.\" $NetBSD: window.1,v 1.5 1997/11/21 08:36:50 lukem Exp $ .\" .\" Copyright (c) 1985, 1990, 1993 .\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. .\" .\" This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by .\" Edward Wang at The University of California, Berkeley. .\" .\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without .\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions .\" are met: .\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. .\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the .\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. .\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software .\" must display the following acknowledgement: .\" This product includes software developed by the University of .\" California, Berkeley and its contributors. .\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors .\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software .\" without specific prior written permission. .\" .\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND .\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE .\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE .\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE .\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL .\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS .\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) .\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT .\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY .\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF .\" SUCH DAMAGE. .\" .\" @(#)window.1 8.2 (Berkeley) 12/30/93 .\" .Dd December 30, 1993 .Dt WINDOW 1 .Os BSD 4.3 .Sh NAME .Nm window .Nd window environment .Sh SYNOPSIS .Nm .Op Fl t .Op Fl f .Op Fl d .Op Fl e Ar escape-char .Op Fl c Ar command .Sh DESCRIPTION .Nm implements a window environment on .Tn ASCII terminals. .Pp A window is a rectangular portion of the physical terminal screen associated with a set of processes. Its size and position can be changed by the user at any time. Processes communicate with their window in the same way they normally interact with a terminal\-through their standard input, output, and diagnostic file descriptors. The window program handles the details of redirecting input and output to and from the windows. At any one time, only one window can receive input from the keyboard, but all windows can simultaneously send output to the display. .Pp When .Nm starts up, the commands (see long commands below) contained in the file .Pa .windowrc in the user's home directory are executed. If it does not exist, two equal sized windows spanning the terminal screen are created by default. .Pp The command line options are .Bl -tag -width Fl .It Fl t Turn on terse mode (see .Ic terse command below). .It Fl f Fast. Don't perform any startup action. .It Fl d Ignore .Pa .windowrc and create the two default windows instead. .It Fl e Ar escape-char Set the escape character to .Ar escape-char . .Ar Escape-char can be a single character, or in the form .Ic ^X where .Ar X is any character, meaning .No control\- Ns Ar X . .It Fl c Ar command Execute the string .Ar command as a long command (see below) before doing anything else. .El .Pp Windows can overlap and are framed as necessary. Each window is named by one of the digits ``1'' to ``9''. This one-character identifier, as well as a user definable label string, are displayed with the window on the top edge of its frame. A window can be designated to be in the .Ar foreground , in which case it will always be on top of all normal, non-foreground windows, and can be covered only by other foreground windows. A window need not be completely within the edges of the terminal screen. Thus a large window (possibly larger than the screen) may be positioned to show only a portion of its full size. .Pp Each window has a cursor and a set of control functions. Most intelligent terminal operations such as line and character deletion and insertion are supported. Display modes such as underlining and reverse video are available if they are supported by the terminal. In addition, similar to terminals with multiple pages of memory, each window has a text buffer which can have more lines than the window itself. .Ss Process Environment With each newly created window, a shell program is spawned with its process environment tailored to that window. Its standard input, output, and diagnostic file descriptors are bound to one end of either a pseudo-terminal .Xr (pty 4 ) or a .Ux domain socket .Xr (socketpair 4 ) . If a pseudo-terminal is used, then its special characters and modes (see .Xr stty 1 ) are copied from the physical terminal. A .Xr termcap 5 entry tailored to this window is created and passed as environment .Xr (environ 5 ) variable .Ev TERMCAP . The termcap entry