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This is, produced by makeinfo version 4.5 from

INFO-DIR-SECTION General Commands
* Screen: (screen).             Full-screen window manager.

   This file documents the `Screen' virtual terminal manager.

   Copyright (c) 1993-2003 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

   Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are
preserved on all copies.

   Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of
this manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that
the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a
permission notice identical to this one.

   Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this
manual into another language, under the above conditions for modified
versions, except that this permission notice may be stated in a
translation approved by the Foundation.

File:,  Node: Top,  Next: Overview,  Prev: (dir),  Up: (dir)


   This file documents the `Screen' virtual terminal manager, version

* Menu:

* Overview::                    Preliminary information.
* Getting Started::             An introduction to `screen'.
* Invoking Screen::             Command line options for `screen'.
* Customization::               The `.screenrc' file.
* Commands::                    List all of the commands.
* New Window::                  Running a program in a new window.
* Selecting::                   Selecting a window to display.
* Session Management::          Suspend/detach, grant access, connect sessions.
* Regions::			Split-screen commands.
* Window Settings::             Titles, logging, etc.
* Virtual Terminal::            Controlling the `screen' VT100 emulation.
* Copy and Paste::              Exchanging text between windows and sessions.
* Subprocess Execution::	I/O filtering with `exec'.
* Key Binding::                 Binding commands to keys.
* Flow Control::                Trap or pass flow control characters.
* Termcap::                     Tweaking your terminal's termcap entry.
* Message Line::                The `screen' message line.
* Logging::                     Keeping a record of your session.
* Startup::                     Functions only useful at `screen' startup.
* Miscellaneous::               Various other commands.
* String Escapes::              Inserting current information into strings
* Environment::                 Environment variables used by `screen'.
* Files::                       Files used by `screen'.
* Credits::                     Who's who of `screen'.
* Bugs::                        What to do if you find a bug.
* Installation::                Getting `screen' running on your system.
* Concept Index::               Index of concepts.
* Command Index::               Index of all `screen' commands.
* Keystroke Index::             Index of default key bindings.

File:,  Node: Overview,  Next: Getting Started,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top


   Screen is a full-screen window manager that multiplexes a physical
terminal between several processes, typically interactive shells.  Each
virtual terminal provides the functions of the DEC VT100 terminal and,
in addition, several control functions from the ISO 6429 (ECMA 48, ANSI
X3.64) and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and support for
multiple character sets).  There is a scrollback history buffer for
each virtual terminal and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows the
user to move text regions between windows.

   When `screen' is called, it creates a single window with a shell in
it (or the specified command) and then gets out of your way so that you
can use the program as you normally would.  Then, at any time, you can
create new (full-screen) windows with other programs in them (including
more shells), kill the current window, view a list of the active
windows, turn output logging on and off, copy text between windows, view
the scrollback history, switch between windows, etc.  All windows run
their programs completely independent of each other.  Programs continue
to run when their window is currently not visible and even when the
whole screen session is detached from the user's terminal.

   When a program terminates, `screen' (per default) kills the window
that contained it.  If this window was in the foreground, the display
switches to the previously displayed window; if none are left, `screen'

   Everything you type is sent to the program running in the current
window.  The only exception to this is the one keystroke that is used to
initiate a command to the window manager.  By default, each command
begins with a control-a (abbreviated `C-a' from now on), and is
followed by one other keystroke.  The command character (*note Command
Character::) and all the key bindings (*note Key Binding::) can be fully
customized to be anything you like, though they are always two
characters in length.

   `Screen' does not understand the prefix `C-' to mean control.
Please use the caret notation (`^A' instead of `C-a') as arguments to
e.g. the `escape' command or the `-e' option. `Screen' will also print
out control characters in caret notation.

   The standard way to create a new window is to type `C-a c'.  This
creates a new window running a shell and switches to that window
immediately, regardless of the state of the process running in the
current window.  Similarly, you can create a new window with a custom
command in it by first binding the command to a keystroke (in your
`.screenrc' file or at the `C-a :' command line) and then using it just
like the `C-a c' command.  In addition, new windows can be created by
running a command like:

     screen emacs prog.c

from a shell prompt within a previously created window.  This will not
run another copy of `screen', but will instead supply the command name
and its arguments to the window manager (specified in the $STY
environment variable) who will use it to create the new window.  The
above example would start the `emacs' editor (editing `prog.c') and
switch to its window.

   If `/etc/utmp' is writable by `screen', an appropriate record will
be written to this file for each window, and removed when the window is
closed.  This is useful for working with `talk', `script', `shutdown',
`rsend', `sccs' and other similar programs that use the utmp file to
determine who you are. As long as `screen' is active on your terminal,
the terminal's own record is removed from the utmp file.  *Note Login::.

File:,  Node: Getting Started,  Next: Invoking Screen,  Prev: Overview,  Up: Top

Getting Started

   Before you begin to use `screen' you'll need to make sure you have
correctly selected your terminal type, just as you would for any other
termcap/terminfo program.  (You can do this by using `tset', `qterm',
or just `set term=mytermtype', for example.)

