newfs_msdos.8   [plain text]


.\" Copyright (c) 1998 Robert Nordier
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.\" $FreeBSD: src/sbin/newfs_msdos/newfs_msdos.8,v 1.9 2000/05/07 09:08:31 kris Exp $
.\"
.Dd July 6, 1998
.Dt NEWFS_MSDOS 8
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm newfs_msdos
.Nd construct a new MS-DOS (FAT) file system
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Nm newfs_msdos
.Op Fl N
.Op Fl B Ar boot
.Op Fl F Ar FAT-type
.Op Fl I Ar volid
.Op Fl O Ar OEM
.Op Fl S Ar sector-size
.Op Fl a Ar FAT-size
.Op Fl b Ar block-size
.Op Fl c Ar cluster-size
.Op Fl e Ar dirents
.Op Fl f Ar format
.Op Fl h Ar heads
.Op Fl i Ar info
.Op Fl k Ar backup
.Op Fl m Ar media
.Op Fl n Ar FATs
.Op Fl o Ar hidden
.Op Fl r Ar reserved
.Op Fl s Ar total
.Op Fl u Ar track-size
.Op Fl v Ar volume-name
.Ar special
.Op Ar disktype
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
utility creates a FAT12, FAT16, or FAT32 file system on device
.Ar special ,
using
.Xr disktab 5
entry
.Ar disktype
to determine geometry, if required.
.Pp
The options are as follows:
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl N
Don't create a file system: just print out parameters.
.It Fl B Ar boot
Get bootstrap from file.
.It Fl F Ar FAT-type
FAT type (one of 12, 16, or 32).
.It Fl I Ar volid
Volume ID.
.It Fl O Ar OEM
OEM string (up to 8 characters).  The default is
"BSD  4.4" (with two spaces).
.It Fl S Ar sector-size
Number of bytes per sector.  Acceptable values are powers of 2
in the range 128 through 32768.
.It Fl a Ar FAT-size
Number of sectors per FAT.
.It Fl b Ar block-size
File system block size (bytes per cluster).  This should resolve to an
acceptable number of sectors per cluster (see below).
.It Fl c Ar cluster-size
Sectors per cluster.  Acceptable values are powers of 2 in the range
1 through 128.
.It Fl e Ar dirents
Number of root directory entries (FAT12 and FAT16 only).
.It Fl f Ar format
Specify a standard (floppy disk) format.  The eight standard formats
are (capacities in kilobytes): 160, 180, 320, 360, 640, 720, 1200,
1232, 1440, 2880.
.It Fl h Ar heads
Number of drive heads.
.It Fl i Ar info
Location of the file system info sector (FAT32 only).
A value of 0xffff signifies no info sector.
.It Fl k Ar backup
Location of the backup boot sector (FAT32 only).  A value
of 0xffff signifies no backup sector.
.It Fl m Ar media
Media descriptor (acceptable range 0xf0 to 0xff).
.It Fl n Ar FATs
Number of FATs.  Acceptable values are 1 to 16 inclusive.
The default
is 2.
.It Fl o Ar hidden
Number of hidden sectors.
.It Fl r Ar reserved
Number of reserved sectors.
.It Fl s Ar total
File system size, in sectors.
.It Fl u Ar track-size
Number of sectors per track.
.It Fl v Ar volume-name
Volume name (filesystem name), up to 11 characters.  The name should consist of
only those characters permitted in regular DOS (8+3) filenames.
.El
.Sh NOTES
FAT file system parameters occupy a "Boot Sector BPB (BIOS Parameter
Block)" in the first of the "reserved" sectors which precede the actual
file system.  For reference purposes, this structure is presented
below.
.Bd -literal
struct bsbpb {
    u_int16_t	bps;		/* [-S] bytes per sector */
    u_int8_t	spc;		/* [-c] sectors per cluster */
    u_int16_t	res;		/* [-r] reserved sectors */
    u_int8_t	nft;		/* [-n] number of FATs */
    u_int16_t	rde;		/* [-e] root directory entries */
    u_int16_t	sec;		/* [-s] total sectors */
    u_int8_t	mid;		/* [-m] media descriptor */
    u_int16_t	spf;		/* [-a] sectors per FAT */
    u_int16_t	spt;		/* [-u] sectors per track */
    u_int16_t	hds;		/* [-h] drive heads */
    u_int32_t	hid;		/* [-o] hidden sectors */
    u_int32_t	bsec;		/* [-s] big total sectors */
};
/* FAT32 extensions */
struct bsxbpb {
    u_int32_t	bspf;		/* [-a] big sectors per FAT */
    u_int16_t	xflg;		/* control flags */
    u_int16_t	vers;		/* file system version */
    u_int32_t	rdcl;		/* root directory start cluster */
    u_int16_t	infs;		/* [-i] file system info sector */
    u_int16_t	bkbs;		/* [-k] backup boot sector */
};
.Ed
.Sh EXAMPLES
.Dl newfs_msdos /dev/disk0s1
Create a file system, using default parameters, on /dev/disk0s1.
.Pp
.Dl newfs_msdos -f 1440 -v foo fd0
Create a standard 1.44M file system, with volume name "foo", on
/dev/fd0.
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr fdisk 8 ,
.Xr mount 8
.Sh DIAGNOSTICS
Exit status is 0 on success and 1 on error.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
command appeared in FreeBSD 3.0.
.Sh AUTHORS
.An Robert Nordier Aq rnordier@FreeBSD.org .