boot_vax.8   [plain text]


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.\"     @(#)boot_vax.8	8.2 (Berkeley) 4/19/94
.\"
.Dd April 19, 1994
.Dt BOOT 8 vax
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm boot
.Nd
system bootstrapping procedures
.Sh DESCRIPTION
.Sy Power fail and crash recovery.
Normally, the system will reboot itself at power-up or after crashes.
Provided the auto-restart is enabled on the machine front panel,
an automatic consistency check of the file systems will be performed,
and unless this fails, the system will resume multi-user operations.
.Pp
.Sy Cold starts.
These are processor-type dependent.
On an 11/780, there are two floppy files for each disk controller,
both of which cause boots from unit 0 of the root file system
of a controller located on mba0 or uba0.
One gives a single user shell, while the other invokes the multi-user
automatic reboot.
Thus these files are
.Tn HPS
and
.Tn HPM
for the single
and multi-user boot from
.Tn MASSBUS
RP06/RM03/RM05 disks,
.Tn UPS
and
.Tn UPM
for
.Tn UNIBUS
storage module controller and disks
such as the
.Tn EMULEX
SC-21
and
.Tn AMPEX
9300 pair,
.Tn RAS
and
.Tn RAM
to boot from
.Tn MSCP
controllers and disks such as the RA81,
or
.Tn HKS
and
.Tn HKM
for RK07 disks.
There is also a script for booting from the default device,
which is normally a copy of one of the standard multi-user boot scripts,
but which may be modified to perform other actions
or to boot from a different unit.
The situation on the 8600 is similar, with scripts loaded from the console RL02.
.Pp
Giving the command
.Pp
.Dl >>>BOOT HPM
.Pp
would boot the system from (e.g.) an RP06 and run the automatic consistency
check as described in
.Xr fsck 8 .
(Note that it may
be necessary to type control-P
and halt the processor
to gain the attention of the
.Tn LSI-11
before getting the >>> prompt.)
The command
.Pp
.Dl >>>BOOT ANY
.Pp
invokes a version of the boot program in a way which allows you to
specify any system as the system to be booted.
It reads from the console a device specification (see below) followed
immediately by a pathname.
.Pp
The scripts may be modified for local configuration if necessary.
The flags are placed in register 11 (as defined in
.Aq Pa sys/reboot.h ) .
The boot device is specified in register 10.
The encoding of this register is also defined in
.Aq Pa sys/reboot.h .
The current encoding has a historical basis, and is shown in the following
table:
.Pp
.Bd -unfilled -offset indent -compact
bits	usage
0-7	boot device type (the device major number)
8-15	disk partition
16-19	drive unit
20-23	controller number
24-27	adaptor number (UNIBUS or MASSBUS as appropriate)
.Ed
.Pp
The adaptor number corresponds to the normal configuration on the 11/750,
and to the order in which adaptors are found on the 11/780 and 8600
(generally the same as the numbers used by
.Tn UNIX ) .
.Pp
On an 11/750, the reset button will boot from the device
selected by the front panel boot device switch.  In systems
with RK07's, position B normally selects the RK07 for boot.
This will boot multi-user.  To boot from RK07 with boot flags you
may specify
.Pp
.Bd -unfilled -offset indent -compact
.Li \&>>>B/ Ns Fl n No DMA0
.Ed
.Pp
where, giving a
.Ar n
of 1 causes the boot program
to ask for the name of the system to be bootstrapped,
giving a
.Ar n
of 2 causes the boot program to come up single
user, and a
.Ar n
of 3 causes both of these actions to occur.
The ``DM'' specifies RK07, the ``A'' represents the adaptor number
.Pf ( Tn UNIBUS
or
.Tn MASSBUS ) ,
and the ``0'' is the drive unit number.
Other disk types which may be used are DB
.Pq Tn MASSBUS ,
DD (TU58),
and DU
.Pf ( Tn UDA-50/RA
disk).
A non-zero disk partition can be used by adding (partition times 1000 hex)
to
.Ar  n .
.Pp
The boot procedure on the Micro
.Tn VAX
II
is similar.
