.\"- .\" Copyright (c) 1989, 1990, 1993, 1994 .\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. .\" .\" This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by .\" the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. .\" .\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without .\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions .\" are met: .\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. .\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the .\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. .\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors .\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software .\" without specific prior written permission. .\" .\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND .\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE .\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE .\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE .\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL .\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS .\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) .\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT .\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY .\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF .\" SUCH DAMAGE. .\" .\" @(#)cp.1 8.3 (Berkeley) 4/18/94 .\" $FreeBSD: src/bin/cp/cp.1,v 1.33 2005/02/25 00:40:46 trhodes Exp $ .\" .Dd February 23, 2005 .Dt CP 1 .Os .Sh NAME .Nm cp .Nd copy files .Sh SYNOPSIS .Nm cp .Oo .Fl R .Op Fl H | Fl L | Fl P .Oc .Op Fl fi | n .Op Fl apvX .Ar source_file target_file .Nm cp .Oo .Fl R .Op Fl H | Fl L | Fl P .Oc .Op Fl fi | n .Op Fl apvX .Ar source_file ... target_directory .Sh DESCRIPTION In the first synopsis form, the .Nm cp utility copies the contents of the .Ar source_file to the .Ar target_file . In the second synopsis form, the contents of each named .Ar source_file is copied to the destination .Ar target_directory . The names of the files themselves are not changed. If .Nm cp detects an attempt to copy a file to itself, the copy will fail. .Pp The following options are available: .Bl -tag -width flag .It Fl a Same as .Fl pPR options. Preserves structure and attributes of files but not directory structure. .It Fl f .\"For each existing destination pathname, remove it and If the destination file cannot be opened, remove it and create a new file, without prompting for confirmation regardless of its permissions. (The .Fl f option overrides any previous .Fl n option.) .Pp The target file is not unlinked before the copy. Thus, any existing access rights will be retained. .It Fl H If the .Fl R option is specified, symbolic links on the command line are followed. (Symbolic links encountered in the tree traversal are not followed.) .It Fl i Cause .Nm cp to write a prompt to the standard error output before copying a file that would overwrite an existing file. If the response from the standard input begins with the character .Sq Li y or .Sq Li Y , the file copy is attempted. (The .Fl i option overrides any previous .Fl n option.) .It Fl L If the .Fl R option is specified, all symbolic links are followed. .It Fl n Do not overwrite an existing file. (The .Fl n option overrides any previous .Fl f or .Fl i options.) .It Fl P If the .Fl R option is specified, no symbolic links are followed. This is the default. .It Fl p Cause .Nm cp to preserve the following attributes of each source file in the copy: modification time, access time, file flags, file mode, user ID, and group ID, as allowed by permissions. Access Control Lists (ACLs) and Extended Attributes (EAs), including resource forks, will also be preserved. .Pp If the user ID and group ID cannot be preserved, no error message is displayed and the exit value is not altered. .Pp If the source file has its set-user-ID bit on and the user ID cannot be preserved, the set-user-ID bit is not preserved in the copy's permissions. If the source file has its set-group-ID bit on and the group ID cannot be preserved, the set-group-ID bit is not preserved in the copy's permissions. If the source file has both its set-user-ID and set-group-ID bits on, and either the user ID or group ID cannot be preserved, neither the set-user-ID nor set-group-ID bits are preserved in the copy's permissions. .It Fl R If .Ar source_file designates a directory, .Nm cp copies the directory and the entire subtree connected at that point. If the .Ar source_file ends in a .Pa / , the contents of the directory are copied rather than the directory itself. This option also causes symbolic links to be copied, rather than indirected through, and for .Nm cp to create special files rather than copying them as normal files. Created directories have the same mode as the corresponding source directory, unmodified by the process' umask. .Pp In .Fl R mode, .Nm cp will continue copying even if errors are detected. .Pp Note that .Nm cp copies hard-linked files as separate files. If you need to preserve hard links, consider using .Xr tar 1 , .Xr cpio 1 , or .Xr pax 1 instead. .It Fl v Cause .Nm cp to be verbose, showing files as they are copied. .It Fl X Do not copy Extended Attributes (EAs) or resource forks. .El .Pp For each destination file that already exists, its contents are overwritten if permissions allow. Its mode, user ID, and group ID are unchanged unless the .Fl p option was specified. .Pp In the second synopsis form, .Ar target_directory must exist unless there is only one named .Ar source_file which is a directory and the .Fl R flag is specified. .Pp If the destination file does not exist, the mode of the source file is used as modified by the file mode creation mask .Pf ( Ic umask , see .Xr csh 1 ) . If the source file has its set-user-ID bit on, that bit is removed unless both the source file and the destination file are owned by the same user. If the source file has its set-group-ID bit on, that bit is removed unless both the source file and the destination file are in the same group and the user is a member of that group. If both the set-user-ID and set-group-ID bits are set, all of the above conditions must be fulfilled or both bits are removed. .Pp Appropriate permissions are required for file creation or overwriting. .Pp Symbolic links are always followed unless the .Fl R flag is set, in which case symbolic links are not followed, by default. The .Fl H or .Fl L flags (in conjunction with the .Fl R flag) cause symbolic links to be followed as described above. The .Fl H , .Fl L and .Fl P options are ignored unless the .Fl R option is specified. In addition, these options override each other and the command's actions are determined by the last one specified. .Pp If .Nm cp receives a .Dv SIGINFO (see the .Cm status argument for .Xr stty 1 ) signal, the current input and output file and the percentage complete will be written to the standard output. .Sh EXIT STATUS .Ex -std .Sh COMPATIBILITY Historic versions of the .Nm cp utility had a .Fl r option. This implementation supports that option; however, its use is strongly discouraged, as it does not correctly copy special files, symbolic links, or fifo's. .Pp The .Fl v and .Fl n options are non-standard and their use in scripts is not recommended. .Sh LEGACY DESCRIPTION In legacy mode, .Fl f will override .Fl i . Also, under the .Fl f option, the target file is always unlinked before the copy. Thus, new access rights will always be set. .Pp In .Fl R mode, copying will terminate if an error is encountered. .Pp For more information about legacy mode, see .Xr compat 5 . .Sh SEE ALSO .Xr mv 1 , .Xr rcp 1 , .Xr umask 2 , .Xr fts 3 , .Xr compat 5 , .Xr symlink 7 .Sh STANDARDS The .Nm cp command is expected to be .St -p1003.2 compatible. .Sh HISTORY A .Nm cp command appeared in .At v1 .