------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -- -- -- GNAT RUNTIME COMPONENTS -- -- -- -- A D A . T E X T _ I O . F I X E D _ I O -- -- -- -- B o d y -- -- -- -- Copyright (C) 1992-2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc. -- -- -- -- GNAT is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under -- -- terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Soft- -- -- ware Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option) any later ver- -- -- sion. GNAT is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITH- -- -- OUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY -- -- or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License -- -- for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General -- -- Public License distributed with GNAT; see file COPYING. If not, write -- -- to the Free Software Foundation, 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, -- -- MA 02111-1307, USA. -- -- -- -- As a special exception, if other files instantiate generics from this -- -- unit, or you link this unit with other files to produce an executable, -- -- this unit does not by itself cause the resulting executable to be -- -- covered by the GNU General Public License. This exception does not -- -- however invalidate any other reasons why the executable file might be -- -- covered by the GNU Public License. -- -- -- -- GNAT was originally developed by the GNAT team at New York University. -- -- Extensive contributions were provided by Ada Core Technologies Inc. -- -- -- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -- Fixed point I/O -- --------------- -- The following documents implementation details of the fixed point -- input/output routines in the GNAT run time. The first part describes -- general properties of fixed point types as defined by the Ada 95 standard, -- including the Information Systems Annex. -- Subsequently these are reduced to implementation constraints and the impact -- of these constraints on a few possible approaches to I/O are given. -- Based on this analysis, a specific implementation is selected for use in -- the GNAT run time. Finally, the chosen algorithm is analyzed numerically in -- order to provide user-level documentation on limits for range and precision -- of fixed point types as well as accuracy of input/output conversions. -- ------------------------------------------- -- - General Properties of Fixed Point Types - -- ------------------------------------------- -- Operations on fixed point values, other than input and output, are not -- important for the purposes of this document. Only the set of values that a -- fixed point type can represent and the input and output operations are -- significant. -- Values -- ------ -- Set set of values of a fixed point type comprise the integral -- multiples of a number called the small of the type. The small can -- either be a power of ten, a power of two or (if the implementation -- allows) an arbitrary strictly positive real value. -- Implementations need to support fixed-point types with a precision -- of at least 24 bits, and (in order to comply with the Information -- Systems Annex) decimal types need to support at least digits 18. -- For the rest, however, no requirements exist for the minimal small -- and range that need to be supported. -- Operations -- ---------- -- 'Image and 'Wide_Image (see RM 3.5(34)) -- These attributes return a decimal real literal best approximating -- the value (rounded away from zero if halfway between) with a -- single leading character that is either a minus sign or a space, -- one or more digits before the decimal point (with no redundant -- leading zeros), a decimal point, and N digits after the decimal -- point. For a subtype S, the value of N is S'Aft, the smallest -- positive integer such that (10**N)*S'Delta is greater or equal to -- one, see RM 3.5.10(5). -- For an arbitrary small, this means large number arithmetic needs -- to be performed. -- Put (see RM A.10.9(22-26)) -- The requirements for Put add no extra constraints over the image -- attributes, although