.\" Copyright (c) 1989, 1990, 1993, 1994 .\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. .\" .\" This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by .\" the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. .\" .\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without .\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions .\" are met: .\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. .\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the .\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. .\" 3. 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IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE .\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL .\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS .\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) .\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT .\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY .\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF .\" SUCH DAMAGE. .\" .\" @(#)cp.1 8.3 (Berkeley) 4/18/94 .\" $FreeBSD: src/bin/cp/cp.1,v 1.25 2002/08/16 03:13:59 johan Exp $ .\" .Dd July 23, 2002 .Dt CP 1 .Os .Sh NAME .Nm cp .Nd copy files .Sh SYNOPSIS .Nm .Oo .Fl R .Op Fl H | Fl L | Fl P .Oc .Op Fl f | i | n .Op Fl pv .Ar source_file target_file .Nm .Oo .Fl R .Op Fl H | Fl L | Fl P .Oc .Op Fl f | i | n .Op Fl pv .Ar source_file ... target_directory .Sh DESCRIPTION In the first synopsis form, the .Nm utility copies the contents of the .Ar source_file to the .Ar target_file . In the second synopsis form, the contents of each named .Ar source_file is copied to the destination .Ar target_directory . The names of the files themselves are not changed. If .Nm detects an attempt to copy a file to itself, the copy will fail. .Pp The following options are available: .Bl -tag -width flag .It Fl H If the .Fl R option is specified, symbolic links on the command line are followed. (Symbolic links encountered in the tree traversal are not followed.) .It Fl L If the .Fl R option is specified, all symbolic links are followed. .It Fl P If the .Fl R option is specified, no symbolic links are followed. This is the default. .It Fl R If .Ar source_file designates a directory, .Nm copies the directory and the entire subtree connected at that point. This option also causes symbolic links to be copied, rather than indirected through, and for .Nm to create special files rather than copying them as normal files. Created directories have the same mode as the corresponding source directory, unmodified by the process' umask. .Pp Note that .Nm copies hard linked files as separate files. If you need to preserve hard links, consider using .Xr tar 1 , .Xr cpio 1 , or .Xr pax 1 instead. .It Fl f For each existing destination pathname, remove it and create a new file, without prompting for confirmation regardless of its permissions. (The .Fl f option overrides any previous .Fl n option, but not .Fl i option. See also the legacy section.) .It Fl i Cause .Nm to write a prompt to the standard error output before copying a file that would overwrite an existing file. If the response from the standard input begins with the character .Sq Li y or .Sq Li Y , the file copy is attempted. (The .Fl i option overrides any previous .Fl f or .Fl n options.) .It Fl n Do not overwrite an existing file. (The .Fl n option overrides any previous .Fl f or .Fl i options.) .It Fl p Cause .Nm to preserve in the copy as many of the modification time, access time, file flags, file mode, user ID, and group ID as allowed by permissions. .Pp If the user ID and group ID cannot be preserved, no error message is displayed and the exit value is not altered. .Pp If the source file has its set user ID bit on and the user ID cannot be preserved, the set user ID bit is not preserved in the copy's permissions. If the source file has its set group ID bit on and the group ID cannot be preserved, the set group ID bit is not preserved in the copy's permissions. If the source file has both its set user ID and set group ID bits on, and either the user ID or group ID cannot be preserved, neither the set user ID nor set group ID bits are preserved in the copy's permissions. .It Fl v Cause .Nm to be verbose, showing files as they are copied. .El .Pp For each destination file that already exists, its contents are overwritten if permissions allow. Its mode, user ID, and group ID are unchanged unless the .Fl p option was specified. .Pp In the second synopsis form, .Ar target_directory must exist unless there is only one named .Ar source_file which is a directory and the .Fl R flag is specified. .Pp If the destination file does not exist, the mode of the source file is used as modified by the file mode creation mask .Pf ( Ic umask , see .Xr csh 1 ) . If the source file has its set user ID bit on, that bit is removed unless both the source file and the destination file are owned by the same user. If the source file has its set group ID bit on, that bit is removed unless both the source file and the destination file are in the same group and the user is a member of that group. If both the set user ID and set group ID bits are set, all of the above conditions must be fulfilled or both bits are removed. .Pp Appropriate permissions are required for file creation or overwriting. .Pp Symbolic links are always followed unless the .Fl R flag is set, in which case symbolic links are not followed, by default. The .Fl H or .Fl L flags (in conjunction with the .Fl R flag) cause symbolic links to be followed as described above. The .Fl H , .Fl L and .Fl P options are ignored unless the .Fl R option is specified. In addition, these options override each other and the command's actions are determined by the last one specified. .Sh DIAGNOSTICS .Ex -std .Sh COMPATIBILITY Historic versions of the .Nm utility had a .Fl r option. This implementation supports that option, however, its use is strongly discouraged, as it does not correctly copy special files, symbolic links or fifo's. .Pp The .Fl v and .Fl n options are non-standard and their use in scripts is not recommended. .Sh LEGACY DESCRIPTION When invoked in legacy mode, both .Fl n , .Fl i options are overridden by the .Fl f option. .Sh SEE ALSO .Xr mv 1 , .Xr rcp 1 , .Xr umask 2 , .Xr fts 3 , .Xr compat 5 , .Xr symlink 7 .Sh STANDARDS The .Nm command is expected to be .St -p1003.2 compatible. It is also .St -susv3 conformant. .Sh HISTORY A .Nm command appeared in .At v1 .