INSTALL   [plain text]

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-- $Id: INSTALL,v 1.135 2008/11/02 21:13:51 tom Exp $
             How to install Ncurses/Terminfo on your system


You should be reading the file INSTALL in a directory called ncurses-d.d, where
d.d is the current version number.  There should be several subdirectories,
including `c++', `form', `man', `menu', 'misc', `ncurses', `panel', `progs',
and `test'.  See the README file for a roadmap to the package.

If you are a Linux or FreeBSD or NetBSD distribution integrator or packager,
please read and act on the section titled IF YOU ARE A SYSTEM INTEGRATOR

If you are converting from BSD curses and do not have root access, be sure
to read the BSD CONVERSION NOTES section below.

If you are trying to build applications using gpm with ncurses,
read the USING NCURSES WITH GPM section below.

If you are running over the Andrew File System see the note below on

If you are cross-compiling, see the note below on BUILDING NCURSES WITH A

If you want to build the Ada95 binding, go to the Ada95 directory and
follow the instructions there.  The Ada95 binding is not covered below.

If you are using anything but (a) Linux, or (b) one of the 4.4BSD-based
i386 Unixes, go read the Portability section in the TO-DO file before you
do anything else.


You will need the following to build and install ncurses under UNIX:

	* ANSI C compiler  (gcc, for instance)
	* sh               (bash will do)
	* awk              (mawk or gawk will do)
	* sed
	* BSD or System V style install (a script is enclosed)

Ncurses has been also built in the OS/2 EMX environment.


1.  First, decide whether you want ncurses to replace your existing library (in
    which case you'll need super-user privileges) or be installed in parallel
    with it.

    The --prefix option to configure changes the root directory for installing
    ncurses.  The default is normally in subdirectories of /usr/local, except
    for systems where ncurses is normally installed as a system library, e.g.,
    Linux, the various BSD systems and Cygwin.  Use --prefix=/usr to replace
    your default curses distribution.

    The package gets installed beneath the --prefix directory as follows:

    In $(prefix)/bin:          tic, infocmp, captoinfo, tset,
				reset, clear, tput, toe
    In $(prefix)/lib:          libncurses*.* libcurses.a
    In $(prefix)/share/terminfo: compiled terminal descriptions
    In $(prefix)/include:      C header files
    Under $(prefix)/man:       the manual pages

    Note that the configure script attempts to locate previous installation of
    ncurses, and will set the default prefix according to where it finds the
    ncurses headers.

    Do not use commands such as

    	make install prefix=XXX

    to change the prefix after configuration, since the prefix value is used
    for some absolute pathnames such as TERMINFO.  Instead do this

    	make install DESTDIR=XXX

    See also the discussion of --with-install-prefix.

2.  Type `./configure' in the top-level directory of the distribution to
    configure ncurses for your operating system and create the Makefiles.
    Besides --prefix, various configuration options are available to customize
    the installation; use `./configure --help' to list the available options.

    If your operating system is not supported, read the PORTABILITY section in
    the file ncurses/README for information on how to create a configuration
    file for your system.

    The `configure' script generates makefile rules for one or more object
    models and their associated libraries:

	libncurses.a (normal)

	libcurses.a (normal, a link to libncurses.a)
		This gets left out if you configure with --disable-overwrite. (shared)

	libncurses_g.a (debug)

	libncurses_p.a (profile) (libtool)

    If you configure using the --enable-widec option, a "w" is appended to the
    library names (e.g., libncursesw.a), and the resulting libraries support
    wide-characters, e.g., via a UTF-8 locale.  The corresponding header files
    are compatible with the non-wide-character configuration; wide-character
    features are provided by ifdef's in the header files.  The wide-character
    library interfaces are not binary-compatible with the non-wide-character
    version.  Building and running the wide-character code relies on a fairly
    recent implementation of libiconv.  We have built this configuration on
    Linux using libiconv, sometimes requiring libutf8.

    If you configure using the --with-pthread option, a "t" is appended to
    the library names (e.g., libncursest.a, libncursestw.a).

    If you do not specify any models, the normal and debug libraries will be
    configured.  Typing `configure' with no arguments is equivalent to:

	./configure --with-normal --with-debug --enable-overwrite


	./configure --with-shared

    makes the shared libraries the default, resulting in

	./configure --with-shared --with-normal --with-debug --enable-overwrite

    If you want only shared libraries, type

	./configure --with-shared --without-normal --without-debug

    Rules for generating shared libraries are highly dependent upon the choice
    of host system and compiler.  We've been testing shared libraries on Linux
    and SunOS with gcc, but more work needs to be done to make shared libraries
    work on other systems.

    If you have libtool installed, you can type

	./configure --with-libtool

    to generate the appropriate static and/or shared libraries for your
    platform using libtool.

    You can make curses and terminfo fall back to an existing file of termcap
    definitions by configuring with --enable-termcap.  If you do this, the
    library will search /etc/termcap before the terminfo database, and will
    also interpret the contents of the TERM environment variable.  See the
    section BSD CONVERSION NOTES below.

3.  Type `make'.  Ignore any warnings, no error messages should be produced.
    This should compile the ncurses library, the terminfo compiler tic(1),
    captoinfo(1), infocmp(1), toe(1), clear(1) tset(1), reset(1), and tput(1)
    programs (see the manual pages for explanation of what they do), some test
    programs, and the panels, menus, and forms libraries.

4.  Run ncurses and several other test programs in the test directory to
    verify that ncurses functions correctly before doing an install that
    may overwrite system files.  Read the file test/README for details on
    the test programs.

    NOTE: You must have installed the terminfo database, or set the
    environment variable $TERMINFO to point to a SVr4-compatible terminfo
    database before running the test programs.  Not all vendors' terminfo
    databases are SVr4-compatible, but most seem to be.  Exceptions include
    DEC's Digital Unix (formerly known as OSF/1).

    If you run the test programs WITHOUT installing terminfo, ncurses may
    read the termcap file and cache that in $HOME/.terminfo, which will
    thereafter be used instead of the terminfo database.  See the comments
    on "--enable-getcap-cache", to see why this is a Bad Thing.

    It is possible to configure ncurses to use other terminfo database formats.
    A few are provided as examples in the include-directory (see --with-caps).

    The ncurses program is designed specifically to test the ncurses library.
    You can use it to verify that the screen highlights work correctly, that
    cursor addressing and window scrolling works OK, etc.

5.  Once you've tested, you can type `make install' to install libraries,
    the programs, the terminfo database and the manual pages.  Alternately, you
    can type `make install' in each directory you want to install.  In the
    top-level directory, you can do a partial install using these commands:

	'make install.progs'    installs tic, infocmp, etc...
	'make install.includes' installs the headers.
	'make install.libs'     installs the libraries (and the headers).
	'make'     installs the terminfo data. (Note: `tic' must
				be installed before the terminfo data can be
	'make'      installs the manual pages.