A switch on the back panel sets the power-up action
to autoboot or to halt.
When halted, the processor may be booted using the same syntax
as on the 11/750.
.Pp
The 11/750 boot procedure uses the boot roms to load block 0 off of
the specified device.  The /usr/mdec directory contains a number
of bootstrap programs for the various disks which should be placed
in a new pack by
.Xr disklabel 8 .
Similarly, the Micro
.Tn VAX
II boot procedure loads a boot parameter block
from block 0 of the disk.
The
.Xr rdboot
.Dq bootstrap
contains the correct parameters for an
.Tn MSCP
disk such
as the RD53.
.Pp
On any processor, the 
.Em boot
program
finds the corresponding file on the given device 
.Pf ( Pa vmunix
by default), loads that file
into memory location zero, and starts the program at the entry address
specified in the program header (after clearing off the high bit
of the specified entry address).
.Pp
The file specifications used with
.Dq BOOT ANY
or
.Dq \&B/3
are of the form:
.Pp
.Dl device(adaptor,controller,unit,minor)
.Pp
where
.Ar device
is the type of the device to be searched,
.Ar adaptor
is the
.Tn UNIBUS
or
.Tn MASSBUS
number of the adaptor to which the device is attached,
.Ar controller
is the unit number of the controller or
.Tn MASSBUS
tape formatter on that adaptor,
.Ar unit
is the unit number of the disk or transport slave unit of the tape,
and
.Ar minor
is the disk partition or tape file number.
Leading adaptor or controller numbers default to 0.
Normal line editing characters can be used when typing the file specification.
The following list of supported devices may vary from installation to
installation:
.Pp
.Bd -unfilled -offset indent -compact
hp	MASSBUS disk drive
up	UNIBUS storage module drive
ht	TE16,TU45,TU77 on MASSBUS
kra	storage module on a KDB50
mt	TU78 on MASSBUS
hk	RK07 on UNIBUS
ra	storage module on a MSCP-compatible UNIBUS controller
rb	storage module on a 730 IDC
rl	RL02 on UNIBUS
tm	TM11 emulation tape drives on UNIBUS
tms	TMSCP-compatible tape
ts	TS11 on UNIBUS
ut	UNIBUS TU45 emulator
.Ed
.Pp
For example,
to boot from a file system which starts at cylinder 0
of unit 0 of a
.Tn MASSBUS
disk, type
.Ql hp(0,0)vmunix
to the boot prompt;
.Ql hp(2,0,1,0)vmunix
would specify drive 1 on
.Tn MASSBUS
adaptor 2;
.Ql up(0,0)vmunix
would specify a
.Tn UNIBUS
drive,
.Ql hk(0,0)vmunix
would specify
an RK07 disk drive,
.Ql ra(1,0,0,0)vmunix
would specify a
.Tn UDA50
disk drive on a second
.Tn UNIBUS ,
and
.Ql rb(0,0)vmunix
would specify a
disk on a 730
.Tn IDC .
For tapes, the minor device number gives a file offset;
.Ql mt(1,2,3,4)
would specify the fifth file on slave 3 of the formatter
at
.Ql drive
2 on mba 1.
.Pp
On an 11/750 with patchable control store,
microcode patches will be installed by
.Em boot
if the file
.Pa psc750.bin
exists in the root of the filesystem from which the system is booted.
.Pp
In an emergency, the bootstrap methods described in the paper
.%T Installing and Operating 4.3bsd
can be used to boot from a distribution tape.
.Sh FILES
.Bl -tag -width /usr/mdec/xxboot -compact
.It Pa /vmunix
system code
.It Pa /boot
system bootstrap
.It Pa /usr/mdec/xxboot
sector-0 boot block for 750, xx is disk type
.It Pa /usr/mdec/bootxx
second-stage boot for 750, xx is disk type
.It Pa /pcs750.bin
microcode patch file on 750
.El
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr arff 8 ,
.Xr halt 8 ,
.Xr reboot 8 ,
.Xr shutdown 8
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
command appeared in
.Bx 4.0 .