   If you're impatient and want to get started without doing a lot more
reading, you should remember this one command: `C-a ?' (*note Key
Binding::).  Typing these two characters will display a list of the
available `screen' commands and their bindings. Each keystroke is
discussed in the section on keystrokes (*note Default Key Bindings::).
Another section (*note Customization::) deals with the contents of your

   If your terminal is a "true" auto-margin terminal (it doesn't allow
the last position on the screen to be updated without scrolling the
screen) consider using a version of your terminal's termcap that has
automatic margins turned _off_.  This will ensure an accurate and
optimal update of the screen in all circumstances.  Most terminals
nowadays have "magic" margins (automatic margins plus usable last
column).  This is the VT100 style type and perfectly suited for
`screen'.  If all you've got is a "true" auto-margin terminal `screen'
will be content to use it, but updating a character put into the last
position on the screen may not be possible until the screen scrolls or
the character is moved into a safe position in some other way. This
delay can be shortened by using a terminal with insert-character

   *Note Special Capabilities::, for more information about telling
`screen' what kind of terminal you have.

File:,  Node: Invoking Screen,  Next: Customization,  Prev: Getting Started,  Up: Top

Invoking `Screen'

   Screen has the following command-line options:

     Include _all_ capabilities (with some minor exceptions) in each
     window's termcap, even if `screen' must redraw parts of the display
     in order to implement a function.

     Adapt the sizes of all windows to the size of the display.  By
     default, `screen' may try to restore its old window sizes when
     attaching to resizable terminals (those with `WS' in their
     descriptions, e.g.  `suncmd' or some varieties of `xterm').

`-c FILE'
     Use FILE as the user's configuration file instead of the default
     of `$HOME/.screenrc'.

     Do not start `screen', but instead detach a `screen' session
     running elsewhere (*note Detach::).  `-d' has the same effect as
     typing `C-a d' from the controlling terminal for the session.
     `-D' is the equivalent to the power detach key.  If no session can
     be detached, this option is ignored.  In combination with the
     `-r'/`-R' option more powerful effects can be achieved:

    `-d -r'
          Reattach a session and if necessary detach it first.

    `-d -R'
          Reattach a session and if necessary detach  or  even create
          it first.

    `-d -RR'
          Reattach a session and if necessary detach or create it.  Use
          the first session if more than one session is available.

    `-D -r'
          Reattach a session. If necessary detach  and  logout remotely

    `-D -R'
          Attach here and now. In detail this means: If a session  is
          running, then reattach. If necessary detach and logout
          remotely first.  If it was not running create it and notify
          the user.  This is the author's favorite.

    `-D -RR'
          Attach here and now. Whatever that  means, just do it.

     _Note_: It is a good idea to check the status of your sessions
     with `screen -list' before using this option.

`-e XY'
     Set the command character to X, and the character generating a
     literal command character (when typed after the command character)
     to Y.  The defaults are `C-a' and `a', which can be specified as
     `-e^Aa'.  When creating a `screen' session, this option sets the
     default command character. In a multiuser session all users added
     will start off with this command character. But when attaching to
     an already running session, this option only changes the command
     character of the attaching user.  This option is equivalent to the
     commands `defescape' or `escape' respectively.  (*note Command

     Set flow-control to on, off, or automatic switching mode,
     respectively.  This option is equivalent to the `defflow' command
     (*note Flow Control::).

`-h NUM'
     Set the history scrollback buffer to be NUM lines high.
     Equivalent to the `defscrollback' command (*note Copy::).

     Cause the interrupt key (usually `C-c') to interrupt the display
     immediately when flow control is on.  This option is equivalent to
     the `interrupt' argument to the `defflow' command (*note Flow
     Control::). Its use is discouraged.

     Turn login mode on or off (for `/etc/utmp' updating).  This option
     is equivalent to the `deflogin' command (*note Login::).

`-ls [MATCH]'
`-list [MATCH]'
     Do not start `screen', but instead print a list of session
     identification strings (usually of the form PID.TTY.HOST; *note
     Session Name::).  Sessions marked `detached' can be resumed with
     `screen -r'.  Those marked `attached' are running and have a
     controlling terminal.  If the session runs in multiuser mode, it
     is marked `multi'.  Sessions marked as `unreachable' either live
     on a different host or are dead.  An unreachable session is
     considered dead, when its name matches either the name of the
     local host, or the specified parameter, if any.  See the `-r' flag
     for a description how to construct matches.  Sessions marked as
     `dead' should be thoroughly checked and removed.  Ask your system
     administrator if you are not sure.  Remove sessions with the
     `-wipe' option.

     Tell `screen' to turn on automatic output logging for the windows.

     Tell `screen' to ignore the `$STY' environment variable.  When
     this option is used, a new session will always be created,
     regardless of whether `screen' is being called from within another
     `screen' session or not. This flag has a special meaning in
     connection with the `-d' option:
    `-d -m'
          Start `screen' in _detached_ mode. This creates a new session
          but doesn't attach to it. This is useful for system startup

    `-D -m'
          This also starts `screen' in _detached_ mode, but doesn't fork
          a new process. The command exits if the session terminates.

