sa.8   [plain text]


.\"
.\" Copyright (c) 1994 Christopher G. Demetriou
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.\" $FreeBSD: src/usr.sbin/sa/sa.8,v 1.15 2002/07/14 14:46:01 charnier Exp $
.\"
.Dd February 25, 1994
.Dt SA 8
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm sa
.Nd print system accounting statistics
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Nm sa
.Op Fl abcdDfijkKlmnqrstu
.Op Fl v Ar cutoff
.Op Ar
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm sa
utility reports on, cleans up,
and generally maintains system
accounting files.
.Pp
The
.Nm sa
utility is able to condense the information in
.Pa /var/account/acct
into the summary files
.Pa /var/account/savacct
and
.Pa /var/account/usracct ,
which contain system statistics according
to command name and login id, respectively.
This condensation is desirable because on a
large system,
.Pa /var/account/acct
can grow by hundreds of blocks per day.
The summary files are normally read before
the accounting file, so that reports include
all available information.
.Pp
If file names are supplied, they are read instead of
.Pa /var/account/acct .
After each file is read, if the summary
files are being updated, an updated summary will
be saved to disk.  Only one report is printed,
after the last file is processed.
.Pp
The labels used in the output indicate the following, except
where otherwise specified by individual options:
.Bl -tag -width k*sec
.\" ==========
.It Dv avio
Average number of I/O operations per execution
.\" ==========
.It Dv cp
Sum of user and system time, in minutes
.\" ==========
.It Dv cpu
Same as
.Dv cp
.\" ==========
.It Dv k
CPU-time averaged core usage, in 1k units
.\" ==========
.It Dv k*sec
CPU storage integral, in 1k-core seconds
.\" ==========
.It Dv re
Real time, in minutes
.\" ==========
.It Dv s
System time, in minutes
.\" ==========
.It Dv tio
Total number of I/O operations
.\" ==========
.It Dv u
User time, in minutes
.El
.Pp
The options to
.Nm sa
are:
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.\" ==========
.It Fl a
List all command names, including those containing unprintable
characters and those used only once.  By default,
.Nm sa
places all names containing unprintable characters and
those used only once under the name ``***other''.
.\" ==========
.It Fl b
If printing command statistics, sort output by the sum of user and system
time divided by number of calls.
.\" ==========
.It Fl c
In addition to the number of calls and the user, system and real times
for each command, print their percentage of the total over all commands.
.\" ==========
.It Fl D
If printing command statistics, sort and print by the total number
of disk I/O operations.
.\" ==========
.It Fl d
If printing command statistics, sort by the average number of disk
I/O operations.  If printing user statistics, print the average number of
disk I/O operations per user.
.\" ==========
.It Fl f
Force no interactive threshold comparison with the
.Fl v
option.
.\" ==========
.It Fl i
Do not read in the summary files.
.\" ==========
.It Fl j
Instead of the total minutes per category, give seconds per call.
.\" ==========
.It Fl K
If printing command statistics, print and sort by the cpu-storage integral.
.\" ==========
.It Fl k
If printing command statistics, sort by the cpu-time average memory
usage.  If printing user statistics, print the cpu-time average
memory usage.
.\" ==========
.It Fl l
Separate system and user time; normally they are combined.
.\" ==========
.It Fl m
Print per-user statistics rather than per-command statistics.
.\" ==========
.It Fl n
Sort by number of calls.
.\" ==========
.It Fl q
Create no output other than error messages.
.\" ==========
.It Fl r
Reverse order of sort.
.\" ==========
.It Fl s
Truncate the accounting files when done and merge their data
into the summary files.
.\" ==========
.It Fl t
For each command, report the ratio of real time to the sum
of user and system cpu times.
If the cpu time is too small to report, ``*ignore*'' appears in
this field.
.\" ==========
.It Fl u
Superseding all other flags, for each entry
in the accounting file, print the user ID, total seconds of cpu usage,
total memory usage, number of I/O operations performed, and
command name.
.\" ==========
.It Fl v Ar cutoff
For each command used
.Ar cutoff
times or fewer, print the command name and await a reply
from the terminal.  If the reply begins with ``y'', add
the command to the category ``**junk**''.  This flag is
used to strip garbage from the report.
.El
.Pp
By default, per-command statistics will be printed.  The number of
calls, the total elapsed time in minutes, total cpu and user time
in minutes, average number of I/O operations, and CPU-time
averaged core usage will be printed.  If the
.Fl m
option is specified, per-user statistics will be printed, including
the user name, the number of commands invoked, total cpu time used
(in minutes), total number of I/O operations, and CPU storage integral
for each user.  If the
.Fl u
option is specified, the uid, user and system time (in seconds),
CPU storage integral, I/O usage, and command name will be printed
for each entry in the accounting data file.
.Pp
If the
.Fl u
flag is specified, all flags other than
.Fl q
are ignored.  If the
.Fl m
flag is specified, only the
.Fl b ,
.Fl d ,
.Fl i ,
.Fl k ,
.Fl q ,
and
.Fl s
flags are honored.
.Sh DIAGNOSTICS
.Ex -std
.Sh FILES
.Bl -tag -width /var/account/usracct -compact
.It Pa /var/account/acct
raw accounting data file
.It Pa /var/account/savacct
per-command accounting summary database
.It Pa /var/account/usracct
per-user accounting summary database
.El
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr lastcomm 1 ,
.Xr acct 5 ,
.Xr ac 8 ,
.Xr accton 8
.Sh BUGS
The number of options to this program is absurd, especially considering
that there's not much logic behind their lettering.
.Pp
The field labels should be more consistent.
.Pp
The VM system does not record the CPU storage integral.
.Sh CAVEATS
While the behavior of the options in this version of
.Nm sa
was modeled after the original version, there are some intentional
differences and undoubtedly some unintentional ones as well.  In
particular, the
.Fl q
option has been added, and the
.Fl m
option now understands more options than it used to.
.Pp
The formats of the summary files created by this version of
.Nm sa
are very different from the those used by the original version.
This is not considered a problem, however, because the accounting record
format has changed as well (since user ids are now 32 bits).
.Sh AUTHORS
.An Chris G. Demetriou Aq cgd@postgres.berkeley.edu