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SUDO(1m)               MAINTENANCE COMMANDS              SUDO(1m)

       sudo, sudoedit - execute a command as another user

       ssuuddoo --hh | --KK | --kk | --LL | --VV

       ssuuddoo --vv [--AAkknnSS] [--aa _a_u_t_h___t_y_p_e] [--gg _g_r_o_u_p _n_a_m_e|_#_g_i_d] [--pp _p_r_o_m_p_t]
       [--uu _u_s_e_r_n_a_m_e|_#_u_i_d]

       ssuuddoo --ll[[ll]] [--AAkknnSS] [--aa _a_u_t_h___t_y_p_e] [--gg _g_r_o_u_p _n_a_m_e|_#_g_i_d] [--pp _p_r_o_m_p_t]
       [--UU _u_s_e_r _n_a_m_e] [--uu _u_s_e_r _n_a_m_e|_#_u_i_d] [_c_o_m_m_a_n_d]

       ssuuddoo [--AAbbEEHHnnPPSS] [--aa _a_u_t_h___t_y_p_e] [--CC _f_d] [--cc _c_l_a_s_s|_-]
       [--gg _g_r_o_u_p _n_a_m_e|_#_g_i_d] [--pp _p_r_o_m_p_t] [--rr _r_o_l_e] [--tt _t_y_p_e]
       [--uu _u_s_e_r _n_a_m_e|_#_u_i_d] [VVAARR=_v_a_l_u_e] [--ii | --ss] [_c_o_m_m_a_n_d]

       ssuuddooeeddiitt [--AAnnSS] [--aa _a_u_t_h___t_y_p_e] [--CC _f_d] [--cc _c_l_a_s_s|_-]
       [--gg _g_r_o_u_p _n_a_m_e|_#_g_i_d] [--pp _p_r_o_m_p_t] [--uu _u_s_e_r _n_a_m_e|_#_u_i_d] file ...

       ssuuddoo allows a permitted user to execute a _c_o_m_m_a_n_d as the superuser or
       another user, as specified in the _s_u_d_o_e_r_s file.  The real and effective
       uid and gid are set to match those of the target user as specified in
       the passwd file and the group vector is initialized based on the group
       file (unless the --PP option was specified).  If the invoking user is
       root or if the target user is the same as the invoking user, no
       password is required.  Otherwise, ssuuddoo requires that users authenticate
       themselves with a password by default (NOTE: in the default
       configuration this is the user's password, not the root password).
       Once a user has been authenticated, a time stamp is updated and the
       user may then use sudo without a password for a short period of time (5
       minutes unless overridden in _s_u_d_o_e_r_s).

       When invoked as ssuuddooeeddiitt, the --ee option (described below), is implied.

       ssuuddoo determines who is an authorized user by consulting the file
       _/_e_t_c_/_s_u_d_o_e_r_s.  By running ssuuddoo with the --vv option, a user can update
       the time stamp without running a _c_o_m_m_a_n_d.  If a password is required,
       ssuuddoo will exit if the user's password is not entered within a
       configurable time limit.  The default password prompt timeout is 5

       If a user who is not listed in the _s_u_d_o_e_r_s file tries to run a command
       via ssuuddoo, mail is sent to the proper authorities, as defined at
       configure time or in the _s_u_d_o_e_r_s file (defaults to root).  Note that
       the mail will not be sent if an unauthorized user tries to run sudo
       with the --ll or --vv option.  This allows users to determine for
       themselves whether or not they are allowed to use ssuuddoo.

