 8 . Password authentication is the default. .Pp The following options are available: .Bl -tag -width indent .It Fl f When a user name is specified, this option indicates that proper authentication has already been done and that no password need be requested. This option may only be used by the super-user or when an already logged in user is logging in as themselves. .Pp With the .Fl f option, an alternate program (and any arguments) may be run instead of the user's default shell. The program and arguments follows the user name. .It Fl h Specify the host from which the connection was received. It is used by various daemons such as .Xr telnetd 8 . This option may only be used by the super-user. .It Fl l Tells the program executed by .Nm that this is not a login session (by convention, a login session is signalled to the program with a hyphen as the first character of .Em argv ; this option disables that), and prevents it from chdir(2)ing to the user's home directory. The default is to add the hyphen (this is a login session). .It Fl p By default, .Nm discards any previous environment. The .Fl p option disables this behavior. .It Fl q This forces quiet logins, as if a .Pa .hushlogin is present. .El .Pp If the file .Pa /etc/nologin exists, .Nm dislays its contents to the user and exits. This is used by .Xr shutdown 8 to prevent users from logging in when the system is about to go down. .Pp Immediately after logging a user in, .Nm displays the system copyright notice, the date and time the user last logged in, the message of the day as well as other information. If the file .Pa .hushlogin exists in the user's home directory, all of these messages are suppressed. .Fl q is specified, all of these messages are suppressed. This is to simplify logins for non-human users, such as .Xr uucp 1 . .Nm then records an entry in .Xr utmpx 5 and the like, and executes the user's command interpreter (or the program specified on the command line if .Fl f is specified). .Pp The .Nm utility enters information into the environment (see .Xr environ 7 ) specifying the user's home directory (HOME), command interpreter (SHELL), search path (PATH), terminal type (TERM) and user name (both LOGNAME and USER). .Pp Some shells may provide a builtin .Nm command which is similar or identical to this utility. Consult the .Xr builtin 1 manual page. .Pp The .Nm utility will submit an audit record when login succeeds or fails. Failure to determine the current auditing state will result in an error exit from .Nm . .Sh FILES .Bl -tag -width /var/mail/userXXX -compact .It Pa /etc/motd message-of-the-day .It Pa /etc/nologin disallows logins .It Pa /var/run/utmpx current logins .It Pa /var/mail/user system mailboxes .It Pa \&.hushlogin makes login quieter .It Pa /etc/pam.d/login .Xr pam 8 configuration file .It Pa /etc/security/audit_user user flags for auditing .It Pa /etc/security/audit_control global flags for auditing .El .Sh SEE ALSO .Xr builtin 1 , .Xr chpass 1 , .Xr newgrp 1 , .Xr passwd 1 , .Xr rlogin 1 , .Xr getpass 3 , .Xr utmpx 5 , .Xr environ 7 .Sh HISTORY A .Nm utility appeared in .At v6 .