     Preselect a window. This is usefull when you want to reattach to a
     specific windor or you want to send a command via the `-X' option
     to a specific window. As with screen's select commant, `-' selects
     the blank window. As a special case for reattach, `=' brings up
     the windowlist on the blank window.

     Suppress printing of error messages. In combination with `-ls' the
     exit value is set as follows: 9 indicates a directory without
     sessions. 10 indicates a directory with running but not attachable
     sessions. 11 (or more) indicates 1 (or more) usable sessions.  In
     combination with `-r' the exit value is as follows: 10 indicates
     that there is no session to resume. 12 (or more) indicates that
     there are 2 (or more) sessions to resume and you should specify
     which one to choose.  In all other cases `-q' has no effect.

     Resume a detached `screen' session.  No other options (except
     combinations with `-d' or `-D') may be specified, though the
     session name (*note Session Name::) may be needed to distinguish
     between multiple detached `screen' sessions.  The second form is
     used to connect to another user's screen session which runs in
     multiuser mode. This indicates that screen should look for
     sessions in another user's directory. This requires setuid-root.

     Resume the first appropriate detached `screen' session.  If
     successful, all other command-line options are ignored.  If no
     detached session exists, start a new session using the specified
     options, just as if `-R' had not been specified.  This option is
     set by default if screen is run as a login-shell (actually screen
     uses `-xRR' in that case).  For combinations with the `-D'/`-d'
     option see there.

     Set the default shell to be PROGRAM.  By default, `screen' uses
     the value of the environment variable `$SHELL', or `/bin/sh' if it
     is not defined.  This option is equivalent to the `shell' command
     (*note Shell::).

     Set the name of the new session to SESSIONNAME.  This option can
     be used to specify a meaningful name for the session in place of
     the default TTY.HOST suffix.  This name identifies the session for
     the `screen -list' and `screen -r' commands.  This option is
     equivalent to the `sessionname' command (*note Session Name::).

`-t NAME'
     Set the title (name) for the default shell or specified program.
     This option is equivalent to the `shelltitle' command (*note

     Run screen in UTF-8 mode. This option tells screen that your
     terminal sends and understands UTF-8 encoded characters. It also
     sets the default encoding for new windows to `utf8'.

     Print the version number.

`-wipe [MATCH]'
     List available screens like `screen -ls', but remove destroyed
     sessions instead of marking them as `dead'.  An unreachable
     session is considered dead, when its name matches either the name
     of the local host, or the explicitly given parameter, if any.  See
     the `-r' flag for a description how to construct matches.

     Attach to a session which is already attached elsewhere
     (multi-display mode).

     Send the specified command to a running screen session. You can use
     the `-d' or `-r' option to tell screen to look only for attached
     or detached screen sessions. Note that this command doesn't work
     if the session is password protected.

File:,  Node: Customization,  Next: Commands,  Prev: Invoking Screen,  Up: Top

Customizing `Screen'

   You can modify the default settings for `screen' to fit your tastes
either through a personal `.screenrc' file which contains commands to
be executed at startup, or on the fly using the `colon' command.

* Menu:

* Startup Files::               The `.screenrc' file.
* Source::                      Read commands from a file.
* Colon::                       Entering customization commands interactively.

File:,  Node: Startup Files,  Next: Source,  Up: Customization

The `.screenrc' file

   When `screen' is invoked, it executes initialization commands from
the files `.screenrc' in the user's home directory and
`/usr/local/etc/screenrc'.  These defaults can be overridden in the
following ways: For the global screenrc file `screen' searches for the
environment variable `$SYSSCREENRC' (this override feature may be
disabled at compile-time).  The user specific screenrc file is searched
for in `$SCREENRC', then ``$HOME'/.screenrc'.  The command line option
`-c' specifies which file to use (*note Invoking Screen::.  Commands in
these files are used to set options, bind commands to keys, and to
automatically establish one or more windows at the beginning of your
`screen' session.  Commands are listed one per line, with empty lines
being ignored.  A command's arguments are separated by tabs or spaces,
and may be surrounded by single or double quotes.  A `#' turns the rest
of the line into a comment, except in quotes.  Unintelligible lines are
warned about and ignored.  Commands may contain references to
environment variables.  The syntax is the shell-like `$VAR' or
`${VAR}'.  Note that this causes incompatibility with previous `screen'
versions, as now the '$'-character has to be protected with '\' if no
variable substitution is intended. A string in single-quotes is also
protected from variable substitution.

   Two configuration files are shipped as examples with your screen
distribution: `etc/screenrc' and `etc/etcscreenrc'. They contain a
number of useful examples for various commands.

File:,  Node: Source,  Next: Colon,  Prev: Startup Files,  Up: Customization


 - Command: source file
     Read and execute commands from file FILE. Source  commands may be
     nested to a maximum recursion level of ten. If FILE is not an
     absolute path and  screen  is already processing  a source
     command, the parent directory of the running source command file
     is used to search for the new command file  before screen's
     current directory.