       If ssuuddoo is run by root and the SUDO_USER environment variable is set,
       ssuuddoo will use this value to determine who the actual user is.  This can
       be used by a user to log commands through sudo even when a root shell
       has been invoked.  It also allows the --ee option to remain useful even
       when being run via a sudo-run script or program.  Note however, that

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       the sudoers lookup is still done for root, not the user specified by

       ssuuddoo can log both successful and unsuccessful attempts (as well as
       errors) to _s_y_s_l_o_g(3), a log file, or both.  By default ssuuddoo will log
       via _s_y_s_l_o_g(3) but this is changeable at configure time or via the
       _s_u_d_o_e_r_s file.

       ssuuddoo accepts the following command line options:

       -A          Normally, if ssuuddoo requires a password, it will read it from
                   the current terminal.  If the --AA (_a_s_k_p_a_s_s) option is
                   specified, a (possibly graphical) helper program is
                   executed to read the user's password and output the
                   password to the standard output.  If the SUDO_ASKPASS
                   environment variable is set, it specifies the path to the
                   helper program.  Otherwise, the value specified by the
                   _a_s_k_p_a_s_s option in _s_u_d_o_e_r_s(4) is used.

       -a _t_y_p_e     The --aa (_a_u_t_h_e_n_t_i_c_a_t_i_o_n _t_y_p_e) option causes ssuuddoo to use the
                   specified authentication type when validating the user, as
                   allowed by _/_e_t_c_/_l_o_g_i_n_._c_o_n_f.  The system administrator may
                   specify a list of sudo-specific authentication methods by
                   adding an "auth-sudo" entry in _/_e_t_c_/_l_o_g_i_n_._c_o_n_f.  This
                   option is only available on systems that support BSD

       -b          The --bb (_b_a_c_k_g_r_o_u_n_d) option tells ssuuddoo to run the given
                   command in the background.  Note that if you use the --bb
                   option you cannot use shell job control to manipulate the

       -C _f_d       Normally, ssuuddoo will close all open file descriptors other
                   than standard input, standard output and standard error.
                   The --CC (_c_l_o_s_e _f_r_o_m) option allows the user to specify a
                   starting point above the standard error (file descriptor
                   three).  Values less than three are not permitted.  This
                   option is only available if the administrator has enabled
                   the _c_l_o_s_e_f_r_o_m___o_v_e_r_r_i_d_e option in _s_u_d_o_e_r_s(4).

       -c _c_l_a_s_s    The --cc (_c_l_a_s_s) option causes ssuuddoo to run the specified
                   command with resources limited by the specified login
                   class.  The _c_l_a_s_s argument can be either a class name as
                   defined in _/_e_t_c_/_l_o_g_i_n_._c_o_n_f, or a single '-' character.
                   Specifying a _c_l_a_s_s of - indicates that the command should
                   be run restricted by the default login capabilities for the
                   user the command is run as.  If the _c_l_a_s_s argument
                   specifies an existing user class, the command must be run
                   as root, or the ssuuddoo command must be run from a shell that
                   is already root.  This option is only available on systems
                   with BSD login classes.

       -E          The --EE (_p_r_e_s_e_r_v_e _e_n_v_i_r_o_n_m_e_n_t) option will override the

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                   _e_n_v___r_e_s_e_t option in _s_u_d_o_e_r_s(4)).  It is only available when
                   either the matching command has the SETENV tag or the
                   _s_e_t_e_n_v option is set in _s_u_d_o_e_r_s(4).

       -e          The --ee (_e_d_i_t) option indicates that, instead of running a
                   command, the user wishes to edit one or more files.  In
                   lieu of a command, the string "sudoedit" is used when
                   consulting the _s_u_d_o_e_r_s file.  If the user is authorized by
                   _s_u_d_o_e_r_s the following steps are taken:

                   1.  Temporary copies are made of the files to be edited
                       with the owner set to the invoking user.

                   2.  The editor specified by the SUDO_EDITOR, VISUAL or
                       EDITOR environment variables is run to edit the
                       temporary files.  If none of SUDO_EDITOR, VISUAL or
                       EDITOR are set, the first program listed in the _e_d_i_t_o_r
                       _s_u_d_o_e_r_s variable is used.

