pp_hot.c   [plain text]


/*    pp_hot.c
 *
 *    Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999,
 *    2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, by Larry Wall and others
 *
 *    You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
 *    License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
 *
 */

/*
 * Then he heard Merry change the note, and up went the Horn-cry of Buckland,
 * shaking the air.
 *
 *            Awake!  Awake!  Fear, Fire, Foes!  Awake!
 *                     Fire, Foes!  Awake!
 */

#include "EXTERN.h"
#define PERL_IN_PP_HOT_C
#include "perl.h"

/* Hot code. */

#ifdef USE_5005THREADS
static void unset_cvowner(pTHX_ void *cvarg);
#endif /* USE_5005THREADS */

PP(pp_const)
{
    dSP;
    XPUSHs(cSVOP_sv);
    RETURN;
}

PP(pp_nextstate)
{
    PL_curcop = (COP*)PL_op;
    TAINT_NOT;		/* Each statement is presumed innocent */
    PL_stack_sp = PL_stack_base + cxstack[cxstack_ix].blk_oldsp;
    FREETMPS;
    return NORMAL;
}

PP(pp_gvsv)
{
    dSP;
    EXTEND(SP,1);
    if (PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO)
	PUSHs(save_scalar(cGVOP_gv));
    else
	PUSHs(GvSV(cGVOP_gv));
    RETURN;
}

PP(pp_null)
{
    return NORMAL;
}

PP(pp_setstate)
{
    PL_curcop = (COP*)PL_op;
    return NORMAL;
}

PP(pp_pushmark)
{
    PUSHMARK(PL_stack_sp);
    return NORMAL;
}

PP(pp_stringify)
{
    dSP; dTARGET;
    sv_copypv(TARG,TOPs);
    SETTARG;
    RETURN;
}

PP(pp_gv)
{
    dSP;
    XPUSHs((SV*)cGVOP_gv);
    RETURN;
}

PP(pp_and)
{
    dSP;
    if (!SvTRUE(TOPs))
	RETURN;
    else {
	--SP;
	RETURNOP(cLOGOP->op_other);
    }
}

PP(pp_sassign)
{
    dSP; dPOPTOPssrl;

    if (PL_op->op_private & OPpASSIGN_BACKWARDS) {
	SV *temp;
	temp = left; left = right; right = temp;
    }
    if (PL_tainting && PL_tainted && !SvTAINTED(left))
	TAINT_NOT;
    SvSetMagicSV(right, left);
    SETs(right);
    RETURN;
}

PP(pp_cond_expr)
{
    dSP;
    if (SvTRUEx(POPs))
	RETURNOP(cLOGOP->op_other);
    else
	RETURNOP(cLOGOP->op_next);
}

PP(pp_unstack)
{
    I32 oldsave;
    TAINT_NOT;		/* Each statement is presumed innocent */
    PL_stack_sp = PL_stack_base + cxstack[cxstack_ix].blk_oldsp;
    FREETMPS;
    oldsave = PL_scopestack[PL_scopestack_ix - 1];
    LEAVE_SCOPE(oldsave);
    return NORMAL;
}

PP(pp_concat)
{
  dSP; dATARGET; tryAMAGICbin(concat,opASSIGN);
  {
    dPOPTOPssrl;
    STRLEN llen;
    char* lpv;
    bool lbyte;
    STRLEN rlen;
    char* rpv = SvPV(right, rlen);	/* mg_get(right) happens here */
    bool rbyte = !SvUTF8(right), rcopied = FALSE;

    if (TARG == right && right != left) {
	right = sv_2mortal(newSVpvn(rpv, rlen));
	rpv = SvPV(right, rlen);	/* no point setting UTF8 here */
	rcopied = TRUE;
    }

    if (TARG != left) {
	lpv = SvPV(left, llen);		/* mg_get(left) may happen here */
	lbyte = !SvUTF8(left);
	sv_setpvn(TARG, lpv, llen);
	if (!lbyte)
	    SvUTF8_on(TARG);
	else
	    SvUTF8_off(TARG);
    }
    else { /* TARG == left */
	if (SvGMAGICAL(left))
	    mg_get(left);		/* or mg_get(left) may happen here */
	if (!SvOK(TARG))
	    sv_setpv(left, "");
	lpv = SvPV_nomg(left, llen);
	lbyte = !SvUTF8(left);
    }

#if defined(PERL_Y2KWARN)
    if ((SvIOK(right) || SvNOK(right)) && ckWARN(WARN_Y2K) && SvOK(TARG)) {
	if (llen >= 2 && lpv[llen - 2] == '1' && lpv[llen - 1] == '9'
	    && (llen == 2 || !isDIGIT(lpv[llen - 3])))
	{
	    Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_Y2K), "Possible Y2K bug: %s",
			"about to append an integer to '19'");
	}
    }
#endif

    if (lbyte != rbyte) {
	if (lbyte)
	    sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg(TARG);
	else {
	    if (!rcopied)
		right = sv_2mortal(newSVpvn(rpv, rlen));
	    sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg(right);
	    rpv = SvPV(right, rlen);
	}
    }
    sv_catpvn_nomg(TARG, rpv, rlen);

    SETTARG;
    RETURN;
  }
}

PP(pp_padsv)
{
    dSP; dTARGET;
    XPUSHs(TARG);
    if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD) {
	if (PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO)
	    SAVECLEARSV(PAD_SVl(PL_op->op_targ));
        else if (PL_op->op_private & OPpDEREF) {
	    PUTBACK;
	    vivify_ref(PAD_SVl(PL_op->op_targ), PL_op->op_private & OPpDEREF);
	    SPAGAIN;
	}
    }
    RETURN;
}

PP(pp_readline)
{
    tryAMAGICunTARGET(iter, 0);
    PL_last_in_gv = (GV*)(*PL_stack_sp--);
    if (SvTYPE(PL_last_in_gv) != SVt_PVGV) {
	if (SvROK(PL_last_in_gv) && SvTYPE(SvRV(PL_last_in_gv)) == SVt_PVGV)
	    PL_last_in_gv = (GV*)SvRV(PL_last_in_gv);
	else {
	    dSP;
	    XPUSHs((SV*)PL_last_in_gv);
	    PUTBACK;
	    pp_rv2gv();
	    PL_last_in_gv = (GV*)(*PL_stack_sp--);
	}
    }
    return do_readline();
}

PP(pp_eq)
{
    dSP; tryAMAGICbinSET(eq,0);
#ifndef NV_PRESERVES_UV
    if (SvROK(TOPs) && SvROK(TOPm1s)) {
        SP--;
	SETs(boolSV(SvRV(TOPs) == SvRV(TOPp1s)));
	RETURN;
    }
#endif
#ifdef PERL_PRESERVE_IVUV
    SvIV_please(TOPs);
    if (SvIOK(TOPs)) {
	/* Unless the left argument is integer in range we are going
	   to have to use NV maths. Hence only attempt to coerce the
	   right argument if we know the left is integer.  */
      SvIV_please(TOPm1s);
	if (SvIOK(TOPm1s)) {
	    bool auvok = SvUOK(TOPm1s);
	    bool buvok = SvUOK(TOPs);
	
	    if (auvok == buvok) { /* ## IV == IV or UV == UV ## */
                /* Casting IV to UV before comparison isn't going to matter
                   on 2s complement. On 1s complement or sign&magnitude
                   (if we have any of them) it could to make negative zero
                   differ from normal zero. As I understand it. (Need to
                   check - is negative zero implementation defined behaviour
                   anyway?). NWC  */
		UV buv = SvUVX(POPs);
		UV auv = SvUVX(TOPs);
		
		SETs(boolSV(auv == buv));
		RETURN;
	    }
	    {			/* ## Mixed IV,UV ## */
                SV *ivp, *uvp;
		IV iv;
		
		/* == is commutative so doesn't matter which is left or right */
		if (auvok) {
		    /* top of stack (b) is the iv */
                    ivp = *SP;
                    uvp = *--SP;
                } else {
                    uvp = *SP;
                    ivp = *--SP;
                }
                iv = SvIVX(ivp);
                if (iv < 0) {
                    /* As uv is a UV, it's >0, so it cannot be == */
                    SETs(&PL_sv_no);
                    RETURN;
                }
		/* we know iv is >= 0 */
		SETs(boolSV((UV)iv == SvUVX(uvp)));
		RETURN;
	    }
	}
    }
#endif
    {
      dPOPnv;
      SETs(boolSV(TOPn == value));
      RETURN;
    }
}

PP(pp_preinc)
{
    dSP;
    if (SvTYPE(TOPs) > SVt_PVLV)
	DIE(aTHX_ PL_no_modify);
    if (!SvREADONLY(TOPs) && SvIOK_notUV(TOPs) && !SvNOK(TOPs) && !SvPOK(TOPs)
        && SvIVX(TOPs) != IV_MAX)
    {
	++SvIVX(TOPs);
	SvFLAGS(TOPs) &= ~(SVp_NOK|SVp_POK);
    }
    else /* Do all the PERL_PRESERVE_IVUV conditionals in sv_inc */
	sv_inc(TOPs);
    SvSETMAGIC(TOPs);
    return NORMAL;
}

PP(pp_or)
{
    dSP;
    if (SvTRUE(TOPs))
	RETURN;
    else {
	--SP;
	RETURNOP(cLOGOP->op_other);
    }
}

PP(pp_add)
{
    dSP; dATARGET; bool useleft; tryAMAGICbin(add,opASSIGN);
    useleft = USE_LEFT(TOPm1s);
#ifdef PERL_PRESERVE_IVUV
    /* We must see if we can perform the addition with integers if possible,
       as the integer code detects overflow while the NV code doesn't.
       If either argument hasn't had a numeric conversion yet attempt to get
       the IV. It's important to do this now, rather than just assuming that
       it's not IOK as a PV of "9223372036854775806" may not take well to NV
       addition, and an SV which is NOK, NV=6.0 ought to be coerced to
       integer in case the second argument is IV=9223372036854775806
       We can (now) rely on sv_2iv to do the right thing, only setting the
       public IOK flag if the value in the NV (or PV) slot is truly integer.

       A side effect is that this also aggressively prefers integer maths over
       fp maths for integer values.

       How to detect overflow?

       C 99 section 6.2.6.1 says

       The range of nonnegative values of a signed integer type is a subrange
       of the corresponding unsigned integer type, and the representation of
       the same value in each type is the same. A computation involving
       unsigned operands can never overflow, because a result that cannot be
       represented by the resulting unsigned integer type is reduced modulo
       the number that is one greater than the largest value that can be
       represented by the resulting type.

       (the 9th paragraph)

       which I read as "unsigned ints wrap."

       signed integer overflow seems to be classed as "exception condition"

       If an exceptional condition occurs during the evaluation of an
       expression (that is, if the result is not mathematically defined or not
       in the range of representable values for its type), the behavior is
       undefined.

       (6.5, the 5th paragraph)

       I had assumed that on 2s complement machines signed arithmetic would
       wrap, hence coded pp_add and pp_subtract on the assumption that
       everything perl builds on would be happy.  After much wailing and
       gnashing of teeth it would seem that irix64 knows its ANSI spec well,
       knows that it doesn't need to, and doesn't.  Bah.  Anyway, the all-
       unsigned code below is actually shorter than the old code. :-)
    */

    SvIV_please(TOPs);
    if (SvIOK(TOPs)) {
	/* Unless the left argument is integer in range we are going to have to
	   use NV maths. Hence only attempt to coerce the right argument if
	   we know the left is integer.  */
	register UV auv = 0;
	bool auvok = FALSE;
	bool a_valid = 0;

	if (!useleft) {
	    auv = 0;
	    a_valid = auvok = 1;
	    /* left operand is undef, treat as zero. + 0 is identity,
	       Could SETi or SETu right now, but space optimise by not adding
	       lots of code to speed up what is probably a rarish case.  */
	} else {
	    /* Left operand is defined, so is it IV? */
	    SvIV_please(TOPm1s);
	    if (SvIOK(TOPm1s)) {
		if ((auvok = SvUOK(TOPm1s)))
		    auv = SvUVX(TOPm1s);
		else {
		    register IV aiv = SvIVX(TOPm1s);
		    if (aiv >= 0) {
			auv = aiv;
			auvok = 1;	/* Now acting as a sign flag.  */
		    } else { /* 2s complement assumption for IV_MIN */
			auv = (UV)-aiv;
		    }
		}
		a_valid = 1;
	    }
	}
	if (a_valid) {
	    bool result_good = 0;
	    UV result;
	    register UV buv;
	    bool buvok = SvUOK(TOPs);
	
	    if (buvok)
		buv = SvUVX(TOPs);
	    else {
		register IV biv = SvIVX(TOPs);
		if (biv >= 0) {
		    buv = biv;
		    buvok = 1;
		} else
		    buv = (UV)-biv;
	    }
	    /* ?uvok if value is >= 0. basically, flagged as UV if it's +ve,
	       else "IV" now, independent of how it came in.
	       if a, b represents positive, A, B negative, a maps to -A etc
	       a + b =>  (a + b)
	       A + b => -(a - b)
	       a + B =>  (a - b)
	       A + B => -(a + b)
	       all UV maths. negate result if A negative.
	       add if signs same, subtract if signs differ. */

	    if (auvok ^ buvok) {
		/* Signs differ.  */
		if (auv >= buv) {
		    result = auv - buv;
		    /* Must get smaller */
		    if (result <= auv)
			result_good = 1;
		} else {
		    result = buv - auv;
		    if (result <= buv) {
			/* result really should be -(auv-buv). as its negation
			   of true value, need to swap our result flag  */
			auvok = !auvok;
			result_good = 1;
		    }
		}
	    } else {
		/* Signs same */
		result = auv + buv;
		if (result >= auv)
		    result_good = 1;
	    }
	    if (result_good) {
		SP--;
		if (auvok)
		    SETu( result );
		else {
		    /* Negate result */
		    if (result <= (UV)IV_MIN)
			SETi( -(IV)result );
		    else {
			/* result valid, but out of range for IV.  */
			SETn( -(NV)result );
		    }
		}
		RETURN;
	    } /* Overflow, drop through to NVs.  */
	}
    }
#endif
    {
	dPOPnv;
	if (!useleft) {
	    /* left operand is undef, treat as zero. + 0.0 is identity. */
	    SETn(value);
	    RETURN;
	}
	SETn( value + TOPn );
	RETURN;
    }
}