it would be nice to be able to output more -- than S'Aft digits after the decimal point for values of subtype S. -- 'Value and 'Wide_Value attribute (RM 3.5(40-55)) -- Since the input can be given in any base in the range 2..16, -- accurate conversion to a fixed point number may require -- arbitrary precision arithmetic if there is no limit on the -- magnitude of the small of the fixed point type. -- Get (see RM A.10.9(12-21)) -- The requirements for Get are identical to those of the Value -- attribute. -- ------------------------------ -- - Implementation Constraints - -- ------------------------------ -- The requirements listed above for the input/output operations lead to -- significant complexity, if no constraints are put on supported smalls. -- Implementation Strategies -- ------------------------- -- * Float arithmetic -- * Arbitrary-precision integer arithmetic -- * Fixed-precision integer arithmetic -- Although it seems convenient to convert fixed point numbers to floating- -- point and then print them, this leads to a number of restrictions. -- The first one is precision. The widest floating-point type generally -- available has 53 bits of mantissa. This means that Fine_Delta cannot -- be less than 2.0**(-53). -- In GNAT, Fine_Delta is 2.0**(-63), and Duration for example is a -- 64-bit type. It would still be possible to use multi-precision -- floating-point to perform calculations using longer mantissas, -- but this is a much harder approach. -- The base conversions needed for input and output of (non-decimal) -- fixed point types can be seen as pairs of integer multiplications -- and divisions. -- Arbitrary-precision integer arithmetic would be suitable for the job -- at hand, but has the draw-back that it is very heavy implementation-wise. -- Especially in embedded systems, where fixed point types are often used, -- it may not be desirable to require large amounts of storage and time -- for fixed I/O operations. -- Fixed-precision integer arithmetic has the advantage of simplicity and -- speed. For the most common fixed point types this would be a perfect -- solution. The downside however may be a too limited set of acceptable -- fixed point types. -- Extra Precision -- --------------- -- Using a scaled divide which truncates and returns a remainder R, -- another E trailing digits can be calculated by computing the value -- (R * (10.0**E)) / Z using another scaled divide. This procedure -- can be repeated to compute an arbitrary number of digits in linear -- time and storage. The last scaled divide should be rounded, with -- a possible carry propagating to the more significant digits, to -- ensure correct rounding of the unit in the last place. -- An extension of this technique is to limit the value of Q to 9 decimal -- digits, since 32-bit integers can be much more efficient than 64-bit -- integers to output. with Interfaces; use Interfaces; with System.Arith_64; use System.Arith_64; with System.Img_Real; use System.Img_Real; with Ada.Text_IO; use Ada.Text_IO; with Ada.Text_IO.Float_Aux; with Ada.Text_IO.Generic_Aux; package body Ada.Text_IO.Fixed_IO is -- Note: we still use the floating-point I/O routines for input of -- ordinary fixed-point and output using exponent format. This will -- result in inaccuracies for fixed point types with a small that is -- not a power of two, and for types that require more precision than -- is available in Long_Long_Float. package Aux renames Ada.Text_IO.Float_Aux; Extra_Layout_Space : constant Field := 5 + Num'Fore; -- Extra space that may be needed for output of sign, decimal point, -- exponent indication and mandatory decimals after and before the -- decimal point. A string with length -- Fore + Aft + Exp + Extra_Layout_Space -- is always long enough for formatting any fixed point number. -- Implementation of Put routines -- The following section describes a specific implementation choice for -- performing base conversions needed for output of values of a fixed -- point type T with small T'Small. The goal is to be able to output -- all values of types with a precision of 