                   3.  If they have been modified, the temporary files are
                       copied back to their original location and the
                       temporary versions are removed.

                   If the specified file does not exist, it will be created.
                   Note that unlike most commands run by ssuuddoo, the editor is
                   run with the invoking user's environment unmodified.  If,
                   for some reason, ssuuddoo is unable to update a file with its
                   edited version, the user will receive a warning and the
                   edited copy will remain in a temporary file.

       -g _g_r_o_u_p    Normally, ssuuddoo sets the primary group to the one specified
                   by the passwd database for the user the command is being
                   run as (by default, root).  The --gg (_g_r_o_u_p) option causes
                   ssuuddoo to run the specified command with the primary group
                   set to _g_r_o_u_p.  To specify a _g_i_d instead of a _g_r_o_u_p _n_a_m_e,
                   use _#_g_i_d.  When running commands as a _g_i_d, many shells
                   require that the '#' be escaped with a backslash ('\').  If
                   no --uu option is specified, the command will be run as the
                   invoking user (not root).  In either case, the primary
                   group will be set to _g_r_o_u_p.

       -H          The --HH (_H_O_M_E) option sets the HOME environment variable to
                   the homedir of the target user (root by default) as
                   specified in _p_a_s_s_w_d(4).  The default handling of the HOME
                   environment variable depends on _s_u_d_o_e_r_s(4) settings.  By
                   default, ssuuddoo will set HOME if _e_n_v___r_e_s_e_t or _a_l_w_a_y_s___s_e_t___h_o_m_e
                   are set, or if _s_e_t___h_o_m_e is set and the --ss option is
                   specified on the command line.

       -h          The --hh (_h_e_l_p) option causes ssuuddoo to print a usage message
                   and exit.

       -i [command]
                   The --ii (_s_i_m_u_l_a_t_e _i_n_i_t_i_a_l _l_o_g_i_n) option runs the shell

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                   specified in the _p_a_s_s_w_d(4) entry of the target user as a
                   login shell.  This means that login-specific resource files
                   such as .profile or .login will be read by the shell.  If a
                   command is specified, it is passed to the shell for
                   execution.  Otherwise, an interactive shell is executed.
                   ssuuddoo attempts to change to that user's home directory
                   before running the shell.  It also initializes the
                   environment, leaving _D_I_S_P_L_A_Y and _T_E_R_M unchanged, setting
                   _H_O_M_E, _M_A_I_L, _S_H_E_L_L, _U_S_E_R, _L_O_G_N_A_M_E, and _P_A_T_H, as well as the
                   contents of _/_e_t_c_/_e_n_v_i_r_o_n_m_e_n_t on Linux and AIX systems.  All
                   other environment variables are removed.

       -K          The --KK (sure _k_i_l_l) option is like --kk except that it removes
                   the user's time stamp entirely and may not be used in
                   conjunction with a command or other option.  This option
                   does not require a password.

       -k          When used by itself, the --kk (_k_i_l_l) option to ssuuddoo
                   invalidates the user's time stamp by setting the time on it
                   to the Epoch.  The next time ssuuddoo is run a password will be
                   required.  This option does not require a password and was
                   added to allow a user to revoke ssuuddoo permissions from a
                   .logout file.

                   When used in conjunction with a command or an option that
                   may require a password, the --kk option will cause ssuuddoo to
                   ignore the user's time stamp file.  As a result, ssuuddoo will
                   prompt for a password (if one is required by _s_u_d_o_e_r_s) and
                   will not update the user's time stamp file.

       -L          The --LL (_l_i_s_t defaults) option will list the parameters that
                   may be set in a _D_e_f_a_u_l_t_s line along with a short
                   description for each.  This option will be removed from a
                   future version of ssuuddoo.