     Note  that termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo commands only work at
     startup and reattach time, so they must be reached  via the
     default screenrc files to have an effect.

File:,  Node: Colon,  Prev: Source,  Up: Customization


   Customization can also be done online, with this command:

 - Command: colon
     (`C-a :')
     Allows you to enter `.screenrc' command lines.  Useful for
     on-the-fly modification of key bindings, specific window creation
     and changing settings.  Note that the `set' keyword no longer
     exists, as of version 3.3.  Change default settings with commands
     starting with `def'.  You might think of this as the `ex' command
     mode of `screen', with `copy' as its `vi' command mode (*note Copy
     and Paste::).

File:,  Node: Commands,  Next: New Window,  Prev: Customization,  Up: Top


   A command in `screen' can either be bound to a key, invoked from a
screenrc file, or called from the `colon' prompt (*note
Customization::).  As of version 3.3, all commands can be bound to
keys, although some may be less useful than others.  For a number of
real life working examples of the most important commands see the files
`etc/screenrc' and `etc/etcscreenrc' of your screen distribution.

   In this manual, a command definition looks like this:

- Command: command [-n] ARG1 [ARG2] ...
     This command does something, but I can't remember what.

   An argument in square brackets (`[]') is optional.  Many commands
take an argument of `on' or `off', which is indicated as STATE in the

* Menu:

* Default Key Bindings::	`screen' keyboard commands.
* Command Summary::             List of all commands.

File:,  Node: Default Key Bindings,  Next: Command Summary,  Up: Commands

Default Key Bindings

   As mentioned previously, each keyboard command consists of a `C-a'
followed by one other character.  For your convenience, all commands
that are bound to lower-case letters are also bound to their control
character counterparts (with the exception of `C-a a'; see below).
Thus, both `C-a c' and `C-a C-c' can be used to create a window.

   The following table shows the default key bindings:

`C-a ''
     Prompt for a window identifier and switch.  *Note Selecting::.

`C-a "'
     (windowlist -b)
     Present a list of all windows for selection.  *Note Selecting::.

`C-a 0...9, -'
     (select 9, select -)
     Switch to window number 0...9, or the blank window.  *Note

`C-a <Tab>'
     Switch the input focus to the next region.  *Note Regions::.

`C-a C-a'
     Toggle to the window displayed previously.  If this window does no
     longer exist, `other' has the same effect as `next'.  *Note

`C-a a'
     Send the command character (C-a) to window. See `escape' command.
     *Note Command Character::.

`C-a A'
     Allow the user to enter a title for the current window.  *Note
     Naming Windows::.

`C-a b'
`C-a C-b'
     Send a break to the tty.  *Note Break::.

`C-a B'
     Close and reopen the tty-line.  *Note Break::.

`C-a c'
`C-a C-c'
     Create a new window with a shell and switch to that window.  *Note
     Screen Command::.

`C-a C'
     Clear the screen.  *Note Clear::.

`C-a d'
`C-a C-d'
     Detach `screen' from this terminal.  *Note Detach::.

`C-a D D'
     Detach and logout.  *Note Power Detach::.

`C-a f'
`C-a C-f'
     Cycle flow among `on', `off' or `auto'.  *Note Flow::.

`C-a F'
     Resize the window to the current region size.  *Note Window Size::.

`C-a C-g'
     Toggle visual bell mode.  *Note Bell::.

`C-a h'
     Write a hardcopy of the current window to the file "hardcopy.N".
     *Note Hardcopy::.

`C-a H'
     Toggle logging of the current window to the file "screenlog.N".
     *Note Log::.

`C-a i'
`C-a C-i'
     Show info about the current window.  *Note Info::.

`C-a k'
`C-a C-k'
     Destroy the current window.  *Note Kill::.

`C-a l'
`C-a C-l'
     Fully refresh the current window.  *Note Redisplay::.

`C-a L'
     Toggle the current window's login state.  *Note Login::.

`C-a m'
`C-a C-m'
     Repeat the last message displayed in the message line.  *Note Last

`C-a M'
     (monitor) Toggle monitoring of the current window.  *Note

`C-a <SPC>'
`C-a n'
`C-a C-n'
     Switch to the next window.  *Note Selecting::.

`C-a N'
     Show the number (and title) of the current window.  *Note Number::.

`C-a p'
`C-a C-p'
`C-a C-h'
`C-a <BackSpace>'
     Switch to the previous window (opposite of `C-a n').  *Note

`C-a q'
`C-a C-q'
     Send a ^Q (ASCII XON) to the current window.  *Note XON/XOFF::.

`C-a Q'
     Delete all regions but the current one.  *Note Regions::.

`C-a r'
`C-a C-r'
     Toggle the current window's line-wrap setting (turn the current
     window's automatic margins on or off).  *Note Wrap::.

`C-a s'
`C-a C-s'
     Send a ^S (ASCII XOFF) to the current window.  *Note XON/XOFF::.

`C-a S'
     Split the current region into two new ones.  *Note Regions::.

`C-a t'
`C-a C-t'
     Show the load average and xref.  *Note Time::.