contains the window's size and characteristics as well as information from the physical terminal, such as the existence of underline, reverse video, and other display modes, and the codes produced by the terminal's function keys, if any. In addition, the window size attributes of the pseudo-terminal are set to reflect the size of this window, and updated whenever it is changed by the user. In particular, the editor .Xr vi 1 uses this information to redraw its display. .Ss Operation During normal execution, .Nm can be in one of two states: conversation mode and command mode. In conversation mode, the terminal's real cursor is placed at the cursor position of a particular window--called the current window--and input from the keyboard is sent to the process in that window. The current window is always on top of all other windows, except those in foreground. In addition, it is set apart by highlighting its identifier and label in reverse video. .Pp Typing .Nm "" Ns 's escape character (normally .Ic ^P ) in conversation mode switches it into command mode. In command mode, the top line of the terminal screen becomes the command prompt window, and .Nm interprets input from the keyboard as commands to manipulate windows. .Pp There are two types of commands: short commands are usually one or two key strokes; long commands are strings either typed by the user in the command window (see the .Dq Ic \&: command below), or read from a file (see .Ic source below). .Ss Short Commands Below, .Ar \&# represents one of the digits ``1'' to ``9'' corresponding to the windows 1 to 9. .Ic ^X means .No control\- Ns Ar X , where .Ar X is any character. In particular, .Ic ^^ is .Li control\-^. .Ar Escape is the escape key, or .Ic ^\&[ . .Bl -tag -width Ds .It Ar # Select window .Ar # as the current window and return to conversation mode. .It Ic \&% Ns Ar # Select window .Ar # but stay in command mode. .It Ic ^^ Select the previous window and return to conversation mode. This is useful for toggling between two windows. .It Ic escape Return to conversation mode. .It Ic ^P Return to conversation mode and write .Ic ^P to the current window. Thus, typing two .Ic ^P Ns 's in conversation mode sends one to the current window. If the .Nm escape is changed to some other character, that character takes the place of .Ic ^P here. .It Ic ? List a short summary of commands. .It Ic ^L Refresh the screen. .It Ic q Exit .Nm "" . Confirmation is requested. .It Ic ^Z Suspend .Nm "" . .It Ic w Create a new window. The user is prompted for the positions of the upper left and lower right corners of the window. The cursor is placed on the screen and the keys ``h'', ``j'', ``k'', and ``l'' move the cursor left, down, up, and right, respectively. The keys ``H'', ``J'', ``K'', and ``L'' move the cursor to the respective limits of the screen. Typing a number before the movement keys repeats the movement that number of times. Return enters the cursor position as the upper left corner of the window. The lower right corner is entered in the same manner. During this process, the placement of the new window is indicated by a rectangular box drawn on the screen, corresponding to where the new window will be framed. Typing escape at any point cancels this command. .Pp This window becomes the current window, and is given the first available ID. The default buffer size is used (see .Ar default_nline command below). .Pp Only fully visible windows can be created this way. .It Ic c Ns Ar # Close window .Ar # . The process in the window is sent the hangup signal (see .Xr kill 1 ) . .Xr Csh 1 should handle this signal correctly and cause no problems. .It Ic m Ns Ar # Move window .Ar # to another location. A box in the shape of the window is drawn on the screen to indicate the new position of the window, and the same keys as those for the .Ic w command are used to position the box. The window can be moved partially off-screen. .It Ic M Ns Ar # Move window .Ar # to its previous position. .It Ic s Ns Ar # Change the size of window .Ar # . The user is prompted to enter the new lower right corner of the window. A box is drawn to indicate the new window size. The same keys used in .Ic w and .Ic m are used to enter the position. .It Ic S Ns Ar # Change window .Ar # to its previous size. .It Ic ^Y Scroll the current window up by one line. .It Ic ^E Scroll the current window down by one line. .It Ic ^U Scroll the current window up by half the window size. .It Ic ^D Scroll the current window down by half the window size. .It Ic ^B Scroll the current window up by the full window size. .It Ic ^F Scroll the current window down by the full window size. .It Ic h Move the cursor of the current window left by one column. .It Ic j Move the cursor of the current window down by one line. .It Ic k Move the cursor of the current