PP(pp_aelemfast)
{
    dSP;
    AV *av = GvAV(cGVOP_gv);
    U32 lval = PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD;
    SV** svp = av_fetch(av, PL_op->op_private, lval);
    SV *sv = (svp ? *svp : &PL_sv_undef);
    EXTEND(SP, 1);
    if (!lval && SvGMAGICAL(sv))	/* see note in pp_helem() */
	sv = sv_mortalcopy(sv);
    PUSHs(sv);
    RETURN;
}

PP(pp_join)
{
    dSP; dMARK; dTARGET;
    MARK++;
    do_join(TARG, *MARK, MARK, SP);
    SP = MARK;
    SETs(TARG);
    RETURN;
}

PP(pp_pushre)
{
    dSP;
#ifdef DEBUGGING
    /*
     * We ass_u_me that LvTARGOFF() comes first, and that two STRLENs
     * will be enough to hold an OP*.
     */
    SV* sv = sv_newmortal();
    sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_PVLV);
    LvTYPE(sv) = '/';
    Copy(&PL_op, &LvTARGOFF(sv), 1, OP*);
    XPUSHs(sv);
#else
    XPUSHs((SV*)PL_op);
#endif
    RETURN;
}

/* Oversized hot code. */

PP(pp_print)
{
    dSP; dMARK; dORIGMARK;
    GV *gv;
    IO *io;
    register PerlIO *fp;
    MAGIC *mg;

    if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_STACKED)
	gv = (GV*)*++MARK;
    else
	gv = PL_defoutgv;

    if (gv && (io = GvIO(gv))
	&& (mg = SvTIED_mg((SV*)io, PERL_MAGIC_tiedscalar)))
    {
      had_magic:
	if (MARK == ORIGMARK) {
	    /* If using default handle then we need to make space to
	     * pass object as 1st arg, so move other args up ...
	     */
	    MEXTEND(SP, 1);
	    ++MARK;
	    Move(MARK, MARK + 1, (SP - MARK) + 1, SV*);
	    ++SP;
	}
	PUSHMARK(MARK - 1);
	*MARK = SvTIED_obj((SV*)io, mg);
	PUTBACK;
	ENTER;
	call_method("PRINT", G_SCALAR);
	LEAVE;
	SPAGAIN;
	MARK = ORIGMARK + 1;
	*MARK = *SP;
	SP = MARK;
	RETURN;
    }
    if (!(io = GvIO(gv))) {
        if ((GvEGV(gv)) && (io = GvIO(GvEGV(gv)))
	    && (mg = SvTIED_mg((SV*)io, PERL_MAGIC_tiedscalar)))
            goto had_magic;
	if (ckWARN2(WARN_UNOPENED,WARN_CLOSED))
	    report_evil_fh(gv, io, PL_op->op_type);
	SETERRNO(EBADF,RMS_IFI);
	goto just_say_no;
    }
    else if (!(fp = IoOFP(io))) {
	if (ckWARN2(WARN_CLOSED, WARN_IO))  {
	    if (IoIFP(io))
		report_evil_fh(gv, io, OP_phoney_INPUT_ONLY);
	    else if (ckWARN2(WARN_UNOPENED,WARN_CLOSED))
		report_evil_fh(gv, io, PL_op->op_type);
	}
	SETERRNO(EBADF,IoIFP(io)?RMS_FAC:RMS_IFI);
	goto just_say_no;
    }
    else {
	MARK++;
	if (PL_ofs_sv && SvOK(PL_ofs_sv)) {
	    while (MARK <= SP) {
		if (!do_print(*MARK, fp))
		    break;
		MARK++;
		if (MARK <= SP) {
		    if (!do_print(PL_ofs_sv, fp)) { /* $, */
			MARK--;
			break;
		    }
		}
	    }
	}
	else {
	    while (MARK <= SP) {
		if (!do_print(*MARK, fp))
		    break;
		MARK++;
	    }
	}
	if (MARK <= SP)
	    goto just_say_no;
	else {
	    if (PL_ors_sv && SvOK(PL_ors_sv))
		if (!do_print(PL_ors_sv, fp)) /* $\ */
		    goto just_say_no;

	    if (IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_FLUSH)
		if (PerlIO_flush(fp) == EOF)
		    goto just_say_no;
	}
    }
    SP = ORIGMARK;
    PUSHs(&PL_sv_yes);
    RETURN;

  just_say_no:
    SP = ORIGMARK;
    PUSHs(&PL_sv_undef);
    RETURN;
}

PP(pp_rv2av)
{
    dSP; dTOPss;
    AV *av;

    if (SvROK(sv)) {
      wasref:
	tryAMAGICunDEREF(to_av);

	av = (AV*)SvRV(sv);
	if (SvTYPE(av) != SVt_PVAV)
	    DIE(aTHX_ "Not an ARRAY reference");
	if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_REF) {
	    SETs((SV*)av);
	    RETURN;
	}
	else if (LVRET) {
	    if (GIMME == G_SCALAR)
		Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't return array to lvalue scalar context");
	    SETs((SV*)av);
	    RETURN;
	}
	else if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD
		&& PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO)
	    Perl_croak(aTHX_ PL_no_localize_ref);
    }
    else {
	if (SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVAV) {
	    av = (AV*)sv;
	    if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_REF) {
		SETs((SV*)av);
		RETURN;
	    }
	    else if (LVRET) {
		if (GIMME == G_SCALAR)
		    Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't return array to lvalue"
			       " scalar context");
		SETs((SV*)av);
		RETURN;
	    }
	}
	else {
	    GV *gv;
	
	    if (SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVGV) {
		char *sym;
		STRLEN len;

		if (SvGMAGICAL(sv)) {
		    mg_get(sv);
		    if (SvROK(sv))
			goto wasref;
		}
		if (!SvOK(sv)) {
		    if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_REF ||
		      PL_op->op_private & HINT_STRICT_REFS)
			DIE(aTHX_ PL_no_usym, "an ARRAY");
		    if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
			report_uninit();
		    if (GIMME == G_ARRAY) {
			(void)POPs;
			RETURN;
		    }
		    RETSETUNDEF;
		}
		sym = SvPV(sv,len);
		if ((PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL) &&
		    !(PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD))
		{
		    gv = (GV*)gv_fetchpv(sym, FALSE, SVt_PVAV);
		    if (!gv
			&& (!is_gv_magical(sym,len,0)
			    || !(gv = (GV*)gv_fetchpv(sym, TRUE, SVt_PVAV))))
		    {
			RETSETUNDEF;
		    }
		}
		else {
		    if (PL_op->op_private & HINT_STRICT_REFS)
			DIE(aTHX_ PL_no_symref, sym, "an ARRAY");
		    gv = (GV*)gv_fetchpv(sym, TRUE, SVt_PVAV);
		}
	    }
	    else {
		gv = (GV*)sv;
	    }
	    av = GvAVn(gv);
	    if (PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO)
		av = save_ary(gv);
	    if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_REF) {
		SETs((SV*)av);
		RETURN;
	    }
	    else if (LVRET) {
		if (GIMME == G_SCALAR)
		    Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't return array to lvalue"
			       " scalar context");
		SETs((SV*)av);
		RETURN;
	    }
	}
    }

    if (GIMME == G_ARRAY) {
	I32 maxarg = AvFILL(av) + 1;
	(void)POPs;			/* XXXX May be optimized away? */
	EXTEND(SP, maxarg);
	if (SvRMAGICAL(av)) {
	    U32 i;
	    for (i=0; i < (U32)maxarg; i++) {
		SV **svp = av_fetch(av, i, FALSE);
		SP[i+1] = (svp) ? *svp : &PL_sv_undef;
	    }
	}
	else {
	    Copy(AvARRAY(av), SP+1, maxarg, SV*);
	}
	SP += maxarg;
    }
    else if (GIMME_V == G_SCALAR) {
	dTARGET;
	I32 maxarg = AvFILL(av) + 1;
	SETi(maxarg);
    }
    RETURN;
}

PP(pp_rv2hv)
{
    dSP; dTOPss;
    HV *hv;
    I32 gimme = GIMME_V;

    if (SvROK(sv)) {
      wasref:
	tryAMAGICunDEREF(to_hv);

	hv = (HV*)SvRV(sv);
	if (SvTYPE(hv) != SVt_PVHV && SvTYPE(hv) != SVt_PVAV)
	    DIE(aTHX_ "Not a HASH reference");
	if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_REF) {
	    SETs((SV*)hv);
	    RETURN;
	}
	else if (LVRET) {
	    if (GIMME != G_SCALAR)
		Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't return hash to lvalue scalar context");
	    SETs((SV*)hv);
	    RETURN;
	}
	else if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD
		&& PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO)
	    Perl_croak(aTHX_ PL_no_localize_ref);
    }
    else {
	if (SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVHV || SvTYPE(sv) == SVt_PVAV) {
	    hv = (HV*)sv;
	    if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_REF) {
		SETs((SV*)hv);
		RETURN;
	    }
	    else if (LVRET) {
		if (GIMME == G_SCALAR)
		    Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't return hash to lvalue"
			       " scalar context");
		SETs((SV*)hv);
		RETURN;
	    }
	}
	else {
	    GV *gv;
	
	    if (SvTYPE(sv) != SVt_PVGV) {
		char *sym;
		STRLEN len;

		if (SvGMAGICAL(sv)) {
		    mg_get(sv);
		    if (SvROK(sv))
			goto wasref;
		}
		if (!SvOK(sv)) {
		    if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_REF ||
		      PL_op->op_private & HINT_STRICT_REFS)
			DIE(aTHX_ PL_no_usym, "a HASH");
		    if (ckWARN(WARN_UNINITIALIZED))
			report_uninit();
		    if (GIMME == G_ARRAY) {
			SP--;
			RETURN;
		    }
		    RETSETUNDEF;
		}
		sym = SvPV(sv,len);
		if ((PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL) &&
		    !(PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD))
		{
		    gv = (GV*)gv_fetchpv(sym, FALSE, SVt_PVHV);
		    if (!gv
			&& (!is_gv_magical(sym,len,0)
			    || !(gv = (GV*)gv_fetchpv(sym, TRUE, SVt_PVHV))))
		    {
			RETSETUNDEF;
		    }
		}
		else {
		    if (PL_op->op_private & HINT_STRICT_REFS)
			DIE(aTHX_ PL_no_symref, sym, "a HASH");
		    gv = (GV*)gv_fetchpv(sym, TRUE, SVt_PVHV);
		}
	    }
	    else {
		gv = (GV*)sv;
	    }
	    hv = GvHVn(gv);
	    if (PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO)
		hv = save_hash(gv);
	    if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_REF) {
		SETs((SV*)hv);
		RETURN;
	    }
	    else if (LVRET) {
		if (GIMME == G_SCALAR)
		    Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't return hash to lvalue"
			       " scalar context");
		SETs((SV*)hv);
		RETURN;
	    }
	}
    }

    if (GIMME == G_ARRAY) { /* array wanted */
	*PL_stack_sp = (SV*)hv;
	return do_kv();
    }
    else {
	dTARGET;
	if (SvTYPE(hv) == SVt_PVAV)
	    hv = avhv_keys((AV*)hv);
	if (HvFILL(hv))
            Perl_sv_setpvf(aTHX_ TARG, "%"IVdf"/%"IVdf,
			   (IV)HvFILL(hv), (IV)HvMAX(hv) + 1);
	else
	    sv_setiv(TARG, 0);
	
	SETTARG;
	RETURN;
    }
}

STATIC int
S_do_maybe_phash(pTHX_ AV *ary, SV **lelem, SV **firstlelem, SV **relem,
		 SV **lastrelem)
{
    OP *leftop;
    I32 i;

    leftop = ((BINOP*)PL_op)->op_last;
    assert(leftop);
    assert(leftop->op_type == OP_NULL && leftop->op_targ == OP_LIST);
    leftop = ((LISTOP*)leftop)->op_first;
    assert(leftop);
    /* Skip PUSHMARK and each element already assigned to. */
    for (i = lelem - firstlelem; i > 0; i--) {
	leftop = leftop->op_sibling;
	assert(leftop);
    }
    if (leftop->op_type != OP_RV2HV)
	return 0;

