.\" Copyright (c) 2003-2007 Tim Kientzle .\" All rights reserved. .\" .\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without .\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions .\" are met: .\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. .\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the .\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. .\" .\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND .\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE .\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE .\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE .\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL .\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS .\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) .\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT .\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY .\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF .\" SUCH DAMAGE. .\" .\" $FreeBSD$ .\" .Dd December 21, 2007 .Dt BSDCPIO 1 .Os .Sh NAME .Nm cpio .Nd copy files to and from archives .Sh SYNOPSIS .Nm .Brq Fl i .Op Ar options .Op Ar pattern ... .Op Ar < archive .Nm .Brq Fl o .Op Ar options .Ar < name-list .Op Ar > archive .Nm .Brq Fl p .Op Ar options .Ar dest-dir .Ar < name-list .Sh DESCRIPTION .Nm copies files between archives and directories. This implementation can extract from tar, pax, cpio, zip, jar, ar, and ISO 9660 cdrom images and can create tar, pax, cpio, ar, and shar archives. .Pp The first option to .Nm is a mode indicator from the following list: .Bl -tag -compact -width indent .It Fl i Input. Read an archive from standard input (unless overriden) and extract the contents to disk or (if the .Fl t option is specified) list the contents to standard output. If one or more file patterns are specified, only files matching one of the patterns will be extracted. .It Fl o Output. Read a list of filenames from standard input and produce a new archive on standard output (unless overriden) containing the specified items. .It Fl p Pass-through. Read a list of filenames from standard input and copy the files to the specified directory. .El .Pp .Sh OPTIONS Unless specifically stated otherwise, options are applicable in all operating modes. .Bl -tag -width indent .It Fl 0 Read filenames separated by NUL characters instead of newlines. This is necessary if any of the filenames being read might contain newlines. .It Fl A (o mode only) Append to the specified archive. (Not yet implemented.) .It Fl a (o and p modes) Reset access times on files after they are read. .It Fl B (o mode only) Block output to records of 5120 bytes. .It Fl C Ar size (o mode only) Block output to records of .Ar size bytes. .It Fl c (o mode only) Use the old POSIX portable character format. Equivalent to .Fl -format Ar odc . .It Fl d (i and p modes) Create directories as necessary. .It Fl E Ar file (i mode only) Read list of file name patterns from .Ar file to list and extract. .It Fl F Ar file Read archive from or write archive to .Ar file . .It Fl f Ar pattern (i mode only) Ignore files that match .Ar pattern . .It Fl -format Ar format (o mode only) Produce the output archive in the specified format. Supported formats include: .Pp .Bl -tag -width "iso9660" -compact .It Ar cpio Synonym for .Ar odc . .It Ar newc The SVR4 portable cpio format. .It Ar odc The old POSIX.1 portable octet-oriented cpio format. .It Ar pax The POSIX.1 pax format, an extension of the ustar format. .It Ar ustar The POSIX.1 tar format. .El .Pp The default format is .Ar odc . See .Xr libarchive_formats 5 for more complete information about the formats currently supported by the underlying .Xr libarchive 3 library. .It Fl H Ar format Synonym for .Fl -format . .It Fl h , Fl -help Print usage information. .It Fl I Ar file Read archive from .Ar file . .It Fl i Input mode. See above for description. .It Fl -insecure (i and p mode only) Disable security checks during extraction or copying. This allows extraction via symbolic links and path names containing .Sq .. in the name. .It Fl J (o mode only) Compress the file with xz-compatible compression before writing it. In input mode, this option is ignored; xz compression is recognized automatically on input. .It Fl j Synonym for .Fl y . .It Fl L (o and p modes) All symbolic links will be followed. Normally, symbolic links are archived and copied as symbolic links. With this option, the target of the link will be archived or copied instead. .It Fl l (p mode only) Create links from the target directory to the original files, instead of copying. .It Fl lzma (o mode only) Compress the file with lzma-compatible compression before writing it. In input mode, this option is ignored; lzma compression is recognized automatically on input. .It Fl m (i and p modes) Set file modification time on created files to match those in the source. .It Fl n (i mode, only with .Fl t ) Display numeric uid and gid. By default, .Nm displays the user and group names when they are provided in the archive, or looks up the user and group names in the system password database. .It Fl no-preserve-owner (i mode only) Do not attempt to restore file ownership. This is the default when run by non-root users. .It Fl O Ar file Write archive to .Ar file . .It Fl o Output mode. See above for description. .It Fl p