window up by one line. .It Ic l Move the cursor of the current window right by one column. .It Ic y Yank. The user is prompted to enter two points within the current window. Then the content of the current window between those two points is saved in the yank buffer. .It Ic p Put. The content of the yank buffer is written to the current window as input. .It Ic ^S Stop output in the current window. .It Ic ^Q Start output in the current window. .It Ic : Enter a line to be executed as long commands. Normal line editing characters (erase character, erase word, erase line) are supported. .El .Ss Long Commands Long commands are a sequence of statements parsed much like a programming language, with a syntax similar to that of C. Numeric and string expressions and variables are supported, as well as conditional statements. .Pp There are two data types: string and number. A string is a sequence of letters or digits beginning with a letter. ``_'' and ``.'' are considered letters. Alternatively, non-alphanumeric characters can be included in strings by quoting them in ``"'' or escaping them with ``\\''. In addition, the ``\\'' sequences of C are supported, both inside and outside quotes (e.g., ``\\n'' is a new line, ``\\r'' a carriage return). For example, these are legal strings: abcde01234, "&#$^*&#", ab"$#"cd, ab\\$\\#cd, "/usr/ucb/window". .Pp A number is an integer value in one of three forms: a decimal number, an octal number preceded by ``0'', or a hexadecimal number preceded by ``0x'' or ``0X''. The natural machine integer size is used (i.e., the signed integer type of the C compiler). As in C, a non-zero number represents a boolean true. .Pp The character ``#'' begins a comment which terminates at the end of the line. .Pp A statement is either a conditional or an expression. Expression statements are terminated with a new line or ``;''. To continue an expression on the next line, terminate the first line with ``\\''. .Ss Conditional Statement .Nm has a single control structure: the fully bracketed if statement in the form .Pp .Bd -literal -offset indent -compact if <expr> then \t<statement> \t... elsif <expr> then \t<statement> \t... else \t<statement> \t... endif .Ed .Pp The .Ic else and .Ic elsif parts are optional, and the latter can be repeated any number of times. <Expr> must be numeric. .Ss Expressions Expressions in .Nm are similar to those in the C language, with most C operators supported on numeric operands. In addition, some are overloaded to operate on strings. .Pp When an expression is used as a statement, its value is discarded after evaluation. Therefore, only expressions with side effects (assignments and function calls) are useful as statements. .Pp Single valued (no arrays) variables are supported, of both numeric and string values. Some variables are predefined. They are listed below. .Pp The operators in order of increasing precedence: .Bl -tag -width Fl .It Xo .Aq Va expr1 .Ic = .Aq Va expr2 .Xc Assignment. The variable of name .Aq Va expr1 , which must be string valued, is assigned the result of .Aq Va expr2 . Returns the value of .Aq Va expr2 . .It Xo .Aq Va expr1 .Ic ? .Aq Va expr2 .Ic : .Aq Va expr3 .Xc Returns the value of .Aq Va expr2 if .Aq Va expr1 evaluates true (non-zero numeric value); returns the value of .Aq Va expr3 otherwise. Only one of .Aq Va expr2 and .Aq Va expr3 is evaluated. .Aq Va Expr1 must be numeric. .It Xo .Aq Va expr1 .Ic \&|\&| .Aq Va expr2 .Xc Logical or. Numeric values only. Short circuit evaluation is supported (i.e., if .Aq Va expr1 evaluates true, then .Aq Va expr2 is not evaluated). .It Xo .Aq Va expr1 .Ic \&&\&& .Aq Va expr2 .Xc Logical and with short circuit evaluation. Numeric values only. .It Xo .Aq Va expr1 .Ic \&| .Aq Va expr2 .Xc Bitwise or. Numeric values only. .It Xo .Aq Va expr1 .Ic ^ .Aq Va expr2 .Xc Bitwise exclusive or. Numeric values only. .It Xo .Aq Va expr1 .Ic \&& .Aq Va expr2 .Xc Bitwise and. Numeric values only. .It Xo .Aq Va expr1 .Ic == .Aq Va expr2 , .Aq Va expr1 .Ic != .Aq expr2 .Xc Comparison (equal and not equal, respectively). The boolean result (either 1 or 0) of the comparison is returned. The operands can be numeric or string valued. One string operand forces the other to be converted to a string in necessary. .It Xo .Aq Va expr1 .Ic < .Aq Va expr2 , .Aq Va expr1 .Ic > .Aq Va expr2 , .Aq Va expr1 .Ic <= .Aq Va expr2 , .Xc Less than, greater than, less than or equal to, greater than or equal to. Both numeric and string values, with automatic conversion as above. .It Xo .Aq Va expr1 .Ic << .Aq Va expr2 , .Aq Va expr1 .Ic >> .Aq Va expr2 .Xc If both operands are numbers, .Aq Va expr1 is bit shifted left (or right) by .Aq Va expr2 bits. If .Aq Va expr1 is a string, then its first (or last) .Aq Va expr2 characters are returns (if .Aq Va expr2 is also a string, then its