    /* pseudohash */
    if (av_len(ary) > 0)
	av_fill(ary, 0);		/* clear all but the fields hash */
    if (lastrelem >= relem) {
	while (relem < lastrelem) {	/* gobble up all the rest */
	    SV *tmpstr;
	    assert(relem[0]);
	    assert(relem[1]);
	    /* Avoid a memory leak when avhv_store_ent dies. */
	    tmpstr = sv_newmortal();
	    sv_setsv(tmpstr,relem[1]);	/* value */
	    relem[1] = tmpstr;
	    if (avhv_store_ent(ary,relem[0],tmpstr,0))
		(void)SvREFCNT_inc(tmpstr);
	    if (SvMAGICAL(ary) != 0 && SvSMAGICAL(tmpstr))
		mg_set(tmpstr);
	    relem += 2;
	    TAINT_NOT;
	}
    }
    if (relem == lastrelem)
	return 1;
    return 2;
}

STATIC void
S_do_oddball(pTHX_ HV *hash, SV **relem, SV **firstrelem)
{
    if (*relem) {
	SV *tmpstr;
	if (ckWARN(WARN_MISC)) {
	    if (relem == firstrelem &&
		SvROK(*relem) &&
		(SvTYPE(SvRV(*relem)) == SVt_PVAV ||
		 SvTYPE(SvRV(*relem)) == SVt_PVHV))
	    {
		Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_MISC),
			    "Reference found where even-sized list expected");
	    }
	    else
		Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_MISC),
			    "Odd number of elements in hash assignment");
	}
	if (SvTYPE(hash) == SVt_PVAV) {
	    /* pseudohash */
	    tmpstr = sv_newmortal();
	    if (avhv_store_ent((AV*)hash,*relem,tmpstr,0))
		(void)SvREFCNT_inc(tmpstr);
	    if (SvMAGICAL(hash) && SvSMAGICAL(tmpstr))
		mg_set(tmpstr);
	}
	else {
	    HE *didstore;
	    tmpstr = NEWSV(29,0);
	    didstore = hv_store_ent(hash,*relem,tmpstr,0);
	    if (SvMAGICAL(hash)) {
		if (SvSMAGICAL(tmpstr))
		    mg_set(tmpstr);
		if (!didstore)
		    sv_2mortal(tmpstr);
	    }
	}
	TAINT_NOT;
    }
}

PP(pp_aassign)
{
    dSP;
    SV **lastlelem = PL_stack_sp;
    SV **lastrelem = PL_stack_base + POPMARK;
    SV **firstrelem = PL_stack_base + POPMARK + 1;
    SV **firstlelem = lastrelem + 1;

    register SV **relem;
    register SV **lelem;

    register SV *sv;
    register AV *ary;

    I32 gimme;
    HV *hash;
    I32 i;
    int magic;

    PL_delaymagic = DM_DELAY;		/* catch simultaneous items */

    /* If there's a common identifier on both sides we have to take
     * special care that assigning the identifier on the left doesn't
     * clobber a value on the right that's used later in the list.
     */
    if (PL_op->op_private & (OPpASSIGN_COMMON)) {
	EXTEND_MORTAL(lastrelem - firstrelem + 1);
	for (relem = firstrelem; relem <= lastrelem; relem++) {
	    /*SUPPRESS 560*/
	    if ((sv = *relem)) {
		TAINT_NOT;	/* Each item is independent */
		*relem = sv_mortalcopy(sv);
	    }
	}
    }

    relem = firstrelem;
    lelem = firstlelem;
    ary = Null(AV*);
    hash = Null(HV*);

    while (lelem <= lastlelem) {
	TAINT_NOT;		/* Each item stands on its own, taintwise. */
	sv = *lelem++;
	switch (SvTYPE(sv)) {
	case SVt_PVAV:
	    ary = (AV*)sv;
	    magic = SvMAGICAL(ary) != 0;
	    if (PL_op->op_private & OPpASSIGN_HASH) {
		switch (do_maybe_phash(ary, lelem, firstlelem, relem,
				       lastrelem))
		{
		case 0:
		    goto normal_array;
		case 1:
		    do_oddball((HV*)ary, relem, firstrelem);
		}
		relem = lastrelem + 1;
		break;
	    }
	normal_array:
	    av_clear(ary);
	    av_extend(ary, lastrelem - relem);
	    i = 0;
	    while (relem <= lastrelem) {	/* gobble up all the rest */
		SV **didstore;
		sv = NEWSV(28,0);
		assert(*relem);
		sv_setsv(sv,*relem);
		*(relem++) = sv;
		didstore = av_store(ary,i++,sv);
		if (magic) {
		    if (SvSMAGICAL(sv))
			mg_set(sv);
		    if (!didstore)
			sv_2mortal(sv);
		}
		TAINT_NOT;
	    }
	    break;
	case SVt_PVHV: {				/* normal hash */
		SV *tmpstr;

		hash = (HV*)sv;
		magic = SvMAGICAL(hash) != 0;
		hv_clear(hash);

		while (relem < lastrelem) {	/* gobble up all the rest */
		    HE *didstore;
		    if (*relem)
			sv = *(relem++);
		    else
			sv = &PL_sv_no, relem++;
		    tmpstr = NEWSV(29,0);
		    if (*relem)
			sv_setsv(tmpstr,*relem);	/* value */
		    *(relem++) = tmpstr;
		    didstore = hv_store_ent(hash,sv,tmpstr,0);
		    if (magic) {
			if (SvSMAGICAL(tmpstr))
			    mg_set(tmpstr);
			if (!didstore)
			    sv_2mortal(tmpstr);
		    }
		    TAINT_NOT;
		}
		if (relem == lastrelem) {
		    do_oddball(hash, relem, firstrelem);
		    relem++;
		}
	    }
	    break;
	default:
	    if (SvIMMORTAL(sv)) {
		if (relem <= lastrelem)
		    relem++;
		break;
	    }
	    if (relem <= lastrelem) {
		sv_setsv(sv, *relem);
		*(relem++) = sv;
	    }
	    else
		sv_setsv(sv, &PL_sv_undef);
	    SvSETMAGIC(sv);
	    break;
	}
    }
    if (PL_delaymagic & ~DM_DELAY) {
	if (PL_delaymagic & DM_UID) {
#ifdef HAS_SETRESUID
	    (void)setresuid(PL_uid,PL_euid,(Uid_t)-1);
#else
#  ifdef HAS_SETREUID
	    (void)setreuid(PL_uid,PL_euid);
#  else
#    ifdef HAS_SETRUID
	    if ((PL_delaymagic & DM_UID) == DM_RUID) {
		(void)setruid(PL_uid);
		PL_delaymagic &= ~DM_RUID;
	    }
#    endif /* HAS_SETRUID */
#    ifdef HAS_SETEUID
	    if ((PL_delaymagic & DM_UID) == DM_EUID) {
		(void)seteuid(PL_uid);
		PL_delaymagic &= ~DM_EUID;
	    }
#    endif /* HAS_SETEUID */
	    if (PL_delaymagic & DM_UID) {
		if (PL_uid != PL_euid)
		    DIE(aTHX_ "No setreuid available");
		(void)PerlProc_setuid(PL_uid);
	    }
#  endif /* HAS_SETREUID */
#endif /* HAS_SETRESUID */
	    PL_uid = PerlProc_getuid();
	    PL_euid = PerlProc_geteuid();
	}
	if (PL_delaymagic & DM_GID) {
#ifdef HAS_SETRESGID
	    (void)setresgid(PL_gid,PL_egid,(Gid_t)-1);
#else
#  ifdef HAS_SETREGID
	    (void)setregid(PL_gid,PL_egid);
#  else
#    ifdef HAS_SETRGID
	    if ((PL_delaymagic & DM_GID) == DM_RGID) {
		(void)setrgid(PL_gid);
		PL_delaymagic &= ~DM_RGID;
	    }
#    endif /* HAS_SETRGID */
#    ifdef HAS_SETEGID
	    if ((PL_delaymagic & DM_GID) == DM_EGID) {
		(void)setegid(PL_gid);
		PL_delaymagic &= ~DM_EGID;
	    }
#    endif /* HAS_SETEGID */
	    if (PL_delaymagic & DM_GID) {
		if (PL_gid != PL_egid)
		    DIE(aTHX_ "No setregid available");
		(void)PerlProc_setgid(PL_gid);
	    }
#  endif /* HAS_SETREGID */
#endif /* HAS_SETRESGID */
	    PL_gid = PerlProc_getgid();
	    PL_egid = PerlProc_getegid();
	}
	PL_tainting |= (PL_uid && (PL_euid != PL_uid || PL_egid != PL_gid));
    }
    PL_delaymagic = 0;

    gimme = GIMME_V;
    if (gimme == G_VOID)
	SP = firstrelem - 1;
    else if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
	dTARGET;
	SP = firstrelem;
	SETi(lastrelem - firstrelem + 1);
    }
    else {
	if (ary || hash)
	    SP = lastrelem;
	else
	    SP = firstrelem + (lastlelem - firstlelem);
	lelem = firstlelem + (relem - firstrelem);
	while (relem <= SP)
	    *relem++ = (lelem <= lastlelem) ? *lelem++ : &PL_sv_undef;
    }
    RETURN;
}

PP(pp_qr)
{
    dSP;
    register PMOP *pm = cPMOP;
    SV *rv = sv_newmortal();
    SV *sv = newSVrv(rv, "Regexp");
    if (pm->op_pmdynflags & PMdf_TAINTED)
        SvTAINTED_on(rv);
    sv_magic(sv,(SV*)ReREFCNT_inc(PM_GETRE(pm)), PERL_MAGIC_qr,0,0);
    RETURNX(PUSHs(rv));
}

PP(pp_match)
{
    dSP; dTARG;
    register PMOP *pm = cPMOP;
    PMOP *dynpm = pm;
    register char *t;
    register char *s;
    char *strend;
    I32 global;
    I32 r_flags = REXEC_CHECKED;
    char *truebase;			/* Start of string  */
    register REGEXP *rx = PM_GETRE(pm);
    bool rxtainted;
    I32 gimme = GIMME;
    STRLEN len;
    I32 minmatch = 0;
    I32 oldsave = PL_savestack_ix;
    I32 update_minmatch = 1;
    I32 had_zerolen = 0;

    if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_STACKED)
	TARG = POPs;
    else {
	TARG = DEFSV;
	EXTEND(SP,1);
    }

    PUTBACK;				/* EVAL blocks need stack_sp. */
    s = SvPV(TARG, len);
    strend = s + len;
    if (!s)
	DIE(aTHX_ "panic: pp_match");
    rxtainted = ((pm->op_pmdynflags & PMdf_TAINTED) ||
		 (PL_tainted && (pm->op_pmflags & PMf_RETAINT)));
    TAINT_NOT;

    RX_MATCH_UTF8_set(rx, DO_UTF8(TARG));

    /* PMdf_USED is set after a ?? matches once */
    if (pm->op_pmdynflags & PMdf_USED) {
      failure:
	if (gimme == G_ARRAY)
	    RETURN;
	RETPUSHNO;
    }

    /* empty pattern special-cased to use last successful pattern if possible */
    if (!rx->prelen && PL_curpm) {
	pm = PL_curpm;
	rx = PM_GETRE(pm);
    }

    if (rx->minlen > (I32)len)
	goto failure;

    truebase = t = s;

    /* XXXX What part of this is needed with true \G-support? */
    if ((global = dynpm->op_pmflags & PMf_GLOBAL)) {
	rx->startp[0] = -1;
	if (SvTYPE(TARG) >= SVt_PVMG && SvMAGIC(TARG)) {
	    MAGIC* mg = mg_find(TARG, PERL_MAGIC_regex_global);
	    if (mg && mg->mg_len >= 0) {
		if (!(rx->reganch & ROPT_GPOS_SEEN))
		    rx->endp[0] = rx->startp[0] = mg->mg_len;
		else if (rx->reganch & ROPT_ANCH_GPOS) {
		    r_flags |= REXEC_IGNOREPOS;
		    rx->endp[0] = rx->startp[0] = mg->mg_len;
		}
		minmatch = (mg->mg_flags & MGf_MINMATCH);
		update_minmatch = 0;
	    }
	}
    }
    if ((!global && rx->nparens)
	    || SvTEMP(TARG) || PL_sawampersand)
	r_flags |= REXEC_COPY_STR;
    if (SvSCREAM(TARG))
	r_flags |= REXEC_SCREAM;

    if (pm->op_pmflags & (PMf_MULTILINE|PMf_SINGLELINE)) {
	SAVEINT(PL_multiline);
	PL_multiline = pm->op_pmflags & PMf_MULTILINE;
    }

play_it_again:
    if (global && rx->startp[0] != -1) {
	t = s = rx->endp[0] + truebase;
	if ((s + rx->minlen) > strend)
	    goto nope;
	if (update_minmatch++)
	    minmatch = had_zerolen;
    }
    if (rx->reganch & RE_USE_INTUIT &&
	DO_UTF8(TARG) == ((rx->reganch & ROPT_UTF8) != 0)) {
	PL_bostr = truebase;
	s = CALLREG_INTUIT_START(aTHX_ rx, TARG, s, strend, r_flags, NULL);