  #     CAVEAT EMPTOR: `' run as root will NUKE any existing     #
  #  terminfo database. If you have any custom or unusual entries SAVE them  #
  #  before you install ncurses.  I have a file called terminfo.custom for   #
  #  this purpose.  Don't forget to run tic on the file once you're done.    #

    The terminfo(5) manual page must be preprocessed with tbl(1) before
    being formatted by nroff(1).  Modern man(1) implementations tend to do
    this by default, but you may want to look at your version's manual page
    to be sure.  You may also install the manual pages after preprocessing
    with tbl(1) by specifying the configure option --with-manpage-tbl.

    If the system already has a curses library that you need to keep using
    you'll need to distinguish between it and ncurses.  See the discussion of
    --disable-overwrite.  If ncurses is installed outside the standard
    directories (/usr/include and /usr/lib) then all your users will need to
    use the -I option to compile programs and -L to link them.

    If you have another curses installed in your system and you accidentally
    compile using its curses.h you'll end up with a large number of
    undefined symbols at link time.

    IF YOU DO NOT HAVE ROOT: Change directory to the `progs' subdirectory
    and run the `capconvert' script.  This script will deduce various things
    about your environment and use them to build you a private terminfo tree,
    so you can use ncurses applications.

    If more than one user at your site does this, the space for the duplicate
    trees is wasted.  Try to get your site administrators to install a system-
    wide terminfo tree instead.

    See the BSD CONVERSION NOTES section below for a few more details.

6.  The c++ directory has C++ classes that are built on top of ncurses and
    panels.  You must have c++ (and its libraries) installed before you can
    compile and run the demo.

    Use --without-cxx-binding to tell configure to not build the C++ bindings
    and demo.

    If you do not have C++, you must use the --without-cxx option to tell
    the configure script to not attempt to determine the type of 'bool'
    which may be supported by C++.  IF YOU USE THIS OPTION, BE ADVISED THAT


    The configure script provides a short list of its options when you type

	./configure --help

    The --help and several options are common to all configure scripts that are
    generated with autoconf.  Those are all listed before the line

	--enable and --with options recognized:

    The other options are specific to this package.  We list them in alphabetic

	With ncurses 5.1, we introduced a new function, assume_default_colors()
	which allows applications to specify what the default foreground and
	background color are assumed to be.  Most color applications use
	full-screen color; but a few do not color the background.  While the
	assumed values can be overridden by invoking assume_default_colors(),
	you may find it useful to set the assumed values to the pre-5.1
	convention, using this configure option.

	Assume machine has little memory.  The configure script attempts to
	determine if your machine has enough memory (about 6Mb) to compile the
	terminfo database without writing portions to disk.  Some allocators
	return deceptive results, so you may have to override the configure
	script.  Or you may be building tic for a smaller machine.

	Disable compile-time optimization of predefined tables which puts
	all of their strings into a very long string, to reduce relocation

	Use only built-in data.  The ncurses libraries normally read terminfo
	and termcap data from disk.  You can configure ncurses to have a
	built-in database, aka "fallback" entries.  Embedded applications may
	have no need for an external database.  Some, but not all of the
	programs are useful in this configuration, e.g., reset and tput versus
	infocmp and tic.

	Disable function-extensions.  Configure ncurses without the functions
	that are not specified by XSI.  See ncurses/modules for the exact
	list of library modules that would be suppressed.

	Compile without hashmap scrolling-optimization code.  This algorithm is
	the default.

	The $HOME/.terminfo directory is normally added to ncurses' search
	list for reading/writing terminfo entries, since that directory is
	more likely writable than the system terminfo database.  Use this
	option to disable the feature altogether.

	Disable compiler flags needed to use large-file interfaces.

	For testing, compile-in code that frees memory that normally would not
	be freed, to simplify analysis of memory-leaks.

	Any implementation of curses must not free the memory associated with
	a screen, since (even after calling endwin()), it must be available
	for use in the next call to refresh().  There are also chunks of
	memory held for performance reasons.  That makes it hard to analyze
	curses applications for memory leaks.  To work around this, build
	a debugging version of the ncurses library which frees those chunks
	which it can, and provides the _nc_free_and_exit() function to free
	the remainder on exit.  The ncurses utility and test programs use this
	feature, e.g., via the ExitProgram() macro.

	The header files will ignore use of the _LP64 symbol to make chtype
	and mmask_t types 32 bits (they may be long on 64-bit hosts, for
	compatibility with older releases).

	NOTE: this is potentially an ABI change, depending on existing
	packages.  The default for this option is "disabled" for ncurses
	ABI 5, and "enabled" for ABI 6.

	For testing, use functions rather than macros.  The program will run
	more slowly, but it is simpler to debug.  This defines NCURSES_NOMACROS
	at build time.  See also the --enable-expanded option.

	If you are installing ncurses on a system which contains another
	development version of curses, or which could be confused by the loader
	for another version, we recommend that you leave out the link to
	-lcurses.  The ncurses library is always available as -lncurses.
	Disabling overwrite also causes the ncurses header files to be
	installed into a subdirectory, e.g., /usr/local/include/ncurses,
	rather than the include directory.  This makes it simpler to avoid
	compile-time conflicts with other versions of curses.h

	If --enable-rpath is given, the generated makefiles normally will
	rebuild the libraries during install.  Use this option to simply
	copy whatever the linked produced.

	This option is ignored if --enable-rpath is not given.

	Compile with environment restriction, so certain environment variables
	are not available when running as root, or via a setuid/setgid
	application.  These are (for example $TERMINFO) those that allow the
	search path for the terminfo or termcap entry to be customized.

	Compile without scroll-hints code.  This option is ignored when
	hashmap scrolling is configured, which is the default.

	When building shared libraries, normally the tic library is linked to
	depend upon the ncurses library (and in turn, on the term-library if
	the --with-termlib option was given).  The tic- and term-libraries
	ABI does not depend on the --enable-widec option. Some packagers have
	used this to reduce the number of library files which are packaged
	by using only one copy of those libraries.  To make this work properly,
	the tic library must be built without an explicit dependency on the
	ncurses (or ncursesw) library.  Use this configure option to do that.
	For example
		configure --with-ticlib --with-shared --disable-tic-depends

	Portable programs should call tparm() using the fixed-length parameter
	list documented in X/Open.  ncurses provides varargs support for this
	function.  Use --disable-tparm-varargs to disable this support.

	For testing, compile-in assertion code.  This is used only for a few
	places where ncurses cannot easily recover by returning an error code.