64 bits and a delta of at -- least 2.0**(-63), as these are current GNAT limitations already. -- The chosen algorithm uses fixed precision integer arithmetic for -- reasons of simplicity and efficiency. It is important to understand -- in what ways the most simple and accurate approach to fixed point I/O -- is limiting, before considering more complicated schemes. -- Without loss of generality assume T has a range (-2.0**63) * T'Small -- .. (2.0**63 - 1) * T'Small, and is output with Aft digits after the -- decimal point and T'Fore - 1 before. If T'Small is integer, or -- 1.0 / T'Small is integer, let S = T'Small and E = 0. For other T'Small, -- let S and E be integers such that S / 10**E best approximates T'Small -- and S is in the range 10**17 .. 10**18 - 1. The extra decimal scaling -- factor 10**E can be trivially handled during final output, by adjusting -- the decimal point or exponent. -- Convert a value X * S of type T to a 64-bit integer value Q equal -- to 10.0**D * (X * S) rounded to the nearest integer. -- This conversion is a scaled integer divide of the form -- Q := (X * Y) / Z, -- where all variables are 64-bit signed integers using 2's complement, -- and both the multiplication and division are done using full -- intermediate precision. The final decimal value to be output is -- Q * 10**(E-D) -- This value can be written to the output file or to the result string -- according to the format described in RM A.3.10. The details of this -- operation are omitted here. -- A 64-bit value can contain all integers with 18 decimal digits, but -- not all with 19 decimal digits. If the total number of requested output -- digits (Fore - 1) + Aft is greater than 18, for purposes of the -- conversion Aft is adjusted to 18 - (Fore - 1). In that case, or -- when Fore > 19, trailing zeros can complete the output after writing -- the first 18 significant digits, or the technique described in the -- next section can be used. -- The final expression for D is -- D := Integer'Max (-18, Integer'Min (Aft, 18 - (Fore - 1))); -- For Y and Z the following expressions can be derived: -- Q / (10.0**D) = X * S -- Q = X * S * (10.0**D) = (X * Y) / Z -- S * 10.0**D = Y / Z; -- If S is an integer greater than or equal to one, then Fore must be at -- least 20 in order to print T'First, which is at most -2.0**63. -- This means D < 0, so use -- (1) Y = -S and Z = -10**(-D). -- If 1.0 / S is an integer greater than one, use -- (2) Y = -10**D and Z = -(1.0 / S), for D >= 0 -- or -- (3) Y = 1 and Z = (1.0 / S) * 10**(-D), for D < 0 -- Negative values are used for nominator Y and denominator Z, so that S -- can have a maximum value of 2.0**63 and a minimum of 2.0**(-63). -- For Z in -1 .. -9, Fore will still be 20, and D will be negative, as -- (-2.0**63) / -9 is greater than 10**18. In these cases there is room -- in the denominator for the extra decimal scaling required, so case (3) -- will not overflow. pragma Assert (System.Fine_Delta >= 2.0**(-63)); pragma Assert (Num'Small in 2.0**(-63) .. 2.0**63); pragma Assert (Num'Fore <= 37); -- These assertions need to be relaxed to allow for a Small of -- 2.0**(-64) at least, since there is an ACATS test for this ??? Max_Digits : constant := 18; -- Maximum number of decimal digits that can be represented in a -- 64-bit signed number, see above -- The constants E0 .. E5 implement a binary search for the appropriate -- power of ten to scale the small so that it has one digit before the -- decimal point. subtype Int is Integer; E0 : constant Int := -20 * Boolean'Pos (Num'Small >= 1.0E1); E1 : constant Int := E0 + 10 * Boolean'Pos (Num'Small * 10.0**E0 < 1.0E-10); E2 : constant Int := E1 + 5 * Boolean'Pos (Num'Small * 10.0**E1 < 1.0E-5); E3 : constant Int := E2 + 3 * Boolean'Pos (Num'Small * 10.0**E2 < 1.0E-3); E4 : constant Int := E3 + 2 * Boolean'Pos (Num'Small * 10.0**E3 < 1.0E-1); E5 : constant Int := E4 + 1 * Boolean'Pos (Num'Small * 10.0**E4 < 1.0E-0); Scale : constant Integer := E5; pragma Assert (Num'Small * 10.0**Scale >= 1.0 and then Num'Small * 10.0**Scale < 10.0); Exact : constant Boolean := Float'Floor (Num'Small) = Float'Ceiling (Num'Small) or Float'Floor (1.0 / Num'Small) = Float'Ceiling (1.0 / Num'Small) or Num'Small >= 10.0**Max_Digits; -- True iff a numerator and denominator can be calculated such that -- their ratio exactly represents the small of Num -- Local Subprograms procedure Put (To : out String; Last : out Natural; Item : Num; Fore : Field; Aft : Field; Exp : Field); -- Actual output function, used internally by all other Put routines --------- -- Get -- --------- procedure Get (File : in File_Type; Item : out Num; Width : in Field := 0) is pragma Unsuppress (Range_Check); begin Aux.Get (File, Long_Long_Float (Item), Width); exception when Constraint_Error => raise Data_Error; end Get; procedure Get (Item : out Num; Width : in Field := 0) is pragma Unsuppress (Range_Check); begin Aux.Get (Current_In, Long_Long_Float (Item), Width); exception when Constraint_Error => raise Data_Error; end Get; procedure Get (From : in String; Item : out Num; Last : out Positive) is pragma Unsuppress (Range_Check); begin Aux.Gets (From, Long_Long_Float (Item), Last); exception when Constraint_Error => raise Data_Error; end Get; --------- -- Put -- --------- procedure Put (File : in File_Type; Item : in Num; Fore : in Field := Default_Fore; Aft : in Field := Default_Aft; Exp : in Field := Default_Exp) is S : String (1 .. Fore + Aft + Exp + Extra_Layout_Space); Last : Natural; begin Put (S, Last, Item, Fore, Aft, Exp); Generic_Aux.Put_Item (File, S (1 .. Last)); end Put; procedure Put (Item : in Num; Fore : in Field := Default_Fore; Aft : in Field := Default_Aft; Exp : in Field := Default_Exp) is S : String (1 .. Fore + Aft + Exp + Extra_Layout_Space); Last : Natural; begin Put (S, Last, Item, Fore, Aft, Exp); Generic_Aux.Put_Item (Text_IO.Current_Out, S (1 .. Last)); end Put; procedure Put (To : out String; Item : in Num; Aft : in Field := Default_Aft; Exp : in Field := Default_Exp) is Fore : constant Integer := To'Length - 1 -- Decimal point - Field'Max (1, Aft) -- Decimal part - Boolean'Pos (Exp /= 0) -- Exponent indicator - Exp; -- Exponent Last : Natural; begin if Fore not in Field'Range then raise Layout_Error; end if; Put (To, Last, Item, Fore, Aft, Exp); if Last /= To'Last then raise Layout_Error; end if; end Put; procedure Put (To : out String; Last : out Natural; Item : Num; Fore : Field; Aft : Field; Exp : Field) is subtype Digit is Int64 range 0 .. 9; X : constant Int64 := Int64'Integer_Value (Item); A : constant Field := Field'Max (Aft, 1); Neg : constant Boolean := (Item < 0.0); Pos : Integer; -- Next digit X has value X * 10.0**Pos; Y, Z : Int64; E : constant Integer := Boolean'Pos (not Exact) * (Max_Digits - 1 + Scale); D : constant Integer := Boolean'Pos (Exact) * Integer'Min (A, Max_Digits - (Num'Fore - 1)) + Boolean'Pos (not Exact) * (Scale - 1); procedure Put_Character (C : Character); pragma Inline (Put_Character); -- Add C to the output string To, updating Last procedure Put_Digit (X : Digit); -- Add digit X to the output string (going from left to right), -- updating Last and Pos, and inserting the sign, leading zeroes -- or a decimal point when necessary. After outputting the first -- digit, Pos must not be changed outside Put_Digit anymore procedure Put_Int64 (X : Int64; Scale : Integer); -- Output the decimal number X * 10**Scale procedure Put_Scaled (X, Y, Z : Int64; A : Field; E : Integer); -- Output the decimal number (X * Y / Z) * 10**E, producing A digits -- after the decimal point and rounding the final digit. The value -- X * Y / Z is computed with full precision, but must be in the -- range of Int64. ------------------- -- Put_Character -- ------------------- procedure Put_Character (C : Character) is begin Last := Last + 1; To (Last) := C; end Put_Character; --------------- -- Put_Digit -- --------------- procedure Put_Digit (X : Digit) is Digs : constant array (Digit) of Character := "0123456789"; begin if Last = 0 then if X /= 0 or Pos <= 0 then -- Before outputting first digit, include leading space, -- posible minus sign and, if the first digit is fractional, -- decimal seperator and leading