Pass-through mode. See above for description. .It Fl preserve-owner (i mode only) Restore file ownership. This is the default when run by the root user. .It Fl -quiet Suppress unnecessary messages. .It Fl R Oo user Oc Ns Oo : Oc Ns Oo group Oc Set the owner and/or group on files in the output. If group is specified with no user (for example, .Fl R Ar :wheel ) then the group will be set but not the user. If the user is specified with a trailing colon and no group (for example, .Fl R Ar root: ) then the group will be set to the user's default group. If the user is specified with no trailing colon, then the user will be set but not the group. In .Fl i and .Fl p modes, this option can only be used by the super-user. (For compatibility, a period can be used in place of the colon.) .It Fl r (All modes.) Rename files interactively. For each file, a prompt is written to .Pa /dev/tty containing the name of the file and a line is read from .Pa /dev/tty . If the line read is blank, the file is skipped. If the line contains a single period, the file is processed normally. Otherwise, the line is taken to be the new name of the file. .It Fl t (i mode only) List the contents of the archive to stdout; do not restore the contents to disk. .It Fl u (i and p modes) Unconditionally overwrite existing files. Ordinarily, an older file will not overwrite a newer file on disk. .It Fl v Print the name of each file to stderr as it is processed. With .Fl t , provide a detailed listing of each file. .It Fl -version Print the program version information and exit. .It Fl y (o mode only) Compress the archive with bzip2-compatible compression before writing it. In input mode, this option is ignored; bzip2 compression is recognized automatically on input. .It Fl Z (o mode only) Compress the archive with compress-compatible compression before writing it. In input mode, this option is ignored; compression is recognized automatically on input. .It Fl z (o mode only) Compress the archive with gzip-compatible compression before writing it. In input mode, this option is ignored; gzip compression is recognized automatically on input. .El .Sh ENVIRONMENT The following environment variables affect the execution of .Nm : .Bl -tag -width ".Ev BLOCKSIZE" .It Ev LANG The locale to use. See .Xr environ 7 for more information. .It Ev TZ The timezone to use when displaying dates. See .Xr environ 7 for more information. .El .Sh EXIT STATUS .Ex -std .Sh EXAMPLES The .Nm command is traditionally used to copy file heirarchies in conjunction with the .Xr find 1 command. The first example here simply copies all files from .Pa src to .Pa dest : .Dl Nm find Pa src | Nm Fl pmud Pa dest .Pp By carefully selecting options to the .Xr find 1 command and combining it with other standard utilities, it is possible to exercise very fine control over which files are copied. This next example copies files from .Pa src to .Pa dest that are more than 2 days old and whose names match a particular pattern: .Dl Nm find Pa src Fl mtime Ar +2 | Nm grep foo[bar] | Nm Fl pdmu Pa dest .Pp This example copies files from .Pa src to .Pa dest that are more than 2 days old and which contain the word .Do foobar Dc : .Dl Nm find Pa src Fl mtime Ar +2 | Nm xargs Nm grep -l foobar | Nm Fl pdmu Pa dest .Sh COMPATIBILITY The mode options i, o, and p and the options a, B, c, d, f, l, m, r, t, u, and v comply with SUSv2. .Pp The old POSIX.1 standard specified that only .Fl i , .Fl o , and .Fl p were interpreted as command-line options. Each took a single argument of a list of modifier characters. For example, the standard syntax allows .Fl imu but does not support .Fl miu or .Fl i Fl m Fl u , since .Ar m and .Ar u are only modifiers to .Fl i , they are not command-line options in their own right. The syntax supported by this implementation is backwards-compatible with the standard. For best compatibility, scripts should limit themselves to the standard syntax. .Sh SEE ALSO .Xr bzip2 1 , .Xr tar 1 , .Xr gzip 1 , .Xr mt 1 , .Xr pax 1 , .Xr libarchive 3 , .Xr cpio 5 , .Xr libarchive-formats 5 , .Xr tar 5 .Sh STANDARDS There is no current POSIX standard for the cpio command; it appeared in .St -p1003.1-96 but was dropped from .St -p1003.1-2001 . .Pp The cpio, ustar, and pax interchange file formats are defined by .St -p1003.1-2001 for the pax command. .Sh HISTORY The original .Nm cpio and .Nm find utilities were written by Dick Haight while working in AT&T's Unix Support Group. They first appeared in 1977 in PWB/UNIX 1.0, the .Dq Programmer's Work Bench system developed for use within AT&T. They were first released outside of AT&T as part of System III Unix in 1981. As a result, .Nm cpio actually predates .Nm tar , even though it was not well-known outside of AT&T until some time later. .Pp This is a complete re-implementation based on the .Xr libarchive 3 library. .Sh BUGS The cpio archive format has several basic limitations: It does not store user and group names, only numbers. As a result, it cannot be reliably used to transfer files between systems with dissimilar user and group numbering. Older cpio formats limit the user and group numbers to 16 or 18 bits, which is insufficient for modern systems. The cpio archive formats cannot support files over 4 gigabytes, except for the .Dq odc variant, which can support files up to 8 gigabytes.