	A few platforms have what we consider a broken linker:  it cannot link
	objects from an archive solely by referring to data objects in those
	files, but requires a function reference.  This configure option
	changes several data references to functions to work around this

	NOTE:  With ncurses 5.1, this may not be necessary, since we are
	told that some linkers interpret uninitialized global data as a
	different type of reference which behaves as described above.  We have
	explicitly initialized all of the global data to work around the

	Recognize BSD-style prefix padding.  Some ancient BSD programs (such as
	nethack) call tputs("50") to implement delays.

	Compile with experimental $COLORFGBG code.  That environment variable
	is set by some terminal emulators as a hint to applications, by
	advertising the default foreground and background colors.  During
	initialization, ncurses sets color pair 0 to match this.

	The curses interface as documented in XSI is rather old, in fact
	including features that precede ANSI C.  The prototypes generally do
	not make effective use of "const".  When using stricter compilers (or
	gcc with appropriate warnings), you may see warnings about the mismatch
	between const and non-const data.  We provide a configure option which
	changes the interfaces to use const - quieting these warnings and
	reflecting the actual use of the parameters more closely.  The ncurses
	library uses the symbol NCURSES_CONST for these instances of const,
	and if you have asked for compiler warnings, will add gcc's const-qual
	warning.  There will still be warnings due to subtle inconsistencies
	in the interface, but at a lower level.

	NOTE:  configuring ncurses with this option may detract from the
	portability of your applications by encouraging you to use const in
	places where the XSI curses interface would not allow them.  Similar
	issues arise when porting to SVr4 curses, which uses const in even
	fewer places.

	Use the option --disable-echo to make the build-log less verbose by
	suppressing the display of the compile and link commands.  This makes
	it easier to see the compiler warnings.  (You can always use "make -n"
	to see the options that are used).

	For testing, generate functions for certain macros to make them visible
	as such to the debugger.  See also the --disable-macros option.

	Extend the cchar_t structure to allow more than 16 colors to be
	encoded.  This applies only to the wide-character (--enable-widec)

	NOTE:  using this option will make libraries which are not binary-
	compatible with libncursesw 5.4.  None of the interfaces change, but
	applications which have an array of cchar_t's must be recompiled.

	Modify the encoding of mouse state to make room for a 5th mouse button.
	That allows one to use ncurses with a wheel mouse with xterm or
	similar X terminal emulators.

	NOTE:  using this option will make libraries which are not binary-
	compatible with libncursesw 5.4.  None of the interfaces change, but
	applications which have mouse mask mmask_t's must be recompiled.

	Use the 4.4BSD getcap code if available, or a bundled version of it to
	fetch termcap entries.  Entries read in this way cannot use (make
	cross-references to) the terminfo tree, but it is faster than reading

	If configured for one of the *BSD systems, this automatically uses
	the hashed database system produced using cap_mkdb or similar tools.
	In that case, there is no advantage in using the --enable-getcap-cache

	See also the --with-hashed-db option.

	Cache translated termcaps under the directory $HOME/.terminfo

	NOTE:  this sounds good - it makes ncurses run faster the second time.
	But look where the data comes from - an /etc/termcap containing lots of
	entries that are not up to date.  If you configure with this option and
	forget to install the terminfo database before running an ncurses
	application, you will end up with a hidden terminfo database that
	generally does not support color and will miss some function keys.

	Compile-in cursor-optimization code that uses hard-tabs.  We would make
	this a standard feature except for the concern that the terminfo entry
	may not be accurate, or that your stty settings have disabled the use
	of tabs.

	Controls whether the filesystem on which the terminfo database resides
	supports mixed-case filenames (normal for UNIX, but not on other
	systems).  If you do not specify this option, the configure script
	checks the current filesystem.

	Compile-in support for the $NCURSES_NO_PADDING environment variable,
	which allows you to suppress the effect of non-mandatory padding in
	terminfo entries.  This is the default, unless you have disabled the
	extended functions.

	Compile experimental configuration which improves reentrant use of the
	library by reducing global and static variables.  This option is also
	set if --with-pthread is used.

	Use rpath option when generating shared libraries, and (with some
	restrictions) when linking the corresponding programs.  This originally
	(in 1997) applied mainly to systems using the GNU linker (read the

	More recently it is useful for systems that require special treatment
	shared libraries in "unusual" locations.  The "system" libraries reside
	in directories which are on the loader's default search-path.  While
	you may be able to use workarounds such as the $LD_LIBRARY_PATH
	environment variable, they do not work with setuid applications since
	the LD_LIBRARY_PATH variable would be unset in that situation.

	This option does not apply to --with-libtool, since libtool makes
	extra assumptions about rpath.

	Compile with experimental safe-sprintf code.  You may consider using
	this if you are building ncurses for a system that has neither
	vsnprintf() or vsprintf().  It is slow, however.

	Compile support for ncurses' SIGWINCH handler.  If your application has
	its own SIGWINCH handler, ncurses will not use its own.  The ncurses
	handler causes wgetch() to return KEY_RESIZE when the screen-size
	changes.  This option is the default, unless you have disabled the
	extended functions.

	The term.h header declares a Booleans[] array typed "char".  But it
	stores signed values there and "char" is not necessarily signed.
	Some packagers choose to alter the type of Booleans[] though this
	is not strictly compatible.  This option allows one to implement this
	alteration without patching the source code.

	If your system supports symbolic links, make tic use symbolic links
	rather than hard links to save diskspace when writing aliases in the
	terminfo database.

	Compile-in support for user-definable terminal capabilities.  Use the
	-x option of tic and infocmp to treat unrecognized terminal
	capabilities as user-defined strings.  This option is the default,
	unless you have disabled the extended functions.

	Compile in support for reading terminal descriptions from termcap if no
	match is found in the terminfo database.  See also the --enable-getcap
	and --enable-getcap-cache options.

	Turn on GCC compiler warnings.  There should be only a few.

	If the --with-pthread option is set, check if the compiler supports
	weak-symbols.  If it does, then name the thread-capable library without
	the "t" (libncurses rather than libncursest), and provide for
	dynamically loading the pthreads entrypoints at runtime.  This allows
	one to reduce the number of library files for ncurses.

	Compile with experimental wgetch-events code.  See ncurses/README.IZ

	Compile with wide-character code.  This makes a different version of
	the libraries (e.g.,, which stores characters as

	NOTE: applications compiled with this configuration are not compatible
	with those built for 8-bit characters.  You cannot simply make a
	symbolic link to equate with

	NOTE: the Ada95 binding may be built against either version of the the
	ncurses library, but you must decide which:  the binding installs the
	same set of files for either version.  Currently (2002/6/22) it does
	not use the extended features from the wide-character code, so it is
	probably better to not install the binding for that configuration.

	Compile-in support experimental xmc (magic cookie) code.