       -l[l] [_c_o_m_m_a_n_d]
                   If no _c_o_m_m_a_n_d is specified, the --ll (_l_i_s_t) option will list
                   the allowed (and forbidden) commands for the invoking user
                   (or the user specified by the --UU option) on the current
                   host.  If a _c_o_m_m_a_n_d is specified and is permitted by
                   _s_u_d_o_e_r_s, the fully-qualified path to the command is
                   displayed along with any command line arguments.  If
                   _c_o_m_m_a_n_d is specified but not allowed, ssuuddoo will exit with a
                   status value of 1.  If the --ll option is specified with an ll
                   argument (i.e. --llll), or if --ll is specified multiple times,
                   a longer list format is used.

       -n          The --nn (_n_o_n_-_i_n_t_e_r_a_c_t_i_v_e) option prevents ssuuddoo from
                   prompting the user for a password.  If a password is
                   required for the command to run, ssuuddoo will display an error
                   messages and exit.

       -P          The --PP (_p_r_e_s_e_r_v_e _g_r_o_u_p _v_e_c_t_o_r) option causes ssuuddoo to
                   preserve the invoking user's group vector unaltered.  By

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                   default, ssuuddoo will initialize the group vector to the list
                   of groups the target user is in.  The real and effective
                   group IDs, however, are still set to match the target user.

       -p _p_r_o_m_p_t   The --pp (_p_r_o_m_p_t) option allows you to override the default
                   password prompt and use a custom one.  The following
                   percent (`%') escapes are supported:

                   %H  expanded to the local host name including the domain
                       name (on if the machine's host name is fully qualified
                       or the _f_q_d_n _s_u_d_o_e_r_s option is set)

                   %h  expanded to the local host name without the domain name

                   %p  expanded to the user whose password is being asked for
                       (respects the _r_o_o_t_p_w, _t_a_r_g_e_t_p_w and _r_u_n_a_s_p_w flags in

                   %U  expanded to the login name of the user the command will
                       be run as (defaults to root)

                   %u  expanded to the invoking user's login name

                   %%  two consecutive % characters are collapsed into a
                       single % character

                   The prompt specified by the --pp option will override the
                   system password prompt on systems that support PAM unless
                   the _p_a_s_s_p_r_o_m_p_t___o_v_e_r_r_i_d_e flag is disabled in _s_u_d_o_e_r_s.

       -r _r_o_l_e     The --rr (_r_o_l_e) option causes the new (SELinux) security
                   context to have the role specified by _r_o_l_e.

       -S          The --SS (_s_t_d_i_n) option causes ssuuddoo to read the password from
                   the standard input instead of the terminal device.  The
                   password must be followed by a newline character.

       -s [command]
                   The --ss (_s_h_e_l_l) option runs the shell specified by the _S_H_E_L_L
                   environment variable if it is set or the shell as specified
                   in _p_a_s_s_w_d(4).  If a command is specified, it is passed to
                   the shell for execution.  Otherwise, an interactive shell
                   is executed.

       -t _t_y_p_e     The --tt (_t_y_p_e) option causes the new (SELinux) security
                   context to have the type specified by _t_y_p_e.  If no type is
                   specified, the default type is derived from the specified

       -U _u_s_e_r     The --UU (_o_t_h_e_r _u_s_e_r) option is used in conjunction with the
                   --ll option to specify the user whose privileges should be
                   listed.  Only root or a user with ssuuddoo ALL on the current
                   host may use this option.

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       -u _u_s_e_r     The --uu (_u_s_e_r) option causes ssuuddoo to run the specified
                   command as a user other than _r_o_o_t.  To specify a _u_i_d
                   instead of a _u_s_e_r _n_a_m_e, use _#_u_i_d.  When running commands as
                   a _u_i_d, many shells require that the '#' be escaped with a
                   backslash ('\').  Note that if the _t_a_r_g_e_t_p_w Defaults option
                   is set (see _s_u_d_o_e_r_s(4)) it is not possible to run commands
                   with a uid not listed in the password database.