`C-a v'
     Display the version and compilation date.  *Note Version::.

`C-a C-v'
     Enter digraph.  *Note Digraph::.

`C-a w'
`C-a C-w'
     Show a list of active windows.  *Note Windows::.

`C-a W'
     Toggle between 80 and 132 columns.  *Note Window Size::.

`C-a x'
`C-a C-x'
     Lock your terminal.  *Note Lock::.

`C-a X'
     Kill the current region.  *Note Regions::.

`C-a z'
`C-a C-z'
     Suspend `screen'.  *Note Suspend::.

`C-a Z'
     Reset the virtual terminal to its "power-on" values.  *Note

`C-a .'
     Write out a `.termcap' file.  *Note Dump Termcap::.

`C-a ?'
     Show key bindings.  *Note Help::.

`C-a C-\'
     Kill all windows and terminate `screen'.  *Note Quit::.

`C-a :'
     Enter a command line.  *Note Colon::.

`C-a ['
`C-a C-['
`C-a <ESC>'
     Enter copy/scrollback mode.  *Note Copy::.

`C-a ]'
`C-a C-]'
     (paste .)
     Write the contents of the paste buffer to the stdin queue of the
     current window.  *Note Paste::.

`C-a {'
`C-a }'
     Copy and paste a previous (command) line.  *Note History::.

`C-a >'
     Write the paste buffer out to the screen-exchange file.  *Note
     Screen Exchange::.

`C-a <'
     Read the screen-exchange file into the paste buffer.  *Note Screen

`C-a ='
     Delete the screen-exchange file.  *Note Screen Exchange::.

`C-a _'
     Start/stop monitoring the current window for inactivity. *Note

`C-a ,'
     Show the copyright page.

`C-a *'
     Show the listing of attached displays.

File:,  Node: Command Summary,  Prev: Default Key Bindings,  Up: Commands

Command Summary

`acladd USERNAMES'
     Allow other users in this session.  *Note Multiuser Session::.

     Change a user's permissions.  *Note Multiuser Session::.

`acldel USERNAME'
     Disallow other user in this session.  *Note Multiuser Session::.

     Inherit permissions granted to a group leader. *Note Multiuser

`aclumask [USERS]+/-BITS ...'
     Predefine access to new windows. *Note Umask::.

`activity MESSAGE'
     Set the activity notification message.  *Note Monitor::.

`addacl USERNAMES'
     Synonym to `acladd'.  *Note Multiuser Session::.

`allpartial STATE'
     Set all windows to partial refresh.  *Note Redisplay::.

`altscreen STATE'
     Enables support for the "alternate screen" terminal capability.
     *Note Redisplay::.

`at [IDENT][#|*|%] COMMAND [ARGS]'
     Execute a command at other displays or windows.  *Note At::.

     Map attributes to colors.  *Note Attrcolor::.

`autodetach STATE'
     Automatically detach the session on SIGHUP.  *Note Detach::.

`autonuke STATE'
     Enable a clear screen to discard unwritten output.  *Note

     Define a command for the backtick string escape.  *Note Backtick::.

`bce [STATE]'
     Change background color erase.  *Note Character Processing::.

`bell_msg [MESSAGE]'
     Set the bell notification message.  *Note Bell::.

`bind [-c CLASS] KEY [COMMAND [ARGS]]'
     Bind a command to a key.  *Note Bind::.

`bindkey [OPTS] [STRING [CMD ARGS]]'
     Bind a string to a series of keystrokes. *Note Bindkey::.

     Blank the screen.  *Note Screen Saver::.

     Define a blanker program.  *Note Screen Saver::.

`break [DURATION]'
     Send a break signal to the current window.  *Note Break::.

     Specify how to generate breaks.  *Note Break::.

`bufferfile [EXCHANGE-FILE]'
     Select a file for screen-exchange.  *Note Screen Exchange::.

`c1 [STATE]'
     Change c1 code processing.  *Note Character Processing::.

`caption MODE [STRING]'
     Change caption mode and string.  *Note Regions::.

     Synonym to `aclchg'. *Note Multiuser Session::.

`charset SET'
     Change character set slot designation.  *Note Character

`chdir [DIRECTORY]'
     Change the current directory for future windows.  *Note Chdir::.

     Clear the window screen.  *Note Clear::.

     Enter a `screen' command.  *Note Colon::.

`command [-c CLASS]'
     Simulate the screen escape key.  *Note Command Character::.

`compacthist [STATE]'
     Selects compaction of trailing empty lines.  *Note Scrollback::.

`console [STATE]'
     Grab or ungrab console output.  *Note Console::.

     Enter copy mode.  *Note Copy::.

`copy_reg [KEY]'
     Removed. Use `paste' instead.  *Note Registers::.

`crlf STATE'
     Select line break behavior for copying.  *Note Line Termination::.

`debug STATE'
     Suppress/allow debugging output.  *Note Debug::.

`defautonuke STATE'
     Select default autonuke behavior.  *Note Autonuke::.

`defbce STATE'
     Select background color erase.  *Note Character Processing::.