	Override the ABI version, which is used in shared library filenames.
	Normally this is the same as the release version; some ports have
	special requirements for compatibility.

	This option does not affect linking with libtool, which uses the
	release major/minor numbers.

	Specify the Ada95 compiler command (default "gnatmake")

	Tell where to install the Ada includes (default:

	Tell where to install the Ada objects (default:  PREFIX/lib/ada/adalib)

	If --without-cxx is specified, override the type used for the "bool"
	declared in curses.h (normally the type is automatically chosen to
	correspond with that in <stdbool.h>, or defaults to platform-specific

	If cross-compiling, specify a host C compiler, which is needed to
	compile a few utilities which generate source modules for ncurses.
	If you do not give this option, the configure script checks if the
	$BUILD_CC variable is set, and otherwise defaults to gcc or cc.

	If cross-compiling, specify the host C compiler-flags.  You might need
	to do this if the target compiler has unusual flags which confuse the
	host compiler.

	You can also set the environment variable $BUILD_CFLAGS rather than
	use this option.

	If cross-compiling, specify the host C preprocessor-flags.  You might
	need to do this if the target compiler has unusual flags which confuse
	the host compiler.

	You can also set the environment variable $BUILD_CPPFLAGS rather than
	use this option.

	If cross-compiling, specify the host linker-flags.  You might need to
	do this if the target linker has unusual flags which confuse the host

	You can also set the environment variable $BUILD_LDFLAGS rather than
	use this option.

	If cross-compiling, the host libraries.  You might need to do this if
	the target environment requires unusual libraries.

	You can also set the environment variable $BUILD_LIBS rather than
	use this option.

	Specify an alternate terminfo capabilities file, which makes the
	configure script look for "include/Caps.XXX".  A few systems, e.g.,
	AIX 4.x use the same overall file-format as ncurses for terminfo
	data, but use different alignments within the tables to support
	legacy applications.  For those systems, you can configure ncurses
	to use a terminfo database which is compatible with the native

	Override type of chtype, which stores the video attributes and (if
	--enable-widec is not given) a character.  Prior to ncurses 5.5, this
	was always unsigned long, but with ncurses 5.5, it may be unsigned.
	Use this option if you need to preserve compatibility with 64-bit

	Specify the terminfo source file to install.  Usually you will wish
	to install ncurses' default (misc/terminfo.src).  Certain systems
	have special requirements, e.g, OS/2 EMX has a customized terminfo
	source file.

	For testing, compile and link with Conor Cahill's dbmalloc library.
	This also sets the --disable-leaks option.

	Generate debug-libraries (default).  These are named by adding "_g"
	to the root, e.g., libncurses_g.a

	Specify the default terminfo database directory.  This is normally
	DATADIR/terminfo, e.g., /usr/share/terminfo.

	For testing, compile and link with Gray Watson's dmalloc library.
	This also sets the --disable-leaks option.

	Specify a list of fallback terminal descriptions which will be
	compiled into the ncurses library.  See CONFIGURING FALLBACK ENTRIES.

	use Alessandro Rubini's GPM library to provide mouse support on the
	Linux console.  Prior to ncurses 5.5, this introduced a dependency on
	the GPM library.
	Currently ncurses uses the dlsym() function to bind to the library at
	runtime, so it is only necessary that the library be present when
	ncurses is built, to obtain the filename (or soname) used in the
	corresponding dlopen() call.  If you give a value for this option,


	that overrides the configure check for the soname.

	See also --without-dlsym

	Use a hashed database for storing terminfo data rather than storing
	each compiled entry in a separate binary file within a directory
	In particular, this uses the Berkeley database 1.8.5 interface, as
	provided by that and its successors db 2, 3, and 4.  The actual
	interface is slightly different in the successor versions of the
	Berkeley database.  The database should have been configured using

	If you use this option for configuring ncurses, tic will only be able
	to write entries in the hashed database.  infocmp can still read
	entries from a directory tree as well as reading entries from the
	hashed database.  To do this, infocmp determines whether the $TERMINFO
	variable points to a directory or a file, and reads the directory-tree
	or hashed database respectively.

	You cannot have a directory containing both hashed-database and
	filesystem-based terminfo entries.

	Use the parameter value to give the install-prefix used for the
	datbase, e.g.,
	to find the corresponding include- and lib-directories under the
	given directory.

	See also the --enable-getcap option.

	Allows you to specify an alternate location for installing ncurses
	after building it.  The value you specify is prepended to the "real"
	install location.  This simplifies making binary packages.  The
	makefile variable DESTDIR is set by this option.  It is also possible
	to use
		make install DESTDIR=XXX
	since the makefiles pass that variable to subordinate makes.

	NOTE:  a few systems build shared libraries with fixed pathnames; this
	option probably will not work for those configurations.

	Generate libraries with libtool.  If this option is selected, then it
	overrides all other library model specifications.  Note that libtool
	must already be installed, uses makefile rules dependent on GNU make,
	and does not promise to follow the version numbering convention of
	other shared libraries on your system.  However, if the --with-shared
	option does not succeed, you may get better results with this option.

	If a parameter value is given, it must be the full pathname of the
	particular version of libtool, e.g.,

	It is possible to rebuild the configure script to use the automake
	macros for libtool, e.g., AC_PROG_LIBTOOL.  See the comments in
	aclocal.m4 for CF_PROG_LIBTOOL, and ensure that you build configure
	using the appropriate patch for autoconf from

	Tell the configure script you wish to create entries in the
	man-directory for aliases to manpages which list them, e.g., the
	functions in the panel manpage.  This is the default.  You can disable
	it if your man program does this.  You can also disable
	--with-manpage-symlinks to install files containing a ".so" command
	rather than symbolic links.

	Tell the configure script how you would like to install man-pages.  The
	option value must be one of these:  gzip, compress, BSDI, normal,
	formatted.  If you do not give this option, the configure script
	attempts to determine which is the case.

	Tell the configure script that you wish to rename the manpages while
	installing.  Currently the only distribution which does this is
	the Linux Debian.  The option value specifies the name of a file
	that lists the renamed files, e.g., $srcdir/man/man_db.renames

	Tell the configure script that you wish to make symbolic links in the
	man-directory for aliases to the man-pages.  This is the default, but
	can be disabled for systems that provide this automatically.  Doing
	this on systems that do not support symbolic links will result in
	copying the man-page for each alias.

	Tell the configure script that you with to preprocess the manpages
	by running them through tbl to generate tables understandable by

	Override type of mmask_t, which stores the mouse mask.  Prior to
	ncurses 5.5, this was always unsigned long, but with ncurses 5.5, it
	may be unsigned.  Use this option if you need to preserve compatibility
	with 64-bit executables.