       -V          The --VV (_v_e_r_s_i_o_n) option causes ssuuddoo to print the version
                   number and exit.  If the invoking user is already root the
                   --VV option will print out a list of the defaults ssuuddoo was
                   compiled with as well as the machine's local network

       -v          If given the --vv (_v_a_l_i_d_a_t_e) option, ssuuddoo will update the
                   user's time stamp, prompting for the user's password if
                   necessary.  This extends the ssuuddoo timeout for another 5
                   minutes (or whatever the timeout is set to in _s_u_d_o_e_r_s) but
                   does not run a command.

       --          The ---- option indicates that ssuuddoo should stop processing
                   command line arguments.

       Environment variables to be set for the command may also be passed on
       the command line in the form of VVAARR=_v_a_l_u_e, e.g.
       LLDD__LLIIBBRRAARRYY__PPAATTHH=_/_u_s_r_/_l_o_c_a_l_/_p_k_g_/_l_i_b.  Variables passed on the command
       line are subject to the same restrictions as normal environment
       variables with one important exception.  If the _s_e_t_e_n_v option is set in
       _s_u_d_o_e_r_s, the command to be run has the SETENV tag set or the command
       matched is ALL, the user may set variables that would overwise be
       forbidden.  See _s_u_d_o_e_r_s(4) for more information.

       Upon successful execution of a program, the exit status from ssuuddoo will
       simply be the exit status of the program that was executed.

       Otherwise, ssuuddoo quits with an exit value of 1 if there is a
       configuration/permission problem or if ssuuddoo cannot execute the given
       command.  In the latter case the error string is printed to stderr.  If
       ssuuddoo cannot _s_t_a_t(2) one or more entries in the user's PATH an error is
       printed on stderr.  (If the directory does not exist or if it is not
       really a directory, the entry is ignored and no error is printed.)
       This should not happen under normal circumstances.  The most common
       reason for _s_t_a_t(2) to return "permission denied" is if you are running
       an automounter and one of the directories in your PATH is on a machine
       that is currently unreachable.

       ssuuddoo tries to be safe when executing external commands.

       There are two distinct ways to deal with environment variables.  By
       default, the _e_n_v___r_e_s_e_t _s_u_d_o_e_r_s option is enabled.  This causes commands
       to be executed with a minimal environment containing TERM, PATH, HOME,
       SHELL, LOGNAME, USER and USERNAME in addition to variables from the

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       invoking process permitted by the _e_n_v___c_h_e_c_k and _e_n_v___k_e_e_p _s_u_d_o_e_r_s
       options.  There is effectively a whitelist for environment variables.

       If, however, the _e_n_v___r_e_s_e_t option is disabled in _s_u_d_o_e_r_s, any variables
       not explicitly denied by the _e_n_v___c_h_e_c_k and _e_n_v___d_e_l_e_t_e options are
       inherited from the invoking process.  In this case, _e_n_v___c_h_e_c_k and
       _e_n_v___d_e_l_e_t_e behave like a blacklist.  Since it is not possible to
       blacklist all potentially dangerous environment variables, use of the
       default _e_n_v___r_e_s_e_t behavior is encouraged.

       In all cases, environment variables with a value beginning with () are
       removed as they could be interpreted as bbaasshh functions.  The list of
       environment variables that ssuuddoo allows or denies is contained in the
       output of sudo -V when run as root.

       Note that the dynamic linker on most operating systems will remove
       variables that can control dynamic linking from the environment of
       setuid executables, including ssuuddoo.  Depending on the operating system
       this may include _RLD*, DYLD_*, LD_*, LDR_*, LIBPATH, SHLIB_PATH, and
       others.  These type of variables are removed from the environment
       before ssuuddoo even begins execution and, as such, it is not possible for
       ssuuddoo to preserve them.