     Specify the default for generating breaks.  *Note Break::.

`defc1 STATE'
     Select default c1 processing behavior.  *Note Character

`defcharset [SET]'
     Change defaul character set slot designation.  *Note Character

`defencoding ENC'
     Select default window encoding.  *Note Character Processing::.

`defescape XY'
     Set the default command and `meta' characters.  *Note Command

`defflow FSTATE'
     Select default flow control behavior.  *Note Flow::.

`defgr STATE'
     Select default GR processing behavior.  *Note Character

`defhstatus [STATUS]'
     Select default window hardstatus line.  *Note Hardstatus::.

`deflog STATE'
     Select default window logging behavior.  *Note Log::.

`deflogin STATE'
     Select default utmp logging behavior.  *Note Login::.

`defmode MODE'
     Select default file mode for ptys.  *Note Mode::.

`defmonitor STATE'
     Select default activity monitoring behavior.  *Note Monitor::.

`defnonblock STATE|NUMSECS'
     Select default nonblock mode.  *Note Nonblock::.

`defobuflimit LIMIT'
     Select default output buffer limit.  *Note Obuflimit::.

`defscrollback NUM'
     Set default lines of scrollback.  *Note Scrollback::.

`defshell COMMAND'
     Set the default program for new windows.  *Note Shell::.

`defsilence STATE'
     Select default idle monitoring behavior.  *Note Silence::.

`defslowpaste MSEC'
     Select the default inter-character timeout when pasting.  *Note

`defutf8 STATE'
     Select default character encoding.  *Note Character Processing::.

`defwrap STATE'
     Set default line-wrapping behavior.  *Note Wrap::.

`defwritelock ON|OFF|AUTO'
     Set default writelock behavior.  *Note Multiuser Session::.

`defzombie [KEYS]'
     Keep dead windows.  *Note Zombie::.

`detach [-h]'
     Disconnect `screen' from the terminal.  *Note Detach::.

     Enter digraph sequence.  *Note Digraph::.

     Display terminal information.  *Note Info::.

     List currently active user interfaces. *Note Displays::.

     Write the window's termcap entry to a file.  *Note Dump Termcap::.

`echo [-n] MESSAGE'
     Display a message on startup.  *Note Startup::.

`encoding ENC [DENC]'
     Set the encoding of a window.  *Note Character Processing::.

`escape XY'
     Set the command and `meta' characters.  *Note Command Character::.

`eval COMMAND1 [COMMAND2 ...]'
     Parse and execute each argument. *Note Eval::.

`exec [[FDPAT] COMMAND [ARGS ...]]'
     Run a subprocess (filter).  *Note Exec::.

     Change window size to current display size.  *Note Window Size::.

`flow [FSTATE]'
     Set flow control behavior.  *Note Flow::.

     Move focus to next region.  *Note Regions::.

`gr [STATE]'
     Change GR charset processing.  *Note Character Processing::.

`hardcopy [-h] [FILE]'
     Write out the contents of the current window.  *Note Hardcopy::.

`hardcopy_append STATE'
     Append to hardcopy files.  *Note Hardcopy::.

`hardcopydir DIRECTORY'
     Place, where to dump hardcopy files.  *Note Hardcopy::.

`hardstatus [STATE]'
     Use the hardware status line.  *Note Hardware Status Line::.

`height [LINES [COLS]]'
     Set display height.  *Note Window Size::.

`help [-c CLASS]'
     Display current key bindings.  *Note Help::.

     Find previous command beginning ....  *Note History::.

`hstatus STATUS'
     Change the window's hardstatus line.  *Note Hardstatus::.

     Define a screen saver command.  *Note Screen Saver::.

`ignorecase [STATE]'
     Ignore character case in searches.  *Note Searching::.

     Display window settings.  *Note Info::.

`ins_reg [KEY]'
     Removed, use `paste' instead.  *Note Registers::.

     Destroy the current window.  *Note Kill::.

     Redisplay the last message.  *Note Last Message::.

     Display licensing information.  *Note Startup::.

     Lock the controlling terminal.  *Note Lock::.

`log [STATE]'
     Log all output in the current window.  *Note Log::.

`logfile FILENAME'
     Place where to collect logfiles.  *Note Log::.

`login [STATE]'
     Log the window in `/etc/utmp'.  *Note Login::.

`logtstamp [STATE]'
     Configure logfile time-stamps.  *Note Log::.

     Use only the default mapping table for the next keystroke.  *Note
     Bindkey Control::.

     Don't try to do keymapping on the next keystroke.  *Note Bindkey

`maptimeout TIMO'
     Set the inter-character timeout used for keymapping. *Note Bindkey

`markkeys STRING'
     Rebind keys in copy mode.  *Note Copy Mode Keys::.

`maxwin N'
     Set the maximum window number. *Note Maxwin::.

     Insert the command character.  *Note Command Character::.

`monitor [STATE]'
     Monitor activity in window.  *Note Monitor::.

`msgminwait SEC'
     Set minimum message wait.  *Note Message Wait::.