	Generate normal (i.e., static) libraries (default).

	Note:  on Linux, the configure script will attempt to use the GPM
	library via the dlsym() function call.  Use --without-dlsym to disable
	this feature, or --without-gpm, depending on whether you wish to use

	Override type of ospeed variable, which is part of the termcap
	compatibility interface.  In termcap, this is a 'short', which works
	for a wide range of baudrates because ospeed is not the actual speed
	but the encoded value, e.g., B9600 would be a small number such as 13.
	However the encoding scheme originally allowed for values "only" up to
	38400bd.  A newer set of definitions past 38400bd is not encoded as
	compactly, and is not guaranteed to fit into a short (see the function
	cfgetospeed(), which returns a speed_t for this reason).  In practice,
	applications that required knowledge of the ospeed variable, i.e.,
	those using termcap, do not use the higher speeds.  Your application
	(or system, in general) may or may not.

	Generate profile-libraries These are named by adding "_p" to the root,
	e.g., libncurses_p.a

	Link with POSIX threads, set --enable-reentrant.  The use_window() and
	use_screen() functions will use mutex's, allowing rudimentary support
	for multithreaded applications.

	Compile-in RCS identifiers.  Most of the C files have an identifier.

	Override the release version, which may be used in shared library
	filenames.  This consists of a major and minor version number separated
	by ".".  Normally the major version number is the same as the ABI
	version; some ports have special requirements for compatibility.

	Generate shared-libraries.  The names given depend on the system for
	which you are building, typically using a ".so" suffix, along with
	symbolic links that refer to the release version.

	NOTE:  Unless you override the configure script by setting the $CFLAGS
	environment variable, these will not be built with the -g debugging

	NOTE: For some configurations, e.g., installing a new version of
	ncurses shared libraries on a machine which already has ncurses
	shared libraries, you may encounter problems with the linker.
	For example, it may prevent you from running  the build tree's
	copy of tic (for installing the terminfo database) because it
	loads the system's copy of the ncurses shared libraries.  In that
	case, using the misc/shlib script may be helpful, since it sets
	$LD_LIBRARY_PATH to point to the build tree, e.g.,
		./misc/shlib make install 	

	Specify whether to use the release or ABI version for shared libraries.
	This is normally chosen automatically based on the type of system
	which you are building on.  We use it for testing the configure script.

	use FreeBSD sysmouse interface provide mouse support on the console.

	For testing, override the derived host system-type which is used to
	decide things such as the linker commands used to build shared
	libraries.  This is normally chosen automatically based on the type of
	system which you are building on.  We use it for testing the configure

	Specify a search-list of terminfo directories which will be compiled
	into the ncurses library (default: DATADIR/terminfo)

	When building the ncurses library, organize this as two parts:  the
	curses library (libncurses) and the low-level terminfo library
	(libtinfo).  This is done to accommodate applications that use only
	the latter.  The terminfo library is about half the size of the total.

	If an option value is given, that overrides the name of the terminfo
	library.  For instance, if the wide-character version is built, the
	terminfo library would be named libtinfow.  But the libtinfow interface
	is upward compatible from libtinfo, so it would be possible to overlay with a "wide" version of by renaming it with
	this option.

	Specify a search-list of termcap files which will be compiled into the
	ncurses library (default:  /etc/termcap:/usr/share/misc/termcap)

	When building the ncurses library, build a separate library for
	the modules that are used only by the utility programs.  Normally
	those would be bundled with the termlib or ncurses libraries.

	If an option value is given, that overrides the name of the tic
	library.  As in termlib, there is no ABI difference between the
	"wide" and

	NOTE: Overriding the name of the tic library may be useful if you are
	also using the --with-termlib option to rename libtinfo.  If you are
	not doing that, renaming the tic library can result in conflicting
	library dependencies for tic and other programs built with the tic

	Configure the trace() function as part of the all models of the ncurses
	library.  Normally it is part of the debug (libncurses_g) library only.

	For testing, compile with debug option.
	This also sets the --disable-leaks option.

	Suppress the configure script's check for Ada95, do not build the
	Ada95 binding and related demo.

	Don't install the ncurses header with the name "curses.h".  Rather,
	install as "ncurses.h" and modify the installed headers and manpages

	XSI curses declares "bool" as part of the interface.  C++ also declares
	"bool".  Neither specifies the size and type of booleans, but both
	insist on the same name.  We chose to accommodate this by making the
	configure script check for the size and type (e.g., unsigned or signed)
	that your C++ compiler uses for booleans.  If you do not wish to use
	ncurses with C++, use this option to tell the configure script to not
	adjust ncurses bool to match C++.

	Suppress the configure script's check for C++, do not build the
	C++ binding and related demo.

	Disable development options.  This does not include those that change
	the interface, such as --enable-widec.

	Do not use dlsym() to load GPM dynamically.

	Tell the configure script to suppress the build of ncurses' application
	programs (e.g., tic).  The test applications will still be built if you
	type "make", though not if you simply do "make install".

	Tell the configure script to use "xterm-old" for the entry used in
	the terminfo database.  This will work with variations such as
	X11R5 and X11R6 xterm.


    Because ncurses implements the X/Open Curses Specification, its interface
    is fairly stable.  That does not mean the interface does not change.
    Changes are made to the documented interfaces when we find differences
    between ncurses and X/Open or implementations which they certify (such as
    Solaris).  We add extensions to those interfaces to solve problems not
    addressed by the original curses design, but those must not conflict with
    the X/Open documentation.

    Here are some of the major interface changes, and related problems which
    you may encounter when building a system with different versions of

    5.7 (November 2, 2008)
	Interface changes:

	+ generate linkable stubs for some macros:

	+ Add new library configuration for tic-library (the non-curses portion
	  of the ncurses library used for the tic program as well as some
	  others such as tack.  There is no API change, but makefiles would be
	  changed to use the tic-library built separately.
	  tack, distributed separately from ncurses, uses some of the internal
	  _nc_XXX functions, which are declared in the tic.h header file.

	  The reason for providing this separate library is that none of the
	  functions in it are suitable for threaded applications.

	+ Add new library configuration (ncursest, ncurseswt) which provides
	  rudimentary support for POSIX threads.  This introduces opaque
	  access functions to the WINDOW structure and adds a parameter to
	  several internal functions.

	+ move most internal variables (except tic-library) into data blocks
	  _nc_globals and _nc_prescreen to simplify analysis.  Those were
	  globally accessible, but since they were not part of the documented
	  API, there is no ABI change.

	+ changed static tables of strings to be indices into long strings, to
	  improve startup performance.  This changes parameter lists for some
	  of the internal functions.