length is used in place of its value). .It Xo .Aq Va expr1 .Ic + .Aq Va expr2 , .Aq Va expr1 .Ic - .Aq Va expr2 .Xc Addition and subtraction on numbers. For ``+'', if one argument is a string, then the other is converted to a string, and the result is the concatenation of the two strings. .It Xo .Aq Va expr1 .Ic \&* .Aq Va expr2 , .Aq Va expr1 .Ic \&/ .Aq Va expr2 , .Aq Va expr1 .Ic \&% .Aq Va expr2 .Xc Multiplication, division, modulo. Numbers only. .It Xo .Ic \- Ns Aq Va expr , .Ic ~ Ns Aq Va expr , .Ic \&! Ns Aq Va expr , .Ic \&$ Ns Aq Va expr , .Ic \&$? Ns Aq Va expr .Xc The first three are unary minus, bitwise complement and logical complement on numbers only. The operator, ``$'', takes .Aq Va expr and returns the value of the variable of that name. If .Aq Va expr is numeric with value .Ar n and it appears within an alias macro (see below), then it refers to the nth argument of the alias invocation. ``$?'' tests for the existence of the variable .Aq Va expr , and returns 1 if it exists or 0 otherwise. .It Xo .Ao Va expr Ac Ns Pq Aq Ar arglist .Xc Function call. .Aq Va Expr must be a string that is the unique prefix of the name of a builtin .Nm function or the full name of a user defined alias macro. In the case of a builtin function, .Aq Ar arglist can be in one of two forms: .Bd -literal -offset indent <expr1>, <expr2>, ... argname1 = <expr1>, argname2 = <expr2>, ... .Ed .Pp The two forms can in fact be intermixed, but the result is unpredictable. Most arguments can be omitted; default values will be supplied for them. The .Ar argnames can be unique prefixes of the argument names. The commas separating arguments are used only to disambiguate, and can usually be omitted. .Pp Only the first argument form is valid for user defined aliases. Aliases are defined using the .Ic alias builtin function (see below). Arguments are accessed via a variant of the variable mechanism (see ``$'' operator above). .Pp Most functions return value, but some are used for side effect only and so must be used as statements. When a function or an alias is used as a statement, the parentheses surrounding the argument list may be omitted. Aliases return no value. .El .Ss Builtin Functions The arguments are listed by name in their natural order. Optional arguments are in square brackets .Sq Op . Arguments that have no names are in angle brackets .Sq <> . An argument meant to be a boolean flag (often named .Ar flag ) can be one of .Ar on , .Ar off , .Ar yes , .Ar no , .Ar true , or .Ar false , with obvious meanings, or it can be a numeric expression, in which case a non-zero value is true. .Bl -tag -width Fl .It Xo .Ic alias Ns Po Bq Aq Ar string , .Bq Aq Ar string\-list Pc .Xc If no argument is given, all currently defined alias macros are listed. Otherwise, .Aq Ar string is defined as an alias, with expansion .Aq Ar string\-list > . The previous definition of .Aq Ar string , if any, is returned. Default for .Aq Ar string\-list is no change. .It Ic close Ns Pq Aq Ar window\-list Close the windows specified in .Aq Ar window\-list . If .Aq Ar window\-list is the word .Ar all , than all windows are closed. No value is returned. .It Ic cursormodes Ns Pq Bq Ar modes Set the window cursor to .Ar modes . .Ar Modes is the bitwise or of the mode bits defined as the variables .Ar m_ul (underline), .Ar m_rev (reverse video), .Ar m_blk (blinking), and .Ar m_grp (graphics, terminal dependent). Return value is the previous modes. Default is no change. For example, .Li cursor($m_rev$m_blk) sets the window cursors to blinking reverse video. .It Ic default_nline Ns Pq Bq Ar nline Set the default buffer size to .Ar nline . Initially, it is 48 lines. Returns the old default buffer size. Default is no change. Using a very large buffer can slow the program down considerably. .It Ic default_shell Ns Pq Bq Aq Ar string\-list Set the default window shell program to .Aq Ar string\-list . Returns the first string in the old shell setting. Default is no change. Initially, the default shell is taken from the environment variable .Ev SHELL . .It Ic default_smooth Ns Pq Bq Ar flag Set the default value of the .Ar smooth argument to the command .Nm (see below). The argument is a boolean flag (one of .Ar on , .Ar off , .Ar yes , .Ar no , .Ar true , .Ar false , or a number, as described above). Default is no change. The old value (as a number) is returned. The initial value is 1 (true). .It Xo .Ic echo Ns ( Op Ar window , .Bq Aq Ar string\-list ) .Xc Write the list of strings, .Aq Ar string-list , to .Nm "" , separated by spaces and terminated with a new line. The strings are only displayed in the window, the processes in the window are not involved (see .Ic write below). No value is returned. Default is the current window. .It Ic escape Ns Pq Bq Ar escapec Set the escape character to .Ar escape-char . Returns the old escape character as a one-character string. Default is no change. .Ar Escapec can be a string of a single character, or in the form .Fl ^X , meaning .No control\- Ns Ar X . .It Xo .Ic foreground Ns ( Bq Ar window , .Bq Ar flag ) .Xc Move .Nm in or out of foreground. .Ar Flag is a boolean value. The old foreground flag is returned. Default for .Nm is the current window, default for .Ar flag is no change. .It Xo .Ic label Ns ( Bq Ar window , .Bq Ar label ) .Xc Set the label of .Nm to .Ar label . Returns the old label as a string. Default for .Nm is the current window, default for .Ar label is no change. To turn off a label, set it to an empty string (""). .It Ic list Ns Pq No arguments. List the identifiers and labels of all windows. No value is returned. .It Ic select Ns Pq Bq Ar window Make .Nm the current window. The previous current window is returned. Default is no change. .It Ic source Ns Pq Ar filename Read and execute the long commands in .Ar filename . Returns \-1 if the file cannot be read, 0 otherwise. .It Ic terse Ns Pq Bq flag Set terse mode to .Ar flag . In terse mode, the command window stays hidden even in command mode, and errors are reported by sounding the terminal's bell. .Ar Flag can take on the same values as in .Ar foreground above. Returns the old terse flag. Default is no change. .It Ic unalias Ns Pq Ar alias Undefine .Ar alias . Returns -1 if .Ar alias does not exist, 0 otherwise. .It Ic unset Ns Pq Ar variable Undefine .Ar variable . Returns -1 if .Ar variable does not exist, 0 otherwise. .It Ic variables Ns Pq No arguments. List all variables. No value is returned. .It Xo .Ic window Ns ( Bq Ar row , .Bq Ar column , .Bq Ar nrow , .Bq Ar ncol , .Bq Ar nline , .Bq Ar label , .Bq Ar pty , .Bq Ar frame , .Bq Ar mapnl , .Bq Ar keepopen , .Bq Ar smooth , .Bq Ar shell ) . .Xc Open a window with upper left corner at .Ar row , .Ar column and size .Ar nrow , .Ar ncol . If .Ar nline is specified, then that many lines are allocated for the text buffer. Otherwise, the default buffer size is used. Default values for .Ar row , .Ar column , .Ar nrow , and .Ar ncol are, respectively, the upper, left-most, lower, or right-most extremes of the screen. .Ar Label is the label string. .Ar Frame , .Ar pty , and .Ar mapnl are flag values interpreted in the same way as the argument to .Ar foreground (see above); they mean, respectively, put a frame around this window (default true), allocate pseudo-terminal for this window rather than socketpair (default true), and map new line characters in this window to carriage return and line feed (default true if socketpair is used, false otherwise). Normally, a window is automatically closed when its process exits. Setting .Ar keepopen to true (default false) prevents this action. When .Ar smooth is true, the screen is updated more frequently (for this window) to produce a more terminal-like behavior. The default value of .Ar smooth is set by the .Ar default_smooth command (see above). .Ar Shell is a list of strings that will be used as the shell program to place in the window (default is the program specified by .Ar default_shell , see above). The created window's identifier is returned as a number. .It Xo .Ic write Ns ( Bq Ar window , .Bq Aq Ar string\-list ) .Xc Send the list of strings, .Aq Ar string-list , to .Nm "" , separated by spaces but not terminated with a new line. The strings are actually given to the window as input. No value is returned. Default is the current window. .El .Ss Predefined Variables These variables are for information only. Redefining them does not affect the internal operation of .Nm "" . .Bl -tag -width modes .It Ar baud The baud rate as a number between 50 and 38400. .It Ar modes The display modes (reverse video, underline, blinking, graphics) supported by the physical terminal. The value of .Ar modes is the bitwise or of some of the one bit values, .Ar m_blk , .Ar m_grp , .Ar m_rev , and .Ar m_ul (see below). These values are useful in setting the window cursors' modes (see .Ar cursormodes above). .It Ar m_blk The blinking mode bit. .It Ar m_grp The graphics mode bit (not very useful). .It Ar m_rev The reverse video mode bit. .It Ar m_ul The underline mode bit. .It Ar ncol The number of columns on the physical screen. .It Ar nrow The number of rows on the physical screen. .It Ar term The terminal type. The standard name, found in the second name field of the terminal's .Ev TERMCAP entry, is used. .Sh ENVIRONMENT .Nm utilizes these environment variables: .Ev HOME , .Ev SHELL , .Ev TERM , .Ev TERMCAP , .Ev WINDOW_ID . .Sh FILES .Bl -tag -width /dev/[pt]ty[pq]? -compact .It Pa ~/.windowrc startup command file. .It Pa /dev/[pt]ty[pq]? pseudo-terminal devices. .El .Sh HISTORY The .Nm command appeared in .Bx 4.3 . .Sh DIAGNOSTICS Should be self explanatory.