`msgwait SEC'
     Set default message wait.  *Note Message Wait::.

`multiuser STATE'
     Go into single or multi user mode. *Note Multiuser Session::.

`nethack STATE'
     Use `nethack'-like error messages.  *Note Nethack::.

     Switch to the next window.  *Note Selecting::.

`nonblock [STATE|NUMSECS]'
     Disable flow control to the current display. *Note

`number [N]'
     Change/display the current window's number.  *Note Number::.

`obuflimit [LIMIT]'
     Select output buffer limit.  *Note Obuflimit::.

     Kill all other regions.  *Note Regions::.

     Switch to the window you were in last.  *Note Selecting::.

`partial STATE'
     Set window to partial refresh.  *Note Redisplay::.

`password [CRYPTED_PW]'
     Set reattach password.  *Note Detach::.

`paste [SRC_REGS [DEST_REG]]'
     Paste contents of paste buffer or registers somewhere.  *Note

`pastefont [STATE]'
     Include font information in the paste buffer.  *Note Paste::.

     Close and Reopen the window's terminal.  *Note Break::.

     Detach and hang up.  *Note Power Detach::.

`pow_detach_msg [MESSAGE]'
     Set message displayed on `pow_detach'.  *Note Power Detach::.

     Switch to the previous window.  *Note Selecting::.

`printcmd [CMD]'
     Set a command for VT100 printer port emulation.  *Note Printcmd::.

`process [KEY]'
     Treat a register as input to `screen'.  *Note Registers::.

     Kill all windows and exit.  *Note Quit::.

`readbuf [-e ENCODING] [FILENAME]'
     Read the paste buffer from the screen-exchange file.  *Note Screen

`readreg [-e ENCODING] [REG [FILE]]'
     Load a register from paste buffer or file.  *Note Registers::.

     Redisplay the current window.  *Note Redisplay::.

`register [-e ENCODING] KEY STRING'
     Store a string to a register.  *Note Registers::.

     Kill current region.  *Note Regions::.

     Delete the screen-exchange file.  *Note Screen Exchange::.

     Reset the terminal settings for the window.  *Note Reset::.

`resize [(+/-)lines]'
     Grow or shrink a region

`screen [OPTS] [N] [CMD [ARGS]]'
     Create a new window.  *Note Screen Command::.

`scrollback NUM'
     Set size of scrollback buffer.  *Note Scrollback::.

`select [N]'
     Switch to a specified window.  *Note Selecting::.

`sessionname [NAME]'
     Name this session.  *Note Session Name::.

`setenv [VAR [STRING]]'
     Set an environment variable for new windows.  *Note Setenv::.

`setsid STATE'
     Controll process group creation for windows.  *Note Setsid::.

`shell COMMAND'
     Set the default program for new windows.  *Note Shell::.

`shelltitle TITLE'
     Set the default name for new windows.  *Note Shell::.

`silence [STATE|SECONDS]'
     Monitor a window for inactivity.  *Note Silence::.

`silencewait SECONDS'
     Default timeout to trigger an inactivity notify.  *Note Silence::.

`sleep NUM'
     Pause during startup.  *Note Startup::.

`slowpaste MSEC'
     Slow down pasting in windows.  *Note Paste::.

`source FILE'
     Run commands from a file.  *Note Source::.

`sorendition [ATTR [COLOR]]'
     Change text highlighting.  *Note Sorendition::.

     Split region into two parts.  *Note Regions::.

`startup_message STATE'
     Display copyright notice on startup.  *Note Startup::.

`stuff STRING'
     Stuff a string in the input buffer of a window.  *Note Paste::.

     Identify a user. *Note Multiuser Session::.

     Put session in background.  *Note Suspend::.

`term TERM'
     Set `$TERM' for new windows.  *Note Term::.

     Tweak termcap entries for best performance.  *Note Termcap

     Ditto, for terminfo systems.  *Note Termcap Syntax::.

     Ditto, for both systems.  *Note Termcap Syntax::.

`time [STRING]'
     Display time and load average.  *Note Time::.

     Set the name of the current window.  *Note Title Command::.

`umask [USERS]+/-BITS ...'
     Synonym to `aclumask'. *Note Umask::.

`unsetenv VAR'
     Unset environment variable for new windows.  *Note Setenv::.

`utf8 [STATE [DSTATE]]'
     Select character encoding of the current window.  *Note Character

`vbell [STATE]'
     Use visual bell.  *Note Bell::.

`vbell_msg [MESSAGE]'
     Set vbell message.  *Note Bell::.

`vbellwait SEC'
     Set delay for vbell message.  *Note Bell::.

     Display `screen' version.  *Note Version::.

`wall MESSAGE'
     Write a message to all displays.  *Note Multiuser Session::.

`width [COLS [LINES]]'
     Set the width of the window.  *Note Window Size::.

`windowlist [-b] | string [STRING] | title [TITLE]'
     Present a list of all windows for selection.  *Note Windowlist::.

     List active windows.  *Note Windows::.

`wrap [STATE]'
     Control line-wrap behavior.  *Note Wrap::.