	if (!s)
	    goto nope;
	if ( (rx->reganch & ROPT_CHECK_ALL)
	     && !PL_sawampersand
	     && ((rx->reganch & ROPT_NOSCAN)
		 || !((rx->reganch & RE_INTUIT_TAIL)
		      && (r_flags & REXEC_SCREAM)))
	     && !SvROK(TARG))	/* Cannot trust since INTUIT cannot guess ^ */
	    goto yup;
    }
    if (CALLREGEXEC(aTHX_ rx, s, strend, truebase, minmatch, TARG, NULL, r_flags))
    {
	PL_curpm = pm;
	if (dynpm->op_pmflags & PMf_ONCE)
	    dynpm->op_pmdynflags |= PMdf_USED;
	goto gotcha;
    }
    else
	goto ret_no;
    /*NOTREACHED*/

  gotcha:
    if (rxtainted)
	RX_MATCH_TAINTED_on(rx);
    TAINT_IF(RX_MATCH_TAINTED(rx));
    if (gimme == G_ARRAY) {
	I32 nparens, i, len;

	nparens = rx->nparens;
	if (global && !nparens)
	    i = 1;
	else
	    i = 0;
	SPAGAIN;			/* EVAL blocks could move the stack. */
	EXTEND(SP, nparens + i);
	EXTEND_MORTAL(nparens + i);
	for (i = !i; i <= nparens; i++) {
	    PUSHs(sv_newmortal());
	    /*SUPPRESS 560*/
	    if ((rx->startp[i] != -1) && rx->endp[i] != -1 ) {
		len = rx->endp[i] - rx->startp[i];
	        if (rx->endp[i] < 0 || rx->startp[i] < 0 ||
		    len < 0 || len > strend - s)
		    DIE(aTHX_ "panic: pp_match start/end pointers");
		s = rx->startp[i] + truebase;
		sv_setpvn(*SP, s, len);
		if (DO_UTF8(TARG) && is_utf8_string((U8*)s, len))
		    SvUTF8_on(*SP);
	    }
	}
	if (global) {
	    if (dynpm->op_pmflags & PMf_CONTINUE) {
		MAGIC* mg = 0;
		if (SvTYPE(TARG) >= SVt_PVMG && SvMAGIC(TARG))
		    mg = mg_find(TARG, PERL_MAGIC_regex_global);
		if (!mg) {
		    sv_magic(TARG, (SV*)0, PERL_MAGIC_regex_global, Nullch, 0);
		    mg = mg_find(TARG, PERL_MAGIC_regex_global);
		}
		if (rx->startp[0] != -1) {
		    mg->mg_len = rx->endp[0];
		    if (rx->startp[0] == rx->endp[0])
			mg->mg_flags |= MGf_MINMATCH;
		    else
			mg->mg_flags &= ~MGf_MINMATCH;
		}
	    }
	    had_zerolen = (rx->startp[0] != -1
			   && rx->startp[0] == rx->endp[0]);
	    PUTBACK;			/* EVAL blocks may use stack */
	    r_flags |= REXEC_IGNOREPOS | REXEC_NOT_FIRST;
	    goto play_it_again;
	}
	else if (!nparens)
	    XPUSHs(&PL_sv_yes);
	LEAVE_SCOPE(oldsave);
	RETURN;
    }
    else {
	if (global) {
	    MAGIC* mg = 0;
	    if (SvTYPE(TARG) >= SVt_PVMG && SvMAGIC(TARG))
		mg = mg_find(TARG, PERL_MAGIC_regex_global);
	    if (!mg) {
		sv_magic(TARG, (SV*)0, PERL_MAGIC_regex_global, Nullch, 0);
		mg = mg_find(TARG, PERL_MAGIC_regex_global);
	    }
	    if (rx->startp[0] != -1) {
		mg->mg_len = rx->endp[0];
		if (rx->startp[0] == rx->endp[0])
		    mg->mg_flags |= MGf_MINMATCH;
		else
		    mg->mg_flags &= ~MGf_MINMATCH;
	    }
	}
	LEAVE_SCOPE(oldsave);
	RETPUSHYES;
    }

yup:					/* Confirmed by INTUIT */
    if (rxtainted)
	RX_MATCH_TAINTED_on(rx);
    TAINT_IF(RX_MATCH_TAINTED(rx));
    PL_curpm = pm;
    if (dynpm->op_pmflags & PMf_ONCE)
	dynpm->op_pmdynflags |= PMdf_USED;
    if (RX_MATCH_COPIED(rx))
	Safefree(rx->subbeg);
    RX_MATCH_COPIED_off(rx);
    rx->subbeg = Nullch;
    if (global) {
	rx->subbeg = truebase;
	rx->startp[0] = s - truebase;
	if (RX_MATCH_UTF8(rx)) {
	    char *t = (char*)utf8_hop((U8*)s, rx->minlen);
	    rx->endp[0] = t - truebase;
	}
	else {
	    rx->endp[0] = s - truebase + rx->minlen;
	}
	rx->sublen = strend - truebase;
	goto gotcha;
    }
    if (PL_sawampersand) {
	I32 off;

	rx->subbeg = savepvn(t, strend - t);
	rx->sublen = strend - t;
	RX_MATCH_COPIED_on(rx);
	off = rx->startp[0] = s - t;
	rx->endp[0] = off + rx->minlen;
    }
    else {			/* startp/endp are used by @- @+. */
	rx->startp[0] = s - truebase;
	rx->endp[0] = s - truebase + rx->minlen;
    }
    rx->nparens = rx->lastparen = 0;	/* used by @- and @+ */
    LEAVE_SCOPE(oldsave);
    RETPUSHYES;

nope:
ret_no:
    if (global && !(dynpm->op_pmflags & PMf_CONTINUE)) {
	if (SvTYPE(TARG) >= SVt_PVMG && SvMAGIC(TARG)) {
	    MAGIC* mg = mg_find(TARG, PERL_MAGIC_regex_global);
	    if (mg)
		mg->mg_len = -1;
	}
    }
    LEAVE_SCOPE(oldsave);
    if (gimme == G_ARRAY)
	RETURN;
    RETPUSHNO;
}

OP *
Perl_do_readline(pTHX)
{
    dSP; dTARGETSTACKED;
    register SV *sv;
    STRLEN tmplen = 0;
    STRLEN offset;
    PerlIO *fp;
    register IO *io = GvIO(PL_last_in_gv);
    register I32 type = PL_op->op_type;
    I32 gimme = GIMME_V;
    MAGIC *mg;

    if (io && (mg = SvTIED_mg((SV*)io, PERL_MAGIC_tiedscalar))) {
	PUSHMARK(SP);
	XPUSHs(SvTIED_obj((SV*)io, mg));
	PUTBACK;
	ENTER;
	call_method("READLINE", gimme);
	LEAVE;
	SPAGAIN;
	if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
	    SV* result = POPs;
	    SvSetSV_nosteal(TARG, result);
	    PUSHTARG;
	}
	RETURN;
    }
    fp = Nullfp;
    if (io) {
	fp = IoIFP(io);
	if (!fp) {
	    if (IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_ARGV) {
		if (IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_START) {
		    IoLINES(io) = 0;
		    if (av_len(GvAVn(PL_last_in_gv)) < 0) {
			IoFLAGS(io) &= ~IOf_START;
			do_open(PL_last_in_gv,"-",1,FALSE,O_RDONLY,0,Nullfp);
			sv_setpvn(GvSV(PL_last_in_gv), "-", 1);
			SvSETMAGIC(GvSV(PL_last_in_gv));
			fp = IoIFP(io);
			goto have_fp;
		    }
		}
		fp = nextargv(PL_last_in_gv);
		if (!fp) { /* Note: fp != IoIFP(io) */
		    (void)do_close(PL_last_in_gv, FALSE); /* now it does*/
		}
	    }
	    else if (type == OP_GLOB)
		fp = Perl_start_glob(aTHX_ POPs, io);
	}
	else if (type == OP_GLOB)
	    SP--;
	else if (ckWARN(WARN_IO) && IoTYPE(io) == IoTYPE_WRONLY) {
	    report_evil_fh(PL_last_in_gv, io, OP_phoney_OUTPUT_ONLY);
	}
    }
    if (!fp) {
	if (ckWARN2(WARN_GLOB, WARN_CLOSED)
		&& (!io || !(IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_START))) {
	    if (type == OP_GLOB)
		Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_GLOB),
			    "glob failed (can't start child: %s)",
			    Strerror(errno));
	    else
		report_evil_fh(PL_last_in_gv, io, PL_op->op_type);
	}
	if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
	    /* undef TARG, and push that undefined value */
	    if (type != OP_RCATLINE) {
	        SV_CHECK_THINKFIRST(TARG);
	        (void)SvOK_off(TARG);
	    }
	    PUSHTARG;
	}
	RETURN;
    }
  have_fp:
    if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
	sv = TARG;
	if (SvROK(sv))
	    sv_unref(sv);
	(void)SvUPGRADE(sv, SVt_PV);
	tmplen = SvLEN(sv);	/* remember if already alloced */
	if (!tmplen)
	    Sv_Grow(sv, 80);	/* try short-buffering it */
	offset = 0;
	if (type == OP_RCATLINE && SvOK(sv)) {
	    if (!SvPOK(sv)) {
		STRLEN n_a;
		(void)SvPV_force(sv, n_a);
	    }
	    offset = SvCUR(sv);
	}
    }
    else {
	sv = sv_2mortal(NEWSV(57, 80));
	offset = 0;
    }

    /* This should not be marked tainted if the fp is marked clean */
#define MAYBE_TAINT_LINE(io, sv) \
    if (!(IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_UNTAINT)) { \
	TAINT;				\
	SvTAINTED_on(sv);		\
    }

/* delay EOF state for a snarfed empty file */
#define SNARF_EOF(gimme,rs,io,sv) \
    (gimme != G_SCALAR || SvCUR(sv)					\
     || (IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_NOLINE) || !RsSNARF(rs))

    for (;;) {
	PUTBACK;
	if (!sv_gets(sv, fp, offset)
	    && (type == OP_GLOB || SNARF_EOF(gimme, PL_rs, io, sv)))
	{
	    PerlIO_clearerr(fp);
	    if (IoFLAGS(io) & IOf_ARGV) {
		fp = nextargv(PL_last_in_gv);
		if (fp)
		    continue;
		(void)do_close(PL_last_in_gv, FALSE);
	    }
	    else if (type == OP_GLOB) {
		if (!do_close(PL_last_in_gv, FALSE) && ckWARN(WARN_GLOB)) {
		    Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_GLOB),
			   "glob failed (child exited with status %d%s)",
			   (int)(STATUS_CURRENT >> 8),
			   (STATUS_CURRENT & 0x80) ? ", core dumped" : "");
		}
	    }
	    if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
		if (type != OP_RCATLINE) {
		    SV_CHECK_THINKFIRST(TARG);
		    (void)SvOK_off(TARG);
		}
		SPAGAIN;
		PUSHTARG;
	    }
	    MAYBE_TAINT_LINE(io, sv);
	    RETURN;
	}
	MAYBE_TAINT_LINE(io, sv);
	IoLINES(io)++;
	IoFLAGS(io) |= IOf_NOLINE;
	SvSETMAGIC(sv);
	SPAGAIN;
	XPUSHs(sv);
	if (type == OP_GLOB) {
	    char *tmps;

	    if (SvCUR(sv) > 0 && SvCUR(PL_rs) > 0) {
		tmps = SvEND(sv) - 1;
		if (*tmps == *SvPVX(PL_rs)) {
		    *tmps = '\0';
		    SvCUR(sv)--;
		}
	    }
	    for (tmps = SvPVX(sv); *tmps; tmps++)
		if (!isALPHA(*tmps) && !isDIGIT(*tmps) &&
		    strchr("$&*(){}[]'\";\\|?<>~`", *tmps))
			break;
	    if (*tmps && PerlLIO_lstat(SvPVX(sv), &PL_statbuf) < 0) {
		(void)POPs;		/* Unmatched wildcard?  Chuck it... */
		continue;
	    }
	}
	if (gimme == G_ARRAY) {
	    if (SvLEN(sv) - SvCUR(sv) > 20) {
		SvLEN_set(sv, SvCUR(sv)+1);
		Renew(SvPVX(sv), SvLEN(sv), char);
	    }
	    sv = sv_2mortal(NEWSV(58, 80));
	    continue;
	}
	else if (gimme == G_SCALAR && !tmplen && SvLEN(sv) - SvCUR(sv) > 80) {
	    /* try to reclaim a bit of scalar space (only on 1st alloc) */
	    if (SvCUR(sv) < 60)
		SvLEN_set(sv, 80);
	    else
		SvLEN_set(sv, SvCUR(sv)+40);	/* allow some slop */
	    Renew(SvPVX(sv), SvLEN(sv), char);
	}
	RETURN;
    }
}

PP(pp_enter)
{
    dSP;
    register PERL_CONTEXT *cx;
    I32 gimme = OP_GIMME(PL_op, -1);

    if (gimme == -1) {
	if (cxstack_ix >= 0)
	    gimme = cxstack[cxstack_ix].blk_gimme;
	else
	    gimme = G_SCALAR;
    }

    ENTER;

    SAVETMPS;
    PUSHBLOCK(cx, CXt_BLOCK, SP);