	Added extensions:

	+ add NCURSES_OPAQUE definition in curses.h to control whether internal
	  details of the WINDOW structure are visible to an application.  This
	  is always defined when the threaded library is built, and is optional
	  otherwise.  New functions for this:  is_cleared, is_idcok, is_idlok,
	  is_immedok, is_keypad, is_leaveok, is_nodelay, is_notimeout,
	  is_scrollok, is_syncok, wgetparent and wgetscrreg.

	+ the threaded library (ncursest) also disallows direct updating of
	  global curses-level variables, providing functions (via macros) for
	  obtaining their value.  A few of those variables can be modified by
	  the application, using new functions:  set_escdelay, set_tabsize

	+ added functions use_window() and use_screen() which wrap a mutex
	  (if threading is configured) around a call to a user-supplied

	Added internal functions:

		These are used for leak-testing, and are stubs for
		ABI compatibility when ncurses is not configured for that
		using the --disable-leaks configure script option:


	Removed internal functions:

	Modified internal functions:

		Use new typedef TRIES to replace "struct tries":


    5.6 (December 17, 2006)
	Interface changes:

	+ generate linkable stubs for some macros:

	  getbegx, getbegy, getcurx, getcury, getmaxx, getmaxy, getparx,
	  getpary, getpary,

	  and (for libncursesw)


	Added extensions:

	Added internal functions:

		Also (if using the hashed database configuration):




	Removed internal functions:

	Modified internal functions:

    5.5 (October 10, 2005)
	Interface changes:

	+ terminfo installs "xterm-new" as "xterm" entry rather than
	  "xterm-old" (aka xterm-r6).

	+ terminfo data is installed using the tic -x option (few systems
	  still use ncurses 4.2).

	+ modify C++ binding to work with newer C++ compilers by providing
	  initializers and using modern casts.  Old-style header names are
	  still used in this release to allow compiling with not-so-old

	+ form and menu libraries now work with wide-character data. 
	  Applications which bypassed the form library and manipulated the
	  FIELD.buf data directly will not work properly with libformw, since
	  that no longer points to an array of char.  The set_field_buffer()
	  and field_buffer() functions translate to/from the actual field

	+ change SP->_current_attr to a pointer, adjust ifdef's to ensure that and have the same ABI.  The reason for this
	  is that the corresponding data which belongs to the upper-level
	  ncurses library has a different size in each model.

	+ winnstr() now returns multibyte character strings for the
	  wide-character configuration.

	+ assume_default_colors() no longer requires that use_default_colors()
	  be called first.

	+ data_ahead() now works with wide-characters.

	+ slk_set() and slk_wset() now accept and store multibyte or
	  multicolumn characters.

	+ start_color() now returns OK if colors have already been started.
	  start_color() also returns ERR if it cannot allocate memory.

	+ pair_content() now returns -1 for consistency with init_pair() if it
	  corresponds to the default-color.

	+ unctrl() now returns null if its parameter does not correspond
	  to an unsigned char.

	Added extensions:
		Experimental mouse version 2 supports wheel mice with buttons
		4 and 5.  This requires ABI 6 because it modifies the encoding
		of mouse events.

		Experimental extended colors allows encoding of 256 foreground
		and background colors, e.g., with the xterm-256color or
		xterm-88color terminfo entries.  This requires ABI 6 because
		it changes the size of cchar_t.

	Added internal functions:

	Removed internal functions:

	Modified internal functions:

    5.4 (February 8, 2004)
	Interface changes:

	+ add the remaining functions for X/Open curses wide-character support.
	  These are only available if the library is configured using the
	  --enable-widec option.

	+ write getyx() and related 2-return macros in terms of getcury(),
	  getcurx(), etc.

	+ simplify ifdef for bool declaration in curses.h

	+ modify ifdef's in curses.h that disabled use of __attribute__() for
	  g++, since recent versions implement the cases which ncurses uses.

	+ change some interfaces to use const:

	Added extensions:

	Added internal functions:
		_nc_is_charable()	wide
		_nc_to_char()		wide
		_nc_to_widechar()	wide
		_nc_trace_bufcat()	debug

	Removed internal functions:

	Modified internal functions:

    5.3 (October 12, 2002)
	Interface changes:

	+ change type for bool used in headers to NCURSES_BOOL, which usually
	  is the same as the compiler's definition for 'bool'.

	+ add all but two functions for X/Open curses wide-character support.
	  These are only available if the library is configured using the
	  --enable-widec option.  Missing functions are

	+ add environment variable $NCURSES_ASSUMED_COLORS to modify the
	  assume_default_colors() extension.

	Added extensions:

	Added internal functions:
		_nc_altcharset_name()	debug
		_nc_retrace_bool()	debug
		_nc_retrace_unsigned()	debug
		_nc_trace_ttymode()	debug
		_nc_varargs()		debug
		_nc_visbufn()		debug

	Removed internal functions:

	Modified internal functions:
		_nc_freeall()		debug

    5.2 (October 21, 2000)
	Interface changes:

	+ revert termcap ospeed variable to 'short' (see discussion of the
	  --with-ospeed configure option).

    5.1 (July 8, 2000)
	Interface changes:

	+ made the extended terminal capabilities
	  (configure --enable-tcap-names) a standard feature.  This should
	  be transparent to applications that do not require it.

	+ removed the trace() function and related trace support from the
	  production library.

	+ modified, undef'ing some symbols to avoid conflict
	  with C++ STL.

	Added extensions:  assume_default_colors().

    5.0 (October 23, 1999)
	Interface changes:

	+ implemented the wcolor_set() and slk_color() functions.

	+ move macro winch to a function, to hide details of struct ldat

	+ corrected prototypes for slk_* functions, using chtype rather than

	+ the slk_attr_{set,off,on} functions need an additional void*
	  parameter according to XSI.

	+ modified several prototypes to correspond with 1997 version of X/Open
	  Curses:  [w]attr_get(), [w]attr_set(), border_set() have different
	  parameters.  Some functions were renamed or misspelled:
	  erase_wchar(), in_wchntr(), mvin_wchntr().  Some developers have used

	Added extensions:  keybound(), curses_version().

	Terminfo database changes:

	+ change translation for termcap 'rs' to terminfo 'rs2', which is
	  the documented equivalent, rather than 'rs1'.

	The problems are subtler in recent releases.

	a) This release provides users with the ability to define their own
	   terminal capability extensions, like termcap.  To accomplish this,
	   we redesigned the TERMTYPE struct (in term.h).  Very few
	   applications use this struct.  They must be recompiled to work with
	   the 5.0 library.

	a) If you use the extended terminfo names (i.e., you used configure
	   --enable-tcap-names), the resulting terminfo database can have some
	   entries which are not readable by older versions of ncurses.  This
	   is a bug in the older versions:

	   + the terminfo database stores booleans, numbers and strings in
	     arrays.  The capabilities that are listed in the arrays are
	     specified by X/Open.  ncurses recognizes a number of obsolete and
	     extended names which are stored past the end of the specified

	   + a change to read_entry.c in 951001 made the library do an lseek()
	     call incorrectly skipping data which is already read from the
	     string array.  This happens when the number of strings in the
	     terminfo data file is greater than STRCOUNT, the number of
	     specified and obsolete or extended strings.