`writebuf [-e ENCODING] [FILENAME]'
     Write paste buffer to screen-exchange file.  *Note Screen

`writelock ON|OFF|AUTO'
     Grant exclusive write permission.  *Note Multiuser Session::.

     Send an XOFF character.  *Note XON/XOFF::.

     Send an XON character.  *Note XON/XOFF::.

`zmodem [off|auto|catch|pass]'
     Define how screen treats zmodem requests.  *Note Zmodem::.

`zombie [KEYS]'
     Keep dead windows.  *Note Zombie::.

File:,  Node: New Window,  Next: Selecting,  Prev: Commands,  Up: Top

New Window

   This section describes the commands for creating a new window for
running programs.  When a new window is created, the first available
number from the range 0...9 is assigned to it.  The number of windows
is limited at compile-time by the MAXWIN configuration parameter.

* Menu:

* Chdir::                       Change the working directory for new windows.
* Screen Command::              Create a new window.
* Setenv::                      Set environment variables for new windows.
* Shell::                       Parameters for shell windows.
* Term::                        Set the terminal type for new windows.
* Window Types::                Creating different types of windows.

File:,  Node: Chdir,  Next: Screen Command,  Up: New Window


 - Command: chdir [directory]
     Change the current directory of `screen' to the specified directory
     or, if called without an argument, to your home directory (the
     value of the environment variable `$HOME').  All windows that are
     created by means of the `screen' command from within `.screenrc'
     or by means of `C-a : screen ...' or `C-a c' use this as their
     default directory.  Without a `chdir' command, this would be the
     directory from which `screen' was invoked.  Hardcopy and log files
     are always written to the _window's_ default directory, _not_ the
     current directory of the process running in the window.  You can
     use this command multiple times in your `.screenrc' to start
     various windows in different default directories, but the last
     `chdir' value will affect all the windows you create interactively.

File:,  Node: Screen Command,  Next: Setenv,  Prev: Chdir,  Up: New Window

Screen Command

 - Command: screen [opts] [n] [cmd [args]]
     (`C-a c', `C-a C-c')
     Establish a new window.  The flow-control options (`-f', `-fn' and
     `-fa'), title option (`-t'), login options (`-l' and `-ln') ,
     terminal type option (`-T TERM'), the all-capability-flag (`-a')
     and scrollback option (`-h NUM') may be specified with each
     command.  The option (`-M') turns monitoring on for this window.
     The option (`-L') turns output logging on for this window.  If an
     optional number N in the range 0...9 is given, the window number N
     is assigned to the newly created window (or, if this number is
     already in-use, the next available number).  If a command is
     specified after `screen', this command (with the given arguments)
     is started in the window; otherwise, a shell is created.

     Screen has built in some functionality of `cu' and `telnet'.
     *Note Window Types::.

   Thus, if your `.screenrc' contains the lines

     # example for .screenrc:
     screen 1
     screen -fn -t foobar 2 -L telnet foobar

`screen' creates a shell window (in window #1) and a window with a
TELNET connection to the machine foobar (with no flow-control using the
title `foobar' in window #2) and will write a logfile `screenlog.2' of
the telnet session.  If you do not include any `screen' commands in
your `.screenrc' file, then `screen' defaults to creating a single
shell window, number zero.  When the initialization is completed,
`screen' switches to the last window specified in your .screenrc file
or, if none, it opens default window #0.

File:,  Node: Setenv,  Next: Shell,  Prev: Screen Command,  Up: New Window


 - Command: setenv var string
     Set the environment variable VAR to value STRING.  If only VAR is
     specified, the user will be prompted to enter a value.  If no
     parameters are specified, the user will be prompted for both
     variable and value. The environment is inherited by all
     subsequently forked shells.

 - Command: unsetenv var
     Unset an environment variable.

File:,  Node: Shell,  Next: Term,  Prev: Setenv,  Up: New Window


 - Command: shell command
 - Command: defshell command
     Set the command to be used to create a new shell.  This overrides
     the value of the environment variable `$SHELL'.  This is useful if
     you'd like to run a tty-enhancer which is expecting to execute the
     program specified in `$SHELL'.  If the command begins with a `-'
     character, the shell will be started as a login-shell.

     `defshell' is currently a synonym to the `shell' command.

 - Command: shelltitle title
     Set the title for all shells created during startup or by the C-a
     C-c command.  *Note Naming Windows::, for details about what
     titles are.

File:,  Node: Term,  Next: Window Types,  Prev: Shell,  Up: New Window


 - Command: term term
     In each window `screen' opens, it sets the `$TERM' variable to
     `screen' by default, unless no description for `screen' is
     installed in the local termcap or terminfo data base.  In that
     case it pretends that the terminal emulator is `vt100'.  This
     won't do much harm, as `screen' is VT100/ANSI compatible.  The use
     of the `term' command is discouraged for non-default purpose.
     That is, one may want to specify special `$TERM' settings (e.g.
     vt100) for the next `screen rlogin othermachine' command. Use the
     command `screen -T vt100 rlogin othermachine' rather than setting
     and resetting the default.