    RETURN;
}

PP(pp_helem)
{
    dSP;
    HE* he;
    SV **svp;
    SV *keysv = POPs;
    HV *hv = (HV*)POPs;
    U32 lval = PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD || LVRET;
    U32 defer = PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_DEFER;
    SV *sv;
    U32 hash = (SvFAKE(keysv) && SvREADONLY(keysv)) ? SvUVX(keysv) : 0;
    I32 preeminent = 0;

    if (SvTYPE(hv) == SVt_PVHV) {
	if (PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO) {
	    MAGIC *mg;
	    HV *stash;
	    /* does the element we're localizing already exist? */
	    preeminent =  
		/* can we determine whether it exists? */
		(    !SvRMAGICAL(hv)
		  || mg_find((SV*)hv, PERL_MAGIC_env)
		  || (     (mg = mg_find((SV*)hv, PERL_MAGIC_tied))
			/* Try to preserve the existenceness of a tied hash
			 * element by using EXISTS and DELETE if possible.
			 * Fallback to FETCH and STORE otherwise */
			&& (stash = SvSTASH(SvRV(SvTIED_obj((SV*)hv, mg))))
			&& gv_fetchmethod_autoload(stash, "EXISTS", TRUE)
			&& gv_fetchmethod_autoload(stash, "DELETE", TRUE)
		    )
		) ? hv_exists_ent(hv, keysv, 0) : 1;

	}
	he = hv_fetch_ent(hv, keysv, lval && !defer, hash);
	svp = he ? &HeVAL(he) : 0;
    }
    else if (SvTYPE(hv) == SVt_PVAV) {
	if (PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO)
	    DIE(aTHX_ "Can't localize pseudo-hash element");
	svp = avhv_fetch_ent((AV*)hv, keysv, lval && !defer, hash);
    }
    else {
	RETPUSHUNDEF;
    }
    if (lval) {
	if (!svp || *svp == &PL_sv_undef) {
	    SV* lv;
	    SV* key2;
	    if (!defer) {
		STRLEN n_a;
		DIE(aTHX_ PL_no_helem, SvPV(keysv, n_a));
	    }
	    lv = sv_newmortal();
	    sv_upgrade(lv, SVt_PVLV);
	    LvTYPE(lv) = 'y';
	    sv_magic(lv, key2 = newSVsv(keysv), PERL_MAGIC_defelem, Nullch, 0);
	    SvREFCNT_dec(key2);	/* sv_magic() increments refcount */
	    LvTARG(lv) = SvREFCNT_inc(hv);
	    LvTARGLEN(lv) = 1;
	    PUSHs(lv);
	    RETURN;
	}
	if (PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO) {
	    if (HvNAME(hv) && isGV(*svp))
		save_gp((GV*)*svp, !(PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL));
	    else {
		if (!preeminent) {
		    STRLEN keylen;
		    char *key = SvPV(keysv, keylen);
		    SAVEDELETE(hv, savepvn(key,keylen), keylen);
		} else
		    save_helem(hv, keysv, svp);
            }
	}
	else if (PL_op->op_private & OPpDEREF)
	    vivify_ref(*svp, PL_op->op_private & OPpDEREF);
    }
    sv = (svp ? *svp : &PL_sv_undef);
    /* This makes C<local $tied{foo} = $tied{foo}> possible.
     * Pushing the magical RHS on to the stack is useless, since
     * that magic is soon destined to be misled by the local(),
     * and thus the later pp_sassign() will fail to mg_get() the
     * old value.  This should also cure problems with delayed
     * mg_get()s.  GSAR 98-07-03 */
    if (!lval && SvGMAGICAL(sv))
	sv = sv_mortalcopy(sv);
    PUSHs(sv);
    RETURN;
}

PP(pp_leave)
{
    dSP;
    register PERL_CONTEXT *cx;
    register SV **mark;
    SV **newsp;
    PMOP *newpm;
    I32 gimme;

    if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_SPECIAL) {
	cx = &cxstack[cxstack_ix];
	cx->blk_oldpm = PL_curpm;	/* fake block should preserve $1 et al */
    }

    POPBLOCK(cx,newpm);

    gimme = OP_GIMME(PL_op, -1);
    if (gimme == -1) {
	if (cxstack_ix >= 0)
	    gimme = cxstack[cxstack_ix].blk_gimme;
	else
	    gimme = G_SCALAR;
    }

    TAINT_NOT;
    if (gimme == G_VOID)
	SP = newsp;
    else if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
	MARK = newsp + 1;
	if (MARK <= SP) {
	    if (SvFLAGS(TOPs) & (SVs_PADTMP|SVs_TEMP))
		*MARK = TOPs;
	    else
		*MARK = sv_mortalcopy(TOPs);
	} else {
	    MEXTEND(mark,0);
	    *MARK = &PL_sv_undef;
	}
	SP = MARK;
    }
    else if (gimme == G_ARRAY) {
	/* in case LEAVE wipes old return values */
	for (mark = newsp + 1; mark <= SP; mark++) {
	    if (!(SvFLAGS(*mark) & (SVs_PADTMP|SVs_TEMP))) {
		*mark = sv_mortalcopy(*mark);
		TAINT_NOT;	/* Each item is independent */
	    }
	}
    }
    PL_curpm = newpm;	/* Don't pop $1 et al till now */

    LEAVE;

    RETURN;
}

PP(pp_iter)
{
    dSP;
    register PERL_CONTEXT *cx;
    SV* sv;
    AV* av;
    SV **itersvp;

    EXTEND(SP, 1);
    cx = &cxstack[cxstack_ix];
    if (CxTYPE(cx) != CXt_LOOP)
	DIE(aTHX_ "panic: pp_iter");

    itersvp = CxITERVAR(cx);
    av = cx->blk_loop.iterary;
    if (SvTYPE(av) != SVt_PVAV) {
	/* iterate ($min .. $max) */
	if (cx->blk_loop.iterlval) {
	    /* string increment */
	    register SV* cur = cx->blk_loop.iterlval;
	    STRLEN maxlen;
	    char *max = SvPV((SV*)av, maxlen);
	    if (!SvNIOK(cur) && SvCUR(cur) <= maxlen) {
#ifndef USE_5005THREADS			  /* don't risk potential race */
		if (SvREFCNT(*itersvp) == 1 && !SvMAGICAL(*itersvp)) {
		    /* safe to reuse old SV */
		    sv_setsv(*itersvp, cur);
		}
		else
#endif
		{
		    /* we need a fresh SV every time so that loop body sees a
		     * completely new SV for closures/references to work as
		     * they used to */
		    SvREFCNT_dec(*itersvp);
		    *itersvp = newSVsv(cur);
		}
		if (strEQ(SvPVX(cur), max))
		    sv_setiv(cur, 0); /* terminate next time */
		else
		    sv_inc(cur);
		RETPUSHYES;
	    }
	    RETPUSHNO;
	}
	/* integer increment */
	if (cx->blk_loop.iterix > cx->blk_loop.itermax)
	    RETPUSHNO;

#ifndef USE_5005THREADS			  /* don't risk potential race */
	if (SvREFCNT(*itersvp) == 1 && !SvMAGICAL(*itersvp)) {
	    /* safe to reuse old SV */
	    sv_setiv(*itersvp, cx->blk_loop.iterix++);
	}
	else
#endif
	{
	    /* we need a fresh SV every time so that loop body sees a
	     * completely new SV for closures/references to work as they
	     * used to */
	    SvREFCNT_dec(*itersvp);
	    *itersvp = newSViv(cx->blk_loop.iterix++);
	}
	RETPUSHYES;
    }

    /* iterate array */
    if (cx->blk_loop.iterix >= (av == PL_curstack ? cx->blk_oldsp : AvFILL(av)))
	RETPUSHNO;

    SvREFCNT_dec(*itersvp);

    if (SvMAGICAL(av) || AvREIFY(av)) {
	SV **svp = av_fetch(av, ++cx->blk_loop.iterix, FALSE);
	if (svp)
	    sv = *svp;
	else
	    sv = Nullsv;
    }
    else {
	sv = AvARRAY(av)[++cx->blk_loop.iterix];
    }
    if (sv && SvREFCNT(sv) == 0) {
	*itersvp = Nullsv;
	Perl_croak(aTHX_
	    "Use of freed value in iteration (perhaps you modified the iterated array within the loop?)");
    }

    if (sv)
	SvTEMP_off(sv);
    else
	sv = &PL_sv_undef;
    if (av != PL_curstack && sv == &PL_sv_undef) {
	SV *lv = cx->blk_loop.iterlval;
	if (lv && SvREFCNT(lv) > 1) {
	    SvREFCNT_dec(lv);
	    lv = Nullsv;
	}
	if (lv)
	    SvREFCNT_dec(LvTARG(lv));
	else {
	    lv = cx->blk_loop.iterlval = NEWSV(26, 0);
	    sv_upgrade(lv, SVt_PVLV);
	    LvTYPE(lv) = 'y';
	    sv_magic(lv, Nullsv, PERL_MAGIC_defelem, Nullch, 0);
	}
	LvTARG(lv) = SvREFCNT_inc(av);
	LvTARGOFF(lv) = cx->blk_loop.iterix;
	LvTARGLEN(lv) = (STRLEN)UV_MAX;
	sv = (SV*)lv;
    }

    *itersvp = SvREFCNT_inc(sv);
    RETPUSHYES;
}

PP(pp_subst)
{
    dSP; dTARG;
    register PMOP *pm = cPMOP;
    PMOP *rpm = pm;
    register SV *dstr;
    register char *s;
    char *strend;
    register char *m;
    char *c;
    register char *d;
    STRLEN clen;
    I32 iters = 0;
    I32 maxiters;
    register I32 i;
    bool once;
    bool rxtainted;
    char *orig;
    I32 r_flags;
    register REGEXP *rx = PM_GETRE(pm);
    STRLEN len;
    int force_on_match = 0;
    I32 oldsave = PL_savestack_ix;
    STRLEN slen;
    bool doutf8 = FALSE;
    SV *nsv = Nullsv;

    /* known replacement string? */
    dstr = (pm->op_pmflags & PMf_CONST) ? POPs : Nullsv;
    if (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_STACKED)
	TARG = POPs;
    else {
	TARG = DEFSV;
	EXTEND(SP,1);
    }

    if (SvFAKE(TARG) && SvREADONLY(TARG))
	sv_force_normal(TARG);
    if (SvREADONLY(TARG)
	|| (SvTYPE(TARG) > SVt_PVLV
	    && !(SvTYPE(TARG) == SVt_PVGV && SvFAKE(TARG))))
	DIE(aTHX_ PL_no_modify);
    PUTBACK;

    s = SvPV(TARG, len);
    if (!SvPOKp(TARG) || SvTYPE(TARG) == SVt_PVGV)
	force_on_match = 1;
    rxtainted = ((pm->op_pmdynflags & PMdf_TAINTED) ||
		 (PL_tainted && (pm->op_pmflags & PMf_RETAINT)));
    if (PL_tainted)
	rxtainted |= 2;
    TAINT_NOT;

    RX_MATCH_UTF8_set(rx, DO_UTF8(TARG));

  force_it:
    if (!pm || !s)
	DIE(aTHX_ "panic: pp_subst");

    strend = s + len;
    slen = RX_MATCH_UTF8(rx) ? utf8_length((U8*)s, (U8*)strend) : len;
    maxiters = 2 * slen + 10;	/* We can match twice at each
				   position, once with zero-length,
				   second time with non-zero. */

    if (!rx->prelen && PL_curpm) {
	pm = PL_curpm;
	rx = PM_GETRE(pm);
    }
    r_flags = (rx->nparens || SvTEMP(TARG) || PL_sawampersand)
		? REXEC_COPY_STR : 0;
    if (SvSCREAM(TARG))
	r_flags |= REXEC_SCREAM;
    if (pm->op_pmflags & (PMf_MULTILINE|PMf_SINGLELINE)) {
	SAVEINT(PL_multiline);
	PL_multiline = pm->op_pmflags & PMf_MULTILINE;
    }
    orig = m = s;
    if (rx->reganch & RE_USE_INTUIT) {
	PL_bostr = orig;
	s = CALLREG_INTUIT_START(aTHX_ rx, TARG, s, strend, r_flags, NULL);

	if (!s)
	    goto nope;
	/* How to do it in subst? */
/*	if ( (rx->reganch & ROPT_CHECK_ALL)
	     && !PL_sawampersand
	     && ((rx->reganch & ROPT_NOSCAN)
		 || !((rx->reganch & RE_INTUIT_TAIL)
		      && (r_flags & REXEC_SCREAM))))
	    goto yup;
*/
    }

    /* only replace once? */
    once = !(rpm->op_pmflags & PMf_GLOBAL);

    /* known replacement string? */
    if (dstr) {
	/* replacement needing upgrading? */
	if (DO_UTF8(TARG) && !doutf8) {
	     nsv = sv_newmortal();
	     SvSetSV(nsv, dstr);
	     if (PL_encoding)
		  sv_recode_to_utf8(nsv, PL_encoding);
	     else
		  sv_utf8_upgrade(nsv);
	     c = SvPV(nsv, clen);
	     doutf8 = TRUE;
	}
	else {
	    c = SvPV(dstr, clen);
	    doutf8 = DO_UTF8(dstr);
	}
    }
    else {
        c = Nullch;
	doutf8 = FALSE;
    }
    
