wipefs.3   [plain text]


.\"
.\" Copyright (c) 2008,2011 Apple Inc. All rights reserved.
.\"
.\" @APPLE_LICENSE_HEADER_START@
.\" 
.\" This file contains Original Code and/or Modifications of Original Code
.\" as defined in and that are subject to the Apple Public Source License
.\" Version 2.0 (the 'License'). You may not use this file except in
.\" compliance with the License. Please obtain a copy of the License at
.\" http://www.opensource.apple.com/apsl/ and read it before using this
.\" file.
.\" 
.\" The Original Code and all software distributed under the License are
.\" distributed on an 'AS IS' basis, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER
.\" EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AND APPLE HEREBY DISCLAIMS ALL SUCH WARRANTIES,
.\" INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
.\" FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, QUIET ENJOYMENT OR NON-INFRINGEMENT.
.\" Please see the License for the specific language governing rights and
.\" limitations under the License.
.\" 
.\" @APPLE_LICENSE_HEADER_END@
.\"
.Dd 6/30/11               \" DATE 
.Dt libutil 3      \" Program name and manual section number 
.Os Mac OS X
.Sh NAME                 \" Section Header - required - don't modify 
.\" The following lines are read in generating the apropos(man -k) database. Use only key
.\" words here as the database is built based on the words here and in the .ND line. 
.Nm wipefs_alloc ,
.Nm wipefs_except_blocks ,
.Nm wipefs_wipe ,
.Nm wipefs_free
.\" Use .Nm macro to designate other names for the documented program.
.Nd wipes existing file systems on a volume
.Sh LIBRARY             \" Section Header - required - don't modify
.Lb libutil
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.In wipefs.h
.Ft int
.Fo wipefs_alloc
.Fa "int fd"
.Fa "size_t block_size"
.Fa "wipefs_ctx *handle"
.Fc
.Ft int
.Fo wipefs_include_blocks
.Fa "wipefs_ctx handle"
.Fa "off_t block_offset"
.Fa "off_t nblocks"
.Fc
.Ft int
.Fo wipefs_except_blocks
.Fa "wipefs_ctx handle"
.Fa "off_t block_offset"
.Fa "off_t nblocks"
.Fc
.Ft int
.Fo wipefs_wipe
.Fa "wipefs_ctx handle"
.Fc
.Ft void
.Fo wipefs_free
.Fa "wipefs_ctx *handle"
.Fc
.Sh DESCRIPTION          \" Section Header - required - don't modify
The wipefs family of functions wipe existing file systems on a volume.  A
.Li DKIOCUNMAP
ioctl is sent to the device to invalidate all of its content.
Then zeroes are written to various locations that are used by various file systems to recognize their content and mount their volumes.
This is usually used by the newfs_* utilities before they create new file systems on the volume, so that the existing file system will not be mounted accidentally after the new file system is created.
.Pp
.Sy NOTE:
These routines do not overwrite all volume structures.
These routines do not securely erase the previous content.
They only overwrite enough to make sure that the normal utilities will no longer recognize any file system content.
It is possible that previous file system content could be recovered by other means.
.Pp
The
.Fn wipefs_alloc
function initializes a
.Fa wipefs_ctx
object (which is an opaque data type).
.Fa file_desc
is the file handle of the volume to be wiped, which can be a block device node, a character device node, or a file.
.Fa file_desc
must be opened with write access.  If
.Fa block_size
is 0, this function calls
.Xr ioctl 2
to get the block size.  A valid
.Fa block_size 
must be supplied if 
.Fa file_desc
is a regular file.  This function does not write any data to the volume.
.Pp
The
.Fn wipefs_include_blocks
function tells wipefs to write zeroes in the block range provided, in addition to any other ranges
it would normally write.  This may be more efficient than if the caller were to write this range
separately, especially if the block range overlaps or is contiguous with other ranges that wipefs
will write.  This function does not write any data to the volume.  If this function is called
multiple times, the union of all the ranges provided will be written by
.Fn wipefs_wipe .
.Pp
The
.Fn wipefs_except_blocks
function tells wipefs not to write anything in the block range provided.  This function is used for performance
optimizations if the caller will write to these blocks.  It is the caller's responsibility to write to these blocks.
Otherwise, some file systems may still be recognized on the volume.  This function does not write any data to the
volume.  If this function is called multiple times, the union of all the ranges provided will be excluded from being
written by
.Fn wipefs_wipe .
.Pp
The
.Fn wipefs_wipe
function sends a
.Li DKIOCUNMAP
ioctl and then writes data to the volume to wipe out existing file systems on it.
.Sy CAUTION:
this function destroys any file system or partition scheme on the volume represented by
.Fa file_desc .
If
.Fa file_desc
represents the entire disk (e.g. /dev/diskX), the partition map of the disk will be destroyed.  If
.Fa file_desc
represents a partition (e.g., /dev/diskXsY), only the file system in that partition is destroyed.  Although the partition scheme or file system on
.Fa file_desc
may be beyond repair after 
.Fn wipefs_wipe ,
this function is not designed as a means to safely delete all data.  It is possible that some user data (or intact file systems in some partitions) may still be recovered.
.Pp
The
.Fn wipefs_free
function frees the allocated 
.Fa wipefs_ctx
handle and set
.Fa *handlep
to NULL.
.Sh RETURN VALUES
The
.Fn wipefs_alloc ,
.Fn wipefs_include_blocks ,
.Fn wipefs_except_blocks
and
.Fn wipefs_wipe
functions return 0 on success, or will fail and return an error code.
Each function may return
.Fa ENOMEM
if insufficient memory is available.  In addition, if
.Fa block_size
is not provided,
.Fn wipefs_alloc
may return any error
.Xr ioctl 2
returns;
.Fn wipefs_wipe
may return any error
.Xr pwrite 2
returns.
.\" .Sh BUGS              \" Document known, unremedied bugs 
.\".Sh HISTORY           \" Document history if command behaves in a unique manner 
.\"The wipefs family of functions first appeared in Mac OS X Leopard (10.5.3).