zeros. -- The Fore part has Pos + 1 + Boolean'Pos (Neg) characters, -- if Pos >= 0 and otherwise has a single zero digit plus minus -- sign if negative. Add leading space if necessary. for J in Integer'Max (0, Pos) + 2 + Boolean'Pos (Neg) .. Fore loop Put_Character (' '); end loop; -- Output minus sign, if number is negative if Neg then Put_Character ('-'); end if; -- If starting with fractional digit, output leading zeros if Pos < 0 then Put_Character ('0'); Put_Character ('.'); for J in Pos .. -2 loop Put_Character ('0'); end loop; end if; Put_Character (Digs (X)); end if; else -- This is not the first digit to be output, so the only -- special handling is that for the decimal point if Pos = -1 then Put_Character ('.'); end if; Put_Character (Digs (X)); end if; Pos := Pos - 1; end Put_Digit; --------------- -- Put_Int64 -- --------------- procedure Put_Int64 (X : Int64; Scale : Integer) is begin if X = 0 then return; end if; Pos := Scale; if X not in -9 .. 9 then Put_Int64 (X / 10, Scale + 1); end if; Put_Digit (abs (X rem 10)); end Put_Int64; ---------------- -- Put_Scaled -- ---------------- procedure Put_Scaled (X, Y, Z : Int64; A : Field; E : Integer) is N : constant Natural := (A + Max_Digits - 1) / Max_Digits + 1; Q : array (1 .. N) of Int64 := (others => 0); XX : Int64 := X; YY : Int64 := Y; AA : Field := A; begin for J in Q'Range loop exit when XX = 0; Scaled_Divide (XX, YY, Z, Q (J), XX, Round => AA = 0); -- As the last block of digits is rounded, a carry may have to -- be propagated to the more significant digits. Since the last -- block may have less than Max_Digits, the test for this block -- is specialized. -- The absolute value of the left-most digit block may equal -- 10*Max_Digits, as no carry can be propagated from there. -- The final output routines need to be prepared to handle -- this specific case. if (Q (J) = YY or -Q (J) = YY) and then J > Q'First then if Q (J) < 0 then Q (J - 1) := Q (J - 1) + 1; else Q (J - 1) := Q (J - 1) - 1; end if; Q (J) := 0; Propagate_Carry : for J in reverse Q'First + 1 .. Q'Last loop if Q (J) >= 10**Max_Digits then Q (J - 1) := Q (J - 1) + 1; Q (J) := Q (J) - 10**Max_Digits; elsif Q (J) <= -10**Max_Digits then Q (J - 1) := Q (J - 1) - 1; Q (J) := Q (J) + 10**Max_Digits; end if; end loop Propagate_Carry; end if; YY := -10**Integer'Min (Max_Digits, AA); AA := AA - Integer'Min (Max_Digits, AA); end loop; for J in Q'First .. Q'Last - 1 loop Put_Int64 (Q (J), E - (J - Q'First) * Max_Digits); end loop; Put_Int64 (Q (Q'Last), E - A); end Put_Scaled; -- Start of processing for Put begin Last := To'First - 1; if Exp /= 0 then -- With the Exp format, it is not known how many output digits to -- generate, as leading zeros must be ignored. Computing too many -- digits and then truncating the output will not give the closest -- output, it is necessary to round at the correct digit. -- The general approach is as follows: as long as no digits have -- been generated, compute the Aft next digits (without rounding). -- Once a non-zero digit is generated, determine the exact number -- of digits remaining and compute them with rounding. -- Since a large number of iterations might be necessary in case -- of Aft = 1, the following optimization would be desirable. -- Count the number Z of leading zero bits in the integer -- representation of X, and start with producing -- Aft + Z * 1000 / 3322 digits in the first scaled division. -- However, the floating-point routines are still used now ??? System.Img_Real.Set_Image_Real (Long_Long_Float (Item), To, Last, Fore, Aft, Exp); return; end if; if Exact then Y := Int64'Min (Int64 (-Num'Small), -1) * 10**Integer'Max (0, D); Z := Int64'Min (Int64 (-1.0 / Num'Small), -1) * 10**Integer'Max (0, -D); else Y := Int64 (-Num'Small * 10.0**E); Z := -10**Max_Digits; end if; Put_Scaled (X, Y, Z, A - D, -D); -- If only zero digits encountered, unit digit has not been output yet if Last < To'First then Pos := 0; end if; -- Always output digits up to the first one after the decimal point while Pos >= -A loop Put_Digit (0); end loop; end Put; end Ada.Text_IO.Fixed_IO;