	   + as part of alignment with the X/Open final specification, in the
	     990109 patch we added two new terminfo capabilities:
	     set_a_attributes and set_pglen_inch).  This makes the indices for
	     the obsolete and extended capabilities shift up by 2.

	   + the last two capabilities in the obsolete/extended list are memu
	     and meml, which are found in most terminfo descriptions for xterm.

	     When trying to read this terminfo entry, the spurious lseek()
	     causes the library to attempt to read the final portion of the
	     terminfo data (the text of the string capabilities) 4 characters
	     past its starting point, and reads 4 characters too few.  The
	     library rejects the data, and applications are unable to
	     initialize that terminal type.

	   FIX: remove memu and meml from the xterm description.  They are
	   obsolete, not used by ncurses.  (It appears that the feature was
	   added to xterm to make it more like hpterm).

	   This is not a problem if you do not use the -x option of tic to
	   create a terminfo database with extended names.  Note that the
	   user-defined terminal capabilities are not affected by this bug,
	   since they are stored in a table after the older terminfo data ends,
	   and are invisible to the older libraries.

	c) Some developers did not wish to use the C++ binding, and used the
	   configure --without-cxx option.  This causes problems if someone
	   uses the ncurses library from C++ because that configure test
	   determines the type for C++'s bool and makes ncurses match it, since
	   both C++ and curses are specified to declare bool.  Calling ncurses
	   functions with the incorrect type for bool will cause execution
	   errors.  In 5.0 we added a configure option "--without-cxx-binding"
	   which controls whether the binding itself is built and installed.

    4.2 (March 2, 1998)
	Interface changes:

	+ correct prototype for termattrs() as per XPG4 version 2.

	+ add placeholder prototypes for color_set(), erasewchar(),
	  term_attrs(), wcolor_set() as per XPG4 version 2.

	+ add macros getcur[xy] getbeg[xy] getpar[xy], which are defined in
	  SVr4 headers.

	New extensions: keyok() and define_key().

	Terminfo database changes:

	+ corrected definition in curses.h for ACS_LANTERN, which was 'I'
	  rather than 'i'.

    4.1 (May 15, 1997)

	We added these extensions:  use_default_colors().  Also added
	configure option --enable-const, to support the use of const where
	X/Open should have, but did not, specify.

	The terminfo database content changed the representation of color for
	most entries that use ANSI colors.  SVr4 curses treats the setaf/setab
	and setf/setb capabilities differently, interchanging the red/blue
	colors in the latter.

    4.0 (December 24, 1996)

	We bumped to version 4.0 because the newly released dynamic loader
	( on Linux did not load shared libraries whose ABI and REL
	versions were inconsistent.  At that point, ncurses ABI was 3.4 and the
	REL was 1.9.9g, so we made them consistent.

    1.9.9g (December 1, 1996)

	This fixed most of the problems with 1.9.9e, and made these interface

	+ remove tparam(), which had been provided for compatibility with
	  some termcap.  tparm() is standard, and does not conflict with
	  application's fallback for missing tparam().

	+ turn off hardware echo in initscr().  This changes the sense of the
	  echo() function, which was initialized to echoing rather than
	  nonechoing (the latter is specified).  There were several other
	  corrections to the terminal I/O settings which cause applications to
	  behave differently.

	+ implemented several functions (such as attr_on()) which were
	  available only as macros.

	+ corrected several typos in (i.e., the mvXXXX macros).

	+ corrected prototypes for delay_output(),
	  has_color, immedok() and idcok().

	+ corrected misspelled getbkgd().  Some applications used the
	  misspelled name.

	+ added _yoffset to WINDOW.  The size of WINDOW does not impact
	  applications, since they use only pointers to WINDOW structs.

	These changes were made to the terminfo database:

	+ removed boolean 'getm' which was available as an extended name.

	We added these extensions: wresize(), resizeterm(), has_key() and

    1.9.9e (March 24, 1996)

	not recommended (a last-minute/untested change left the forms and
	menus libraries unusable since they do not repaint the screen).
	Foreground/background colors are combined incorrectly, working properly
	only on a black background.  When this was released, the X/Open
	specification was available only in draft form.

	Some applications (such as lxdialog) were "fixed" to work with the
	incorrect color scheme.


    Configuration and Installation:

    	On platforms where ncurses is assumed to be installed in /usr/lib,
	the configure script uses "/usr" as a default:

		Linux, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, Cygwin

	For other platforms, the default is "/usr/local".  See the discussion
	of the "--disable-overwrite" option.

	The location of the terminfo is set indirectly by the "--datadir"
	configure option, e.g., /usr/share/terminfo, given a datadir of
	/usr/share.  You may want to override this if you are installing
	ncurses libraries in nonstandard locations, but wish to share the
	terminfo database.

	Normally the ncurses library is configured in a pure-terminfo mode;
	that is, with the --disable-termcap option.  This makes the ncurses
	library smaller and faster.  The ncurses library includes a termcap
	emulation that queries the terminfo database, so even applications that
	use raw termcap to query terminal characteristics will win (providing
	you recompile and relink them!).

	If you must configure with termcap fallback enabled, you may also wish
	to use the --enable-getcap option.  This speeds up termcap-based
	startups, at the expense of not allowing personal termcap entries to
	reference the terminfo tree.  See comments in
	ncurses/tinfo/read_termcap.c for further details.

	Note that if you have $TERMCAP set, ncurses will use that value
	to locate termcap data.  In particular, running from xterm will
	set $TERMCAP to the contents of the xterm's termcap entry.
	If ncurses sees that, it will not examine /etc/termcap.

    Keyboard Mapping:

	The terminfo file assumes that Shift-Tab generates \E[Z (the ECMA-48
	reverse-tabulation sequence) rather than ^I.  Here are the loadkeys -d
	mappings that will set this up:

		keycode	 15 = Tab	      Tab
			alt     keycode  15 = Meta_Tab
			shift	keycode  15 = F26
		string F26 ="\033[Z"

    Naming the Console Terminal

	In various systems there has been a practice of designating the system
	console driver type as `console'.  Please do not do this!  It
	complicates peoples' lives, because it can mean that several different
	terminfo entries from different operating systems all logically want to
	be called `console'.