       To prevent command spoofing, ssuuddoo checks "." and "" (both denoting
       current directory) last when searching for a command in the user's PATH
       (if one or both are in the PATH).  Note, however, that the actual PATH
       environment variable is _n_o_t modified and is passed unchanged to the
       program that ssuuddoo executes.

       ssuuddoo will check the ownership of its time stamp directory
       (_/_v_a_r_/_a_d_m_/_s_u_d_o by default) and ignore the directory's contents if it is
       not owned by root or if it is writable by a user other than root.  On
       systems that allow non-root users to give away files via _c_h_o_w_n(2), if
       the time stamp directory is located in a directory writable by anyone
       (e.g., _/_t_m_p), it is possible for a user to create the time stamp
       directory before ssuuddoo is run.  However, because ssuuddoo checks the
       ownership and mode of the directory and its contents, the only damage
       that can be done is to "hide" files by putting them in the time stamp
       dir.  This is unlikely to happen since once the time stamp dir is owned
       by root and inaccessible by any other user, the user placing files
       there would be unable to get them back out.  To get around this issue
       you can use a directory that is not world-writable for the time stamps
       (_/_v_a_r_/_a_d_m_/_s_u_d_o for instance) or create _/_v_a_r_/_a_d_m_/_s_u_d_o with the
       appropriate owner (root) and permissions (0700) in the system startup

       ssuuddoo will not honor time stamps set far in the future.  Timestamps with
       a date greater than current_time + 2 * TIMEOUT will be ignored and sudo
       will log and complain.  This is done to keep a user from creating
       his/her own time stamp with a bogus date on systems that allow users to
       give away files.

       On systems where the boot time is available, ssuuddoo will also not honor
       time stamps from before the machine booted.

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       Since time stamp files live in the file system, they can outlive a
       user's login session.  As a result, a user may be able to login, run a
       command with ssuuddoo after authenticating, logout, login again, and run
       ssuuddoo without authenticating so long as the time stamp file's
       modification time is within 5 minutes (or whatever the timeout is set
       to in _s_u_d_o_e_r_s).  When the _t_t_y___t_i_c_k_e_t_s option is enabled in _s_u_d_o_e_r_s, the
       time stamp has per-tty granularity but still may outlive the user's
       session.  On Linux systems where the devpts filesystem is used, Solaris
       systems with the devices filesystem, as well as other systems that
       utilize a devfs filesystem that monotonically increase the inode number
       of devices as they are created (such as Mac OS X), ssuuddoo is able to
       determine when a tty-based time stamp file is stale and will ignore it.
       Administrators should not rely on this feature as it is not universally

       Please note that ssuuddoo will normally only log the command it explicitly
       runs.  If a user runs a command such as sudo su or sudo sh, subsequent
       commands run from that shell will _n_o_t be logged, nor will ssuuddoo's access
       control affect them.  The same is true for commands that offer shell
       escapes (including most editors).  Because of this, care must be taken
       when giving users access to commands via ssuuddoo to verify that the
       command does not inadvertently give the user an effective root shell.
       For more information, please see the PREVENTING SHELL ESCAPES section
       in _s_u_d_o_e_r_s(4).

       ssuuddoo utilizes the following environment variables:

       EDITOR          Default editor to use in --ee (sudoedit) mode if neither
                       SUDO_EDITOR nor VISUAL is set

       MAIL            In --ii mode or when _e_n_v___r_e_s_e_t is enabled in _s_u_d_o_e_r_s, set
                       to the mail spool of the target user

       HOME            Set to the home directory of the target user if --ii or
                       --HH are specified, _e_n_v___r_e_s_e_t or _a_l_w_a_y_s___s_e_t___h_o_m_e are set
                       in _s_u_d_o_e_r_s, or when the --ss option is specified and
                       _s_e_t___h_o_m_e is set in _s_u_d_o_e_r_s

       PATH            Set to a sane value if the _s_e_c_u_r_e___p_a_t_h sudoers option
                       is set.