    /* can do inplace substitution? */
    if (c && (I32)clen <= rx->minlen && (once || !(r_flags & REXEC_COPY_STR))
	&& !(rx->reganch & ROPT_LOOKBEHIND_SEEN)
	&& (!doutf8 || SvUTF8(TARG))) {
	if (!CALLREGEXEC(aTHX_ rx, s, strend, orig, 0, TARG, NULL,
			 r_flags | REXEC_CHECKED))
	{
	    SPAGAIN;
	    PUSHs(&PL_sv_no);
	    LEAVE_SCOPE(oldsave);
	    RETURN;
	}
	if (force_on_match) {
	    force_on_match = 0;
	    s = SvPV_force(TARG, len);
	    goto force_it;
	}
	d = s;
	PL_curpm = pm;
	SvSCREAM_off(TARG);	/* disable possible screamer */
	if (once) {
	    rxtainted |= RX_MATCH_TAINTED(rx);
	    m = orig + rx->startp[0];
	    d = orig + rx->endp[0];
	    s = orig;
	    if (m - s > strend - d) {  /* faster to shorten from end */
		if (clen) {
		    Copy(c, m, clen, char);
		    m += clen;
		}
		i = strend - d;
		if (i > 0) {
		    Move(d, m, i, char);
		    m += i;
		}
		*m = '\0';
		SvCUR_set(TARG, m - s);
	    }
	    /*SUPPRESS 560*/
	    else if ((i = m - s)) {	/* faster from front */
		d -= clen;
		m = d;
		sv_chop(TARG, d-i);
		s += i;
		while (i--)
		    *--d = *--s;
		if (clen)
		    Copy(c, m, clen, char);
	    }
	    else if (clen) {
		d -= clen;
		sv_chop(TARG, d);
		Copy(c, d, clen, char);
	    }
	    else {
		sv_chop(TARG, d);
	    }
	    TAINT_IF(rxtainted & 1);
	    SPAGAIN;
	    PUSHs(&PL_sv_yes);
	}
	else {
	    do {
		if (iters++ > maxiters)
		    DIE(aTHX_ "Substitution loop");
		rxtainted |= RX_MATCH_TAINTED(rx);
		m = rx->startp[0] + orig;
		/*SUPPRESS 560*/
		if ((i = m - s)) {
		    if (s != d)
			Move(s, d, i, char);
		    d += i;
		}
		if (clen) {
		    Copy(c, d, clen, char);
		    d += clen;
		}
		s = rx->endp[0] + orig;
	    } while (CALLREGEXEC(aTHX_ rx, s, strend, orig, s == m,
				 TARG, NULL,
				 /* don't match same null twice */
				 REXEC_NOT_FIRST|REXEC_IGNOREPOS));
	    if (s != d) {
		i = strend - s;
		SvCUR_set(TARG, d - SvPVX(TARG) + i);
		Move(s, d, i+1, char);		/* include the NUL */
	    }
	    TAINT_IF(rxtainted & 1);
	    SPAGAIN;
	    PUSHs(sv_2mortal(newSViv((I32)iters)));
	}
	(void)SvPOK_only_UTF8(TARG);
	TAINT_IF(rxtainted);
	if (SvSMAGICAL(TARG)) {
	    PUTBACK;
	    mg_set(TARG);
	    SPAGAIN;
	}
	SvTAINT(TARG);
	if (doutf8)
	    SvUTF8_on(TARG);
	LEAVE_SCOPE(oldsave);
	RETURN;
    }

    if (CALLREGEXEC(aTHX_ rx, s, strend, orig, 0, TARG, NULL,
		    r_flags | REXEC_CHECKED))
    {
	if (force_on_match) {
	    force_on_match = 0;
	    s = SvPV_force(TARG, len);
	    goto force_it;
	}
	rxtainted |= RX_MATCH_TAINTED(rx);
	dstr = NEWSV(25, len);
	sv_setpvn(dstr, m, s-m);
	if (DO_UTF8(TARG))
	    SvUTF8_on(dstr);
	PL_curpm = pm;
	if (!c) {
	    register PERL_CONTEXT *cx;
	    SPAGAIN;
	    ReREFCNT_inc(rx);
	    PUSHSUBST(cx);
	    RETURNOP(cPMOP->op_pmreplroot);
	}
	r_flags |= REXEC_IGNOREPOS | REXEC_NOT_FIRST;
	do {
	    if (iters++ > maxiters)
		DIE(aTHX_ "Substitution loop");
	    rxtainted |= RX_MATCH_TAINTED(rx);
	    if (RX_MATCH_COPIED(rx) && rx->subbeg != orig) {
		m = s;
		s = orig;
		orig = rx->subbeg;
		s = orig + (m - s);
		strend = s + (strend - m);
	    }
	    m = rx->startp[0] + orig;
	    if (doutf8 && !SvUTF8(dstr))
		sv_catpvn_utf8_upgrade(dstr, s, m - s, nsv);
            else
		sv_catpvn(dstr, s, m-s);
	    s = rx->endp[0] + orig;
	    if (clen)
		sv_catpvn(dstr, c, clen);
	    if (once)
		break;
	} while (CALLREGEXEC(aTHX_ rx, s, strend, orig, s == m,
			     TARG, NULL, r_flags));
	if (doutf8 && !DO_UTF8(TARG))
	    sv_catpvn_utf8_upgrade(dstr, s, strend - s, nsv);
	else
	    sv_catpvn(dstr, s, strend - s);

	(void)SvOOK_off(TARG);
	if (SvLEN(TARG))
	    Safefree(SvPVX(TARG));
	SvPVX(TARG) = SvPVX(dstr);
	SvCUR_set(TARG, SvCUR(dstr));
	SvLEN_set(TARG, SvLEN(dstr));
	doutf8 |= DO_UTF8(dstr);
	SvPVX(dstr) = 0;
	sv_free(dstr);

	TAINT_IF(rxtainted & 1);
	SPAGAIN;
	PUSHs(sv_2mortal(newSViv((I32)iters)));

	(void)SvPOK_only(TARG);
	if (doutf8)
	    SvUTF8_on(TARG);
	TAINT_IF(rxtainted);
	SvSETMAGIC(TARG);
	SvTAINT(TARG);
	LEAVE_SCOPE(oldsave);
	RETURN;
    }
    goto ret_no;

nope:
ret_no:
    SPAGAIN;
    PUSHs(&PL_sv_no);
    LEAVE_SCOPE(oldsave);
    RETURN;
}

PP(pp_grepwhile)
{
    dSP;

    if (SvTRUEx(POPs))
	PL_stack_base[PL_markstack_ptr[-1]++] = PL_stack_base[*PL_markstack_ptr];
    ++*PL_markstack_ptr;
    LEAVE;					/* exit inner scope */

    /* All done yet? */
    if (PL_stack_base + *PL_markstack_ptr > SP) {
	I32 items;
	I32 gimme = GIMME_V;

	LEAVE;					/* exit outer scope */
	(void)POPMARK;				/* pop src */
	items = --*PL_markstack_ptr - PL_markstack_ptr[-1];
	(void)POPMARK;				/* pop dst */
	SP = PL_stack_base + POPMARK;		/* pop original mark */
	if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
	    dTARGET;
	    XPUSHi(items);
	}
	else if (gimme == G_ARRAY)
	    SP += items;
	RETURN;
    }
    else {
	SV *src;

	ENTER;					/* enter inner scope */
	SAVEVPTR(PL_curpm);

	src = PL_stack_base[*PL_markstack_ptr];
	SvTEMP_off(src);
	DEFSV = src;

	RETURNOP(cLOGOP->op_other);
    }
}

PP(pp_leavesub)
{
    dSP;
    SV **mark;
    SV **newsp;
    PMOP *newpm;
    I32 gimme;
    register PERL_CONTEXT *cx;
    SV *sv;

    POPBLOCK(cx,newpm);

    TAINT_NOT;
    if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
	MARK = newsp + 1;
	if (MARK <= SP) {
	    if (cx->blk_sub.cv && CvDEPTH(cx->blk_sub.cv) > 1) {
		if (SvTEMP(TOPs)) {
		    *MARK = SvREFCNT_inc(TOPs);
		    FREETMPS;
		    sv_2mortal(*MARK);
		}
		else {
		    sv = SvREFCNT_inc(TOPs);	/* FREETMPS could clobber it */
		    FREETMPS;
		    *MARK = sv_mortalcopy(sv);
		    SvREFCNT_dec(sv);
		}
	    }
	    else
		*MARK = SvTEMP(TOPs) ? TOPs : sv_mortalcopy(TOPs);
	}
	else {
	    MEXTEND(MARK, 0);
	    *MARK = &PL_sv_undef;
	}
	SP = MARK;
    }
    else if (gimme == G_ARRAY) {
	for (MARK = newsp + 1; MARK <= SP; MARK++) {
	    if (!SvTEMP(*MARK)) {
		*MARK = sv_mortalcopy(*MARK);
		TAINT_NOT;	/* Each item is independent */
	    }
	}
    }
    PUTBACK;

    LEAVE;
    POPSUB(cx,sv);	/* Stack values are safe: release CV and @_ ... */
    PL_curpm = newpm;	/* ... and pop $1 et al */

    LEAVESUB(sv);
    return pop_return();
}

/* This duplicates the above code because the above code must not
 * get any slower by more conditions */
PP(pp_leavesublv)
{
    dSP;
    SV **mark;
    SV **newsp;
    PMOP *newpm;
    I32 gimme;
    register PERL_CONTEXT *cx;
    SV *sv;

    POPBLOCK(cx,newpm);

    TAINT_NOT;

    if (cx->blk_sub.lval & OPpENTERSUB_INARGS) {
	/* We are an argument to a function or grep().
	 * This kind of lvalueness was legal before lvalue
	 * subroutines too, so be backward compatible:
	 * cannot report errors.  */

	/* Scalar context *is* possible, on the LHS of -> only,
	 * as in f()->meth().  But this is not an lvalue. */
	if (gimme == G_SCALAR)
	    goto temporise;
	if (gimme == G_ARRAY) {
	    if (!CvLVALUE(cx->blk_sub.cv))
		goto temporise_array;
	    EXTEND_MORTAL(SP - newsp);
	    for (mark = newsp + 1; mark <= SP; mark++) {
		if (SvTEMP(*mark))
		    /* empty */ ;
		else if (SvFLAGS(*mark) & (SVs_PADTMP | SVf_READONLY))
		    *mark = sv_mortalcopy(*mark);
		else {
		    /* Can be a localized value subject to deletion. */
		    PL_tmps_stack[++PL_tmps_ix] = *mark;
		    (void)SvREFCNT_inc(*mark);
		}
	    }
	}
    }
    else if (cx->blk_sub.lval) {     /* Leave it as it is if we can. */
	/* Here we go for robustness, not for speed, so we change all
	 * the refcounts so the caller gets a live guy. Cannot set
	 * TEMP, so sv_2mortal is out of question. */
	if (!CvLVALUE(cx->blk_sub.cv)) {
	    LEAVE;
	    POPSUB(cx,sv);
	    PL_curpm = newpm;
	    LEAVESUB(sv);
	    DIE(aTHX_ "Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call");
	}
	if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
	    MARK = newsp + 1;
	    EXTEND_MORTAL(1);
	    if (MARK == SP) {
		if (SvFLAGS(TOPs) & (SVs_TEMP | SVs_PADTMP | SVf_READONLY)) {
		    LEAVE;
		    POPSUB(cx,sv);
		    PL_curpm = newpm;
		    LEAVESUB(sv);
		    DIE(aTHX_ "Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine",
			SvREADONLY(TOPs) ? (TOPs == &PL_sv_undef) ? "undef"
			: "a readonly value" : "a temporary");
		}
		else {                  /* Can be a localized value
					 * subject to deletion. */
		    PL_tmps_stack[++PL_tmps_ix] = *mark;
		    (void)SvREFCNT_inc(*mark);
		}
	    }
	    else {			/* Should not happen? */
		LEAVE;
		POPSUB(cx,sv);
		PL_curpm = newpm;
		LEAVESUB(sv);
		DIE(aTHX_ "%s returned from lvalue subroutine in scalar context",
		    (MARK > SP ? "Empty array" : "Array"));
	    }
	    SP = MARK;
	}
	else if (gimme == G_ARRAY) {
	    EXTEND_MORTAL(SP - newsp);
	    for (mark = newsp + 1; mark <= SP; mark++) {
		if (*mark != &PL_sv_undef
		    && SvFLAGS(*mark) & (SVs_TEMP | SVs_PADTMP | SVf_READONLY)) {
		    /* Might be flattened array after $#array =  */
		    PUTBACK;
		    LEAVE;
		    POPSUB(cx,sv);
		    PL_curpm = newpm;
		    LEAVESUB(sv);
		    DIE(aTHX_ "Can't return a %s from lvalue subroutine",
			SvREADONLY(TOPs) ? "readonly value" : "temporary");
		}
		else {
		    /* Can be a localized value subject to deletion. */
		    PL_tmps_stack[++PL_tmps_ix] = *mark;
		    (void)SvREFCNT_inc(*mark);
		}
	    }
	}
    }
    else {
	if (gimme == G_SCALAR) {
	  temporise:
	    MARK = newsp + 1;
	    if (MARK <= SP) {
		if (cx->blk_sub.cv && CvDEPTH(cx->blk_sub.cv) > 1) {
		    if (SvTEMP(TOPs)) {
			*MARK = SvREFCNT_inc(TOPs);
			FREETMPS;
			sv_2mortal(*MARK);
		    }
		    else {
			sv = SvREFCNT_inc(TOPs); /* FREETMPS could clobber it */
			FREETMPS;
			*MARK = sv_mortalcopy(sv);
			SvREFCNT_dec(sv);
		    }
		}
		else
		    *MARK = SvTEMP(TOPs) ? TOPs : sv_mortalcopy(TOPs);
	    }
	    else {
		MEXTEND(MARK, 0);
		*MARK = &PL_sv_undef;
	    }
	    SP = MARK;
	}
	else if (gimme == G_ARRAY) {
	  temporise_array:
	    for (MARK = newsp + 1; MARK <= SP; MARK++) {
		if (!SvTEMP(*MARK)) {
		    *MARK = sv_mortalcopy(*MARK);
		    TAINT_NOT;  /* Each item is independent */
		}
	    }
	}
    }
    PUTBACK;