	Please pick a name unique to your console driver and set that up
	in the /etc/inittab table or local equivalent.  Send the entry to the
	terminfo maintainer (listed in the misc/terminfo file) to be included
	in the terminfo file, if it's not already there.  See the
	term(7) manual page included with this distribution for more on
	conventions for choosing type names.

	Here are some recommended primary console names:

		linux	-- Linux console driver
		freebsd	-- FreeBSD
		netbsd	-- NetBSD
		bsdos	-- BSD/OS

	If you are responsible for integrating ncurses for one of these
	distribution, please either use the recommended name or get back
	to us explaining why you don't want to, so we can work out nomenclature
	that will make users' lives easier rather than harder.


	The terminfo database file included with this distribution assumes you
	are running a modern xterm based on XFree86 (i.e., xterm-new).  The
	earlier X11R6 entry (xterm-r6) and X11R5 entry (xterm-r5) is provided
	as well.  See the --without-xterm-new configure script option if you
	are unable to update your system.


	In order to support operation of ncurses programs before the terminfo
	tree is accessible (that is, in single-user mode or at OS installation
	time) the ncurses library can be compiled to include an array of
	pre-fetched fallback entries.  This must be done on a machine which
	has ncurses' infocmp and terminfo database installed.

	These entries are checked by setupterm() only when the conventional
	fetches from the terminfo tree and the termcap fallback (if configured)
	have been tried and failed.  Thus, the presence of a fallback will not
	shadow modifications to the on-disk entry for the same type, when that
	entry is accessible.

	By default, there are no entries on the fallback list.  After you have
	built the ncurses suite for the first time, you can change the list
	(the process needs infocmp(1)).  To do so, use the script
	ncurses/tinfo/  A configure script option
	--with-fallbacks does this (it accepts a comma-separated list of the
	names you wish, and does not require a rebuild).

	If you wanted (say) to have linux, vt100, and xterm fallbacks, you
	would use the commands

		cd ncurses;
		tinfo/ linux vt100 xterm >fallback.c

	Then just rebuild and reinstall the library as you would normally.
	You can restore the default empty fallback list with

		tinfo/ >fallback.c

	The overhead for an empty fallback list is one trivial stub function.
	Any non-empty fallback list is const-ed and therefore lives in sharable
	text space.  You can look at the comment trailing each initializer in
	the generated ncurses/fallback.c file to see the core cost of the
	fallbacks.  A good rule of thumb for modern vt100-like entries is that
	each one will cost about 2.5K of text space.


	If you need to support really ancient BSD programs, you probably
	want to configure with the --enable-bsdpad option.  What this does
	is enable code in tputs() that recognizes a numeric prefix on a
	capability as a request for that much trailing padding in milliseconds.
	There are old BSD programs that do things like tputs("50").

	(If you are distributing ncurses as a support-library component of
	an application you probably want to put the remainder of this section
	in the package README file.)

	The following note applies only if you have configured ncurses with

------------------------------- CUT HERE --------------------------------

If you are installing this application privately (either because you
have no root access or want to experiment with it before doing a root
installation), there are a couple of details you need to be aware of.
They have to do with the ncurses library, which uses terminfo rather
than termcap for describing terminal characteristics.

Though the ncurses library is terminfo-based, it will interpret your
TERMCAP variable (if present), any local termcap files you reference
through it, and the system termcap file.  However, in order to avoid
slowing down your application startup, it will only do this once per
terminal type!

The first time you load a given terminal type from your termcap
database, the library initialization code will automatically write it
in terminfo format to a subdirectory under $HOME/.terminfo.  After
that, the initialization code will find it there and do a (much
faster) terminfo fetch.

Usually, all this means is that your home directory will silently grow
an invisible .terminfo subdirectory which will get filled in with
terminfo descriptions of terminal types as you invoke them.  If anyone
ever installs a global terminfo tree on your system, this will quietly
stop happening and your $HOME/.terminfo will become redundant.

The objective of all this logic is to make converting from BSD termcap
as painless as possible without slowing down your application (termcap
compilation is expensive).

If you don't have a TERMCAP variable or custom personal termcap file,
you can skip the rest of this dissertation.

If you *do* have a TERMCAP variable and/or a custom personal termcap file
that defines a terminal type, that definition will stop being visible
to this application after the first time you run it, because it will
instead see the terminfo entry that it wrote to $HOME/terminfo the
first time around.

Subsequently, editing the TERMCAP variable or personal TERMCAP file
will have no effect unless you explicitly remove the terminfo entry
under $HOME/terminfo.  If you do that, the entry will be recompiled
from your termcap resources the next time it is invoked.

To avoid these complications, use infocmp(1) and tic(1) to edit the
terminfo directory directly.

------------------------------- CUT HERE --------------------------------

	AFS treats each directory as a separate logical filesystem, you
	can't hard-link across them.  The --enable-symlinks option copes
	with this by making tic use symbolic links.

	Ncurses 4.1 and up can be configured to use GPM (General Purpose
	Mouse) which is used on Linux console.  Be aware that GPM is commonly
	installed as a shared library which contains a wrapper for the curses
	wgetch() function (libcurses.o).  Some integrators have simplified
	linking applications by combining all or part of into the file, producing symbol conflicts with ncurses (specifically
	the wgetch function).  This was originally the BSD curses, but
	generally whatever curses library exists on the system.

	You may be able to work around this problem by linking as follows:

		cc -o foo foo.o -lncurses -lgpm -lncurses

	but the linker may not cooperate, producing mysterious errors.
	See the FAQ, as well as the discussion under the --with-gpm option:

	Ncurses can be built with a cross-compiler.  Some parts must be built
	with the host's compiler since they are used for building programs
	(e.g., ncurses/make_hash and ncurses/make_keys) that generate tables
	that are compiled into the ncurses library.  The essential thing to do
	is set the BUILD_CC environment variable to your host's compiler, and
	run the configure script configuring for the cross-compiler.

	The configure options --with-build-cc, etc., are provided to make this
	simpler.  Since make_hash and make_keys use only ANSI C features, it
	is normally not necessary to provide the other options such as
	--with-build-libs, but they are provided for completeness.

	Note that all of the generated source-files which are part of ncurses
	will be made if you use

		make sources

	This would be useful in porting to an environment which has little
	support for the tools used to generate the sources, e.g., sed, awk and

	When ncurses has been successfully cross-compiled, you may want to use
	"make install" (with a suitable target directory) to construct an
	install tree.  Note that in this case (as with the --with-fallbacks
	option), ncurses uses the development platform's tic to do the
	"make" portion.

	Send any feedback to the ncurses mailing list at To subscribe send mail to with body that reads:
	subscribe ncurses <your-email-address-here>

	The Hacker's Guide in the doc directory includes some guidelines
	on how to report bugs in ways that will get them fixed most quickly.

-- vile:txtmode