       SHELL           Used to determine shell to run with -s option

       SUDO_ASKPASS    Specifies the path to a helper program used to read the
                       password if no terminal is available or if the -A
                       option is specified.

       SUDO_COMMAND    Set to the command run by sudo

       SUDO_EDITOR     Default editor to use in --ee (sudoedit) mode

       SUDO_GID        Set to the group ID of the user who invoked sudo

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       SUDO_PROMPT     Used as the default password prompt

       SUDO_PS1        If set, PS1 will be set to its value for the program
                       being run

       SUDO_UID        Set to the user ID of the user who invoked sudo

       SUDO_USER       Set to the login of the user who invoked sudo

       USER            Set to the target user (root unless the --uu option is

       VISUAL          Default editor to use in --ee (sudoedit) mode if
                       SUDO_EDITOR is not set

       _/_e_t_c_/_s_u_d_o_e_r_s            List of who can run what

       _/_v_a_r_/_a_d_m_/_s_u_d_o           Directory containing time stamps

       _/_e_t_c_/_e_n_v_i_r_o_n_m_e_n_t        Initial environment for --ii mode on Linux and

       Note: the following examples assume suitable _s_u_d_o_e_r_s(4) entries.

       To get a file listing of an unreadable directory:

        $ sudo ls /usr/local/protected

       To list the home directory of user yaz on a machine where the file
       system holding ~yaz is not exported as root:

        $ sudo -u yaz ls ~yaz

       To edit the _i_n_d_e_x_._h_t_m_l file as user www:

        $ sudo -u www vi ~www/htdocs/index.html

       To view system logs only accessible to root and users in the adm group:

        $ sudo -g adm view /var/log/syslog

       To run an editor as jim with a different primary group:

        $ sudo -u jim -g audio vi ~jim/sound.txt

       To shutdown a machine:

        $ sudo shutdown -r +15 "quick reboot"

       To make a usage listing of the directories in the /home partition.
       Note that this runs the commands in a sub-shell to make the cd and file
       redirection work.

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        $ sudo sh -c "cd /home ; du -s * | sort -rn > USAGE"

       _g_r_e_p(1), _s_u(1), _s_t_a_t(2), _l_o_g_i_n___c_a_p(3), _p_a_s_s_w_d(4), _s_u_d_o_e_r_s(5),

       Many people have worked on ssuuddoo over the years; this version consists
       of code written primarily by:

               Todd C. Miller

       See the HISTORY file in the ssuuddoo distribution or visit for a short history of ssuuddoo.

       There is no easy way to prevent a user from gaining a root shell if
       that user is allowed to run arbitrary commands via ssuuddoo.  Also, many
       programs (such as editors) allow the user to run commands via shell
       escapes, thus avoiding ssuuddoo's checks.  However, on most systems it is
       possible to prevent shell escapes with ssuuddoo's _n_o_e_x_e_c functionality.
       See the _s_u_d_o_e_r_s(4) manual for details.

       It is not meaningful to run the cd command directly via sudo, e.g.,

        $ sudo cd /usr/local/protected

       since when the command exits the parent process (your shell) will still
       be the same.  Please see the EXAMPLES section for more information.

       If users have sudo ALL there is nothing to prevent them from creating
       their own program that gives them a root shell regardless of any '!'
       elements in the user specification.

       Running shell scripts via ssuuddoo can expose the same kernel bugs that
       make setuid shell scripts unsafe on some operating systems (if your OS
       has a /dev/fd/ directory, setuid shell scripts are generally safe).

       If you feel you have found a bug in ssuuddoo, please submit a bug report at

       Limited free support is available via the sudo-users mailing list, see to subscribe or search
       the archives.

       ssuuddoo is provided ``AS IS'' and any express or implied warranties,
       including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of
       merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose are disclaimed.
       See the LICENSE file distributed with ssuuddoo or for complete details.

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