    LEAVE;
    POPSUB(cx,sv);	/* Stack values are safe: release CV and @_ ... */
    PL_curpm = newpm;	/* ... and pop $1 et al */

    LEAVESUB(sv);
    return pop_return();
}


STATIC CV *
S_get_db_sub(pTHX_ SV **svp, CV *cv)
{
    SV *dbsv = GvSV(PL_DBsub);

    if (!PERLDB_SUB_NN) {
	GV *gv = CvGV(cv);

	save_item(dbsv);
	if ( (CvFLAGS(cv) & (CVf_ANON | CVf_CLONED))
	     || strEQ(GvNAME(gv), "END")
	     || ((GvCV(gv) != cv) && /* Could be imported, and old sub redefined. */
		 !( (SvTYPE(*svp) == SVt_PVGV) && (GvCV((GV*)*svp) == cv)
		    && (gv = (GV*)*svp) ))) {
	    /* Use GV from the stack as a fallback. */
	    /* GV is potentially non-unique, or contain different CV. */
	    SV *tmp = newRV((SV*)cv);
	    sv_setsv(dbsv, tmp);
	    SvREFCNT_dec(tmp);
	}
	else {
	    gv_efullname3(dbsv, gv, Nullch);
	}
    }
    else {
	(void)SvUPGRADE(dbsv, SVt_PVIV);
	(void)SvIOK_on(dbsv);
	SAVEIV(SvIVX(dbsv));
	SvIVX(dbsv) = PTR2IV(cv);	/* Do it the quickest way  */
    }

    if (CvXSUB(cv))
	PL_curcopdb = PL_curcop;
    cv = GvCV(PL_DBsub);
    return cv;
}

PP(pp_entersub)
{
    dSP; dPOPss;
    GV *gv;
    HV *stash;
    register CV *cv;
    register PERL_CONTEXT *cx;
    I32 gimme;
    bool hasargs = (PL_op->op_flags & OPf_STACKED) != 0;

    if (!sv)
	DIE(aTHX_ "Not a CODE reference");
    switch (SvTYPE(sv)) {
    default:
	if (!SvROK(sv)) {
	    char *sym;
	    STRLEN n_a;

	    if (sv == &PL_sv_yes) {		/* unfound import, ignore */
		if (hasargs)
		    SP = PL_stack_base + POPMARK;
		RETURN;
	    }
	    if (SvGMAGICAL(sv)) {
		mg_get(sv);
		if (SvROK(sv))
		    goto got_rv;
		sym = SvPOKp(sv) ? SvPVX(sv) : Nullch;
	    }
	    else
		sym = SvPV(sv, n_a);
	    if (!sym)
		DIE(aTHX_ PL_no_usym, "a subroutine");
	    if (PL_op->op_private & HINT_STRICT_REFS)
		DIE(aTHX_ PL_no_symref, sym, "a subroutine");
	    cv = get_cv(sym, TRUE);
	    break;
	}
  got_rv:
	{
	    SV **sp = &sv;		/* Used in tryAMAGICunDEREF macro. */
	    tryAMAGICunDEREF(to_cv);
	}	
	cv = (CV*)SvRV(sv);
	if (SvTYPE(cv) == SVt_PVCV)
	    break;
	/* FALL THROUGH */
    case SVt_PVHV:
    case SVt_PVAV:
	DIE(aTHX_ "Not a CODE reference");
    case SVt_PVCV:
	cv = (CV*)sv;
	break;
    case SVt_PVGV:
	if (!(cv = GvCVu((GV*)sv)))
	    cv = sv_2cv(sv, &stash, &gv, FALSE);
	if (!cv) {
	    ENTER;
	    SAVETMPS;
	    goto try_autoload;
	}
	break;
    }

    ENTER;
    SAVETMPS;

  retry:
    if (!CvROOT(cv) && !CvXSUB(cv)) {
	GV* autogv;
	SV* sub_name;

	/* anonymous or undef'd function leaves us no recourse */
	if (CvANON(cv) || !(gv = CvGV(cv)))
	    DIE(aTHX_ "Undefined subroutine called");

	/* autoloaded stub? */
	if (cv != GvCV(gv)) {
	    cv = GvCV(gv);
	}
	/* should call AUTOLOAD now? */
	else {
try_autoload:
	    if ((autogv = gv_autoload4(GvSTASH(gv), GvNAME(gv), GvNAMELEN(gv),
				   FALSE)))
	    {
		cv = GvCV(autogv);
	    }
	    /* sorry */
	    else {
		sub_name = sv_newmortal();
		gv_efullname3(sub_name, gv, Nullch);
		DIE(aTHX_ "Undefined subroutine &%"SVf" called", sub_name);
	    }
	}
	if (!cv)
	    DIE(aTHX_ "Not a CODE reference");
	goto retry;
    }

    gimme = GIMME_V;
    if ((PL_op->op_private & OPpENTERSUB_DB) && GvCV(PL_DBsub) && !CvNODEBUG(cv)) {
	cv = get_db_sub(&sv, cv);
	if (!cv)
	    DIE(aTHX_ "No DBsub routine");
    }

#ifdef USE_5005THREADS
    /*
     * First we need to check if the sub or method requires locking.
     * If so, we gain a lock on the CV, the first argument or the
     * stash (for static methods), as appropriate. This has to be
     * inline because for FAKE_THREADS, COND_WAIT inlines code to
     * reschedule by returning a new op.
     */
    MUTEX_LOCK(CvMUTEXP(cv));
    if (CvFLAGS(cv) & CVf_LOCKED) {
	MAGIC *mg;	
	if (CvFLAGS(cv) & CVf_METHOD) {
	    if (SP > PL_stack_base + TOPMARK)
		sv = *(PL_stack_base + TOPMARK + 1);
	    else {
		AV *av = (AV*)PAD_SVl(0);
		if (hasargs || !av || AvFILLp(av) < 0
		    || !(sv = AvARRAY(av)[0]))
		{
		    MUTEX_UNLOCK(CvMUTEXP(cv));
		    DIE(aTHX_ "no argument for locked method call");
		}
	    }
	    if (SvROK(sv))
		sv = SvRV(sv);
	    else {		
		STRLEN len;
		char *stashname = SvPV(sv, len);
		sv = (SV*)gv_stashpvn(stashname, len, TRUE);
	    }
	}
	else {
	    sv = (SV*)cv;
	}
	MUTEX_UNLOCK(CvMUTEXP(cv));
	mg = condpair_magic(sv);
	MUTEX_LOCK(MgMUTEXP(mg));
	if (MgOWNER(mg) == thr)
	    MUTEX_UNLOCK(MgMUTEXP(mg));
	else {
	    while (MgOWNER(mg))
		COND_WAIT(MgOWNERCONDP(mg), MgMUTEXP(mg));
	    MgOWNER(mg) = thr;
	    DEBUG_S(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%p: pp_entersub lock %p\n",
				  thr, sv));
	    MUTEX_UNLOCK(MgMUTEXP(mg));
	    SAVEDESTRUCTOR_X(Perl_unlock_condpair, sv);
	}
	MUTEX_LOCK(CvMUTEXP(cv));
    }
    /*
     * Now we have permission to enter the sub, we must distinguish
     * four cases. (0) It's an XSUB (in which case we don't care
     * about ownership); (1) it's ours already (and we're recursing);
     * (2) it's free (but we may already be using a cached clone);
     * (3) another thread owns it. Case (1) is easy: we just use it.
     * Case (2) means we look for a clone--if we have one, use it
     * otherwise grab ownership of cv. Case (3) means we look for a
     * clone (for non-XSUBs) and have to create one if we don't
     * already have one.
     * Why look for a clone in case (2) when we could just grab
     * ownership of cv straight away? Well, we could be recursing,
     * i.e. we originally tried to enter cv while another thread
     * owned it (hence we used a clone) but it has been freed up
     * and we're now recursing into it. It may or may not be "better"
     * to use the clone but at least CvDEPTH can be trusted.
     */
    if (CvOWNER(cv) == thr || CvXSUB(cv))
	MUTEX_UNLOCK(CvMUTEXP(cv));
    else {
	/* Case (2) or (3) */
	SV **svp;
	
	/*
	 * XXX Might it be better to release CvMUTEXP(cv) while we
     	 * do the hv_fetch? We might find someone has pinched it
     	 * when we look again, in which case we would be in case
     	 * (3) instead of (2) so we'd have to clone. Would the fact
     	 * that we released the mutex more quickly make up for this?
     	 */
	if ((svp = hv_fetch(thr->cvcache, (char *)cv, sizeof(cv), FALSE)))
	{
	    /* We already have a clone to use */
	    MUTEX_UNLOCK(CvMUTEXP(cv));
	    cv = *(CV**)svp;
	    DEBUG_S(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
				  "entersub: %p already has clone %p:%s\n",
				  thr, cv, SvPEEK((SV*)cv)));
	    CvOWNER(cv) = thr;
	    SvREFCNT_inc(cv);
	    if (CvDEPTH(cv) == 0)
		SAVEDESTRUCTOR_X(unset_cvowner, (void*) cv);
	}
	else {
	    /* (2) => grab ownership of cv. (3) => make clone */
	    if (!CvOWNER(cv)) {
		CvOWNER(cv) = thr;
		SvREFCNT_inc(cv);
		MUTEX_UNLOCK(CvMUTEXP(cv));
		DEBUG_S(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
			    "entersub: %p grabbing %p:%s in stash %s\n",
			    thr, cv, SvPEEK((SV*)cv), CvSTASH(cv) ?
	    			HvNAME(CvSTASH(cv)) : "(none)"));
	    }
	    else {
		/* Make a new clone. */
		CV *clonecv;
		SvREFCNT_inc(cv); /* don't let it vanish from under us */
		MUTEX_UNLOCK(CvMUTEXP(cv));
		DEBUG_S((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
				       "entersub: %p cloning %p:%s\n",
				       thr, cv, SvPEEK((SV*)cv))));
		/*
	    	 * We're creating a new clone so there's no race
		 * between the original MUTEX_UNLOCK and the
		 * SvREFCNT_inc since no one will be trying to undef
		 * it out from underneath us. At least, I don't think
		 * there's a race...
		 */
	     	clonecv = cv_clone(cv);
    		SvREFCNT_dec(cv); /* finished with this */
		hv_store(thr->cvcache, (char*)cv, sizeof(cv), (SV*)clonecv,0);
		CvOWNER(clonecv) = thr;
		cv = clonecv;
		SvREFCNT_inc(cv);
	    }
	    DEBUG_S(if (CvDEPTH(cv) != 0)
			PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "depth %ld != 0\n",
                                     CvDEPTH(cv)));
	    SAVEDESTRUCTOR_X(unset_cvowner, (void*) cv);
	}
    }
#endif /* USE_5005THREADS */

    if (CvXSUB(cv)) {
#ifdef PERL_XSUB_OLDSTYLE
	if (CvOLDSTYLE(cv)) {
	    I32 (*fp3)(int,int,int);
	    dMARK;
	    register I32 items = SP - MARK;
					/* We dont worry to copy from @_. */
	    while (SP > mark) {
		SP[1] = SP[0];
		SP--;
	    }
	    PL_stack_sp = mark + 1;
	    fp3 = (I32(*)(int,int,int))CvXSUB(cv);
	    items = (*fp3)(CvXSUBANY(cv).any_i32,
			   MARK - PL_stack_base + 1,
			   items);
	    PL_stack_sp = PL_stack_base + items;
	}
	else
#endif /* PERL_XSUB_OLDSTYLE */
	{
	    I32 markix = TOPMARK;

	    PUTBACK;

	    if (!hasargs) {
		/* Need to copy @_ to stack. Alternative may be to
		 * switch stack to @_, and copy return values
		 * back. This would allow popping @_ in XSUB, e.g.. XXXX */
		AV* av;
		I32 items;
#ifdef USE_5005THREADS
		av = (AV*)PAD_SVl(0);
#else
		av = GvAV(PL_defgv);
#endif /* USE_5005THREADS */		
		items = AvFILLp(av) + 1;   /* @_ is not tieable */

		if (items) {
		    /* Mark is at the end of the stack. */
		    EXTEND(SP, items);
		    Copy(AvARRAY(av), SP + 1, items, SV*);
		    SP += items;
		    PUTBACK ;		
		}
	    }
	    /* We assume first XSUB in &DB::sub is the called one. */
	    if (PL_curcopdb) {
		SAVEVPTR(PL_curcop);
		PL_curcop = PL_curcopdb;
		PL_curcopdb = NULL;
	    }
	    /* Do we need to open block here? XXXX */
	    (void)(*CvXSUB(cv))(aTHX_ cv);

	    /* Enforce some sanity in scalar context. */
	    if (gimme == G_SCALAR && ++markix != PL_stack_sp - PL_stack_base ) {
		if (markix > PL_stack_sp - PL_stack_base)
		    *(PL_stack_base + markix) = &PL_sv_undef;
		else
		    *(PL_stack_base + markix) = *PL_stack_sp;
		PL_stack_sp = PL_stack_base + markix;
	    }
	}
	LEAVE;
	return NORMAL;
    }
    else {
	dMARK;
	register I32 items = SP - MARK;
	AV* padlist = CvPADLIST(cv);
	push_return(PL_op->op_next);
	PUSHBLOCK(cx, CXt_SUB, MARK);
	PUSHSUB(cx);
	CvDEPTH(cv)++;
	/* XXX This would be a natural place to set C<PL_compcv = cv> so
	 * that eval'' ops within this sub know the correct lexical space.
	 * Owing the speed considerations, we choose instead to search for
	 * the cv using find_runcv() when calling doeval().
	 */
	if (CvDEPTH(cv) < 2)
	    (void)SvREFCNT_inc(cv);
	else {
	    PERL_STACK_OVERFLOW_CHECK();
	    pad_push(padlist, CvDEPTH(cv), 1);
	}
#ifdef USE_5005THREADS
	if (!hasargs) {
	    AV* av = (AV*)PAD_SVl(0);

	    items = AvFILLp(av) + 1;
	    if (items) {
		/* Mark is at the end of the stack. */
		EXTEND(SP, items);
		Copy(AvARRAY(av), SP + 1, items, SV*);
		SP += items;
		PUTBACK ;		
	    }
	}
#endif /* USE_5005THREADS */		
	PAD_SET_CUR(padlist, CvDEPTH(cv));
#ifndef USE_5005THREADS
	if (hasargs)
#endif /* USE_5005THREADS */
	{
	    AV* av;
	    SV** ary;

#if 0
	    DEBUG_S(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
	    			  "%p entersub preparing @_\n", thr));
#endif
	    av = (AV*)PAD_SVl(0);
	    if (AvREAL(av)) {
		/* @_ is normally not REAL--this should only ever
		 * happen when DB::sub() calls things that modify @_ */
		av_clear(av);
		AvREAL_off(av);
		AvREIFY_on(av);
	    }
#ifndef USE_5005THREADS
	    cx->blk_sub.savearray = GvAV(PL_defgv);
	    GvAV(PL_defgv) = (AV*)SvREFCNT_inc(av);
#endif /* USE_5005THREADS */
	    CX_CURPAD_SAVE(cx->blk_sub);
	    cx->blk_sub.argarray = av;
	    ++MARK;

	    if (items > AvMAX(av) + 1) {
		ary = AvALLOC(av);
		if (AvARRAY(av) != ary) {
		    AvMAX(av) += AvARRAY(av) - AvALLOC(av);
		    SvPVX(av) = (char*)ary;
		}
		if (items > AvMAX(av) + 1) {
		    AvMAX(av) = items - 1;
		    Renew(ary,items,SV*);
		    AvALLOC(av) = ary;
		    SvPVX(av) = (char*)ary;
		}
	    }
	    Copy(MARK,AvARRAY(av),items,SV*);
	    AvFILLp(av) = items - 1;
	
	    while (items--) {
		if (*MARK)
		    SvTEMP_off(*MARK);
		MARK++;
	    }
	}
	/* warning must come *after* we fully set up the context
	 * stuff so that __WARN__ handlers can safely dounwind()
	 * if they want to
	 */
	if (CvDEPTH(cv) == 100 && ckWARN(WARN_RECURSION)
	    && !(PERLDB_SUB && cv == GvCV(PL_DBsub)))
	    sub_crush_depth(cv);
#if 0
	DEBUG_S(PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log,
			      "%p entersub returning %p\n", thr, CvSTART(cv)));
#endif
	RETURNOP(CvSTART(cv));
    }
}

void
Perl_sub_crush_depth(pTHX_ CV *cv)
{
    if (CvANON(cv))
	Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_RECURSION), "Deep recursion on anonymous subroutine");
    else {
	SV* tmpstr = sv_newmortal();
	gv_efullname3(tmpstr, CvGV(cv), Nullch);
	Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_RECURSION), "Deep recursion on subroutine \"%"SVf"\"",
		tmpstr);
    }
}

PP(pp_aelem)
{
    dSP;
    SV** svp;
    SV* elemsv = POPs;
    IV elem = SvIV(elemsv);
    AV* av = (AV*)POPs;
    U32 lval = PL_op->op_flags & OPf_MOD || LVRET;
    U32 defer = (PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_DEFER) && (elem > AvFILL(av));
    SV *sv;

    if (SvROK(elemsv) && !SvGAMAGIC(elemsv) && ckWARN(WARN_MISC))
	Perl_warner(aTHX_ packWARN(WARN_MISC), "Use of reference \"%"SVf"\" as array index", elemsv);
    if (elem > 0)
	elem -= PL_curcop->cop_arybase;
    if (SvTYPE(av) != SVt_PVAV)
	RETPUSHUNDEF;
    svp = av_fetch(av, elem, lval && !defer);
    if (lval) {
	if (!svp || *svp == &PL_sv_undef) {
	    SV* lv;
	    if (!defer)
		DIE(aTHX_ PL_no_aelem, elem);
	    lv = sv_newmortal();
	    sv_upgrade(lv, SVt_PVLV);
	    LvTYPE(lv) = 'y';
	    sv_magic(lv, Nullsv, PERL_MAGIC_defelem, Nullch, 0);
	    LvTARG(lv) = SvREFCNT_inc(av);
	    LvTARGOFF(lv) = elem;
	    LvTARGLEN(lv) = 1;
	    PUSHs(lv);
	    RETURN;
	}
	if (PL_op->op_private & OPpLVAL_INTRO)
	    save_aelem(av, elem, svp);
	else if (PL_op->op_private & OPpDEREF)
	    vivify_ref(*svp, PL_op->op_private & OPpDEREF);
    }
    sv = (svp ? *svp : &PL_sv_undef);
    if (!lval && SvGMAGICAL(sv))	/* see note in pp_helem() */
	sv = sv_mortalcopy(sv);
    PUSHs(sv);
    RETURN;
}

void
Perl_vivify_ref(pTHX_ SV *sv, U32 to_what)
{
    if (SvGMAGICAL(sv))
	mg_get(sv);
    if (!SvOK(sv)) {
	if (SvREADONLY(sv))
	    Perl_croak(aTHX_ PL_no_modify);
	if (SvTYPE(sv) < SVt_RV)
	    sv_upgrade(sv, SVt_RV);
	else if (SvTYPE(sv) >= SVt_PV) {
	    (void)SvOOK_off(sv);
	    Safefree(SvPVX(sv));
	    SvLEN(sv) = SvCUR(sv) = 0;
	}
	switch (to_what) {
	case OPpDEREF_SV:
	    SvRV(sv) = NEWSV(355,0);
	    break;
	case OPpDEREF_AV:
	    SvRV(sv) = (SV*)newAV();
	    break;
	case OPpDEREF_HV:
	    SvRV(sv) = (SV*)newHV();
	    break;
	}
	SvROK_on(sv);
	SvSETMAGIC(sv);
    }
}

PP(pp_method)
{
    dSP;
    SV* sv = TOPs;

    if (SvROK(sv)) {
	SV* rsv = SvRV(sv);
	if (SvTYPE(rsv) == SVt_PVCV) {
	    SETs(rsv);
	    RETURN;
	}
    }

    SETs(method_common(sv, Null(U32*)));
    RETURN;
}

PP(pp_method_named)
{
    dSP;
    SV* sv = cSVOP_sv;
    U32 hash = SvUVX(sv);

    XPUSHs(method_common(sv, &hash));
    RETURN;
}

STATIC SV *
S_method_common(pTHX_ SV* meth, U32* hashp)
{
    SV* sv;
    SV* ob;
    GV* gv;
    HV* stash;
    char* name;
    STRLEN namelen;
    char* packname = 0;
    SV *packsv = Nullsv;
    STRLEN packlen;

    name = SvPV(meth, namelen);
    sv = *(PL_stack_base + TOPMARK + 1);

    if (!sv)
	Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't call method \"%s\" on an undefined value", name);

    if (SvGMAGICAL(sv))
	mg_get(sv);
    if (SvROK(sv))
	ob = (SV*)SvRV(sv);
    else {
	GV* iogv;

	/* this isn't a reference */
	packname = Nullch;

        if(SvOK(sv) && (packname = SvPV(sv, packlen))) {
          HE* he;
	  he = hv_fetch_ent(PL_stashcache, sv, 0, 0);
          if (he) { 
            stash = INT2PTR(HV*,SvIV(HeVAL(he)));
            goto fetch;
          }
        }

	if (!SvOK(sv) ||
	    !(packname) ||
	    !(iogv = gv_fetchpv(packname, FALSE, SVt_PVIO)) ||
	    !(ob=(SV*)GvIO(iogv)))
	{
	    /* this isn't the name of a filehandle either */
	    if (!packname ||
		((UTF8_IS_START(*packname) && DO_UTF8(sv))
		    ? !isIDFIRST_utf8((U8*)packname)
		    : !isIDFIRST(*packname)
		))
	    {
		Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't call method \"%s\" %s", name,
			   SvOK(sv) ? "without a package or object reference"
				    : "on an undefined value");
	    }
	    /* assume it's a package name */
	    stash = gv_stashpvn(packname, packlen, FALSE);
	    if (!stash)
		packsv = sv;
            else {
	        SV* ref = newSViv(PTR2IV(stash));
	        hv_store(PL_stashcache, packname, packlen, ref, 0);
	    }
	    goto fetch;
	}
	/* it _is_ a filehandle name -- replace with a reference */
	*(PL_stack_base + TOPMARK + 1) = sv_2mortal(newRV((SV*)iogv));
    }

    /* if we got here, ob should be a reference or a glob */
    if (!ob || !(SvOBJECT(ob)
		 || (SvTYPE(ob) == SVt_PVGV && (ob = (SV*)GvIO((GV*)ob))
		     && SvOBJECT(ob))))
    {
	Perl_croak(aTHX_ "Can't call method \"%s\" on unblessed reference",
		   name);
    }

    stash = SvSTASH(ob);

  fetch:
    /* NOTE: stash may be null, hope hv_fetch_ent and
       gv_fetchmethod can cope (it seems they can) */

    /* shortcut for simple names */
    if (hashp) {
	HE* he = hv_fetch_ent(stash, meth, 0, *hashp);
	if (he) {
	    gv = (GV*)HeVAL(he);
	    if (isGV(gv) && GvCV(gv) &&
		(!GvCVGEN(gv) || GvCVGEN(gv) == PL_sub_generation))
		return (SV*)GvCV(gv);
	}
    }

    gv = gv_fetchmethod(stash ? stash : (HV*)packsv, name);

    if (!gv) {
	/* This code tries to figure out just what went wrong with
	   gv_fetchmethod.  It therefore needs to duplicate a lot of
	   the internals of that function.  We can't move it inside
	   Perl_gv_fetchmethod_autoload(), however, since that would
	   cause UNIVERSAL->can("NoSuchPackage::foo") to croak, and we
	   don't want that.
	*/
	char* leaf = name;
	char* sep = Nullch;
	char* p;

	for (p = name; *p; p++) {
	    if (*p == '\'')
		sep = p, leaf = p + 1;
	    else if (*p == ':' && *(p + 1) == ':')
		sep = p, leaf = p + 2;
	}
	if (!sep || ((sep - name) == 5 && strnEQ(name, "SUPER", 5))) {
	    /* the method name is unqualified or starts with SUPER:: */ 
	    packname = sep ? CopSTASHPV(PL_curcop) :
		stash ? HvNAME(stash) : packname;
	    packlen = strlen(packname);
	}
	else {
	    /* the method name is qualified */
	    packname = name;
	    packlen = sep - name;
	}
	
	/* we're relying on gv_fetchmethod not autovivifying the stash */
	if (gv_stashpvn(packname, packlen, FALSE)) {
	    Perl_croak(aTHX_
		       "Can't locate object method \"%s\" via package \"%.*s\"",
		       leaf, (int)packlen, packname);
	}
	else {
	    Perl_croak(aTHX_
		       "Can't locate object method \"%s\" via package \"%.*s\""
		       " (perhaps you forgot to load \"%.*s\"?)",
		       leaf, (int)packlen, packname, (int)packlen, packname);
	}
    }
    return isGV(gv) ? (SV*)GvCV(gv) : (SV*)gv;
}

#ifdef USE_5005THREADS
static void
unset_cvowner(pTHX_ void *cvarg)
{
    register CV* cv = (CV *) cvarg;

    DEBUG_S((PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "%p unsetting CvOWNER of %p:%s\n",
			   thr, cv, SvPEEK((SV*)cv))));
    MUTEX_LOCK(CvMUTEXP(cv));
    DEBUG_S(if (CvDEPTH(cv) != 0)
		PerlIO_printf(Perl_debug_log, "depth %ld != 0\n",
                             CvDEPTH(cv)));
    assert(thr == CvOWNER(cv));
    CvOWNER(cv) = 0;
    MUTEX_UNLOCK(CvMUTEXP(cv));
    SvREFCNT_dec(cv);
}
#endif /* USE_5005THREADS */