Building and Installing Emacs on Windows NT/2000 and Windows 95/98/ME Copyright (c) 2001 Free Software Foundation, Inc. See the end of the file for copying permissions. If you used WinZip to unpack the distribution, we suggest to remove the files and unpack again with a different program! WinZip is known to create some subtle and hard to debug problems, such as converting files to DOS CR-LF format, not creating empty directories, etc. We suggest to use djtarnt.exe from the GNU FTP site. To compile Emacs, you will need either Microsoft Visual C++ 2.0 or later and nmake, or a Windows port of GCC 2.95 or later with Mingw and W32 API support and a port of GNU make. You can use the Cygwin ports of GCC, but Emacs requires the Mingw headers and libraries to build (latest versions of the Cygwin toolkit, at least since v1.3.3, include the MinGW headers and libraries as an integral part). If you build Emacs on Windows 9X or ME, not on Windows 2000 or Windows NT, we suggest to install the Cygwin port of Bash. Please see http://www.mingw.org for pointers to GCC/Mingw binaries. For reference, here is a list of which builds of GNU make are known to work or not, and whether they work in the presence and/or absence of sh.exe, the Cygwin port of Bash. sh exists no sh cygwin b20.1 make (3.75): okay fails MSVC compiled gmake 3.77: okay okay MSVC compiled gmake 3.78.1: okay okay MSVC compiled gmake 3.79.1: okay okay mingw32/gcc-2.92.2 make (3.77): okay okay cygwin compiled gmake 3.77: okay fails cygwin compiled make 3.78.1: okay fails cygwin compiled make 3.79.1: couldn't build make Notes:  doesn't cope with makefiles with DOS line endings, so must mount emacs source with text!=binary.  fails when needs to invoke shell commands; okay invoking gcc etc.  requires LC_MESSAGES support to build; maybe 2.95.x update to cygwin provides this?  may fail on Windows 9X and Windows ME; if so, install Bash. * Configuring Configuration of Emacs is now handled by running configure.bat in the nt subdirectory. It will detect which compiler you have available, and generate makefiles accordingly. You can override the compiler detection, and control optimization and debug settings, by specifying options on the command line when invoking configure. To configure Emacs to build with GCC or MSVC, whichever is available, simply change to the nt subdirectory and run `configure' with no options. To see what options are available, run `configure --help'. N.B. It is normal to see a few error messages output while configure is running, when gcc support is being tested. These cannot be surpressed because of limitations in the Windows 9x command.com shell. * Building After running configure, simply run the appropriate `make' program for your compiler to build Emacs. For MSVC, this is nmake; for GCC, it is GNU make. As the files are compiled, you will see some warning messages declaring that some functions don't return a value, or that some data conversions will be lossy, etc. You can safely ignore these messages. The warnings may be fixed in the main FSF source at some point, but until then we will just live with them. * Installing To install Emacs after it has compiled, simply run `nmake install' or `make install', depending on which version of the Make utility do you have. By default, Emacs will be installed in the location where it was built, but a different location can be specified either using the --prefix option to configure, or by setting INSTALL_DIR when running make, like so: make install INSTALL_DIR=D:/emacs (for `nmake', type "nmake install INSTALL_DIR=D:/emacs" instead). The install process will run addpm to setup the registry entries, and to create a Start menu icon for Emacs. * Trouble-shooting The main problems that are likely to be encountered when building Emacs stem from using an old version of GCC, or old Mingw or W32 API headers. Additionally, cygwin ports of GNU make may require the Emacs source tree to be mounted with text!=binary, because the makefiles generated by configure.bat necessarily use DOS line endings. Also, cygwin ports of make must run in UNIX mode, either by specifying --unix on the command line, or MAKE_MODE=UNIX in the environment. When configure runs, it attempts to detect when GCC itself, or the headers it is using, are not suitable for building Emacs. GCC version 2.95 or later is needed, because that is when the Windows port gained sufficient support for anonymous structs and unions to cope with some definitions from winnt.h that are used by addsection.c. The W32 API headers that come with Cygwin b20.1 are incomplete, and do not include some definitions required by addsection.c, for instance. Also, older releases of the W32 API headers from Anders Norlander contain a typo in the definition of IMAGE_FIRST_SECTION in winnt.h, which addsection.c relies on. Versions of w32api-xxx.zip from at least 1999-11-18 onwards are okay. If configure succeeds, but make fails, install the Cygwin port of Bash, even if the table above indicates that Emacs should be able to build without sh.exe. (Some versions of Windows shells are too dumb for Makefile's used by Emacs.) If you are using certain Cygwin builds of GCC, such as Cygwin version 1.1.8, you may need to specify some extra compiler flags like so: configure --with-gcc --cflags -mwin32 --cflags -D__MSVCRT__ --ldflags -mwin32 However, the latest Cygwin versions, such as 1.3.3, don't need those switches; you can simply use "configure --with-gcc". We will attempt to auto-detect the need for these flags in a future release. * Debugging You should be able to debug Emacs using the debugger that is appropriate for the compiler you used, namely DevStudio or Windbg if compiled with MSVC, or gdb if compiled with gcc. Emacs functions implemented in C use a naming convention that reflects their names in lisp. The names of the C routines are the lisp names prefixed with 'F', and with dashes converted to underscores. For example, the function call-process is implemented in C by Fcall_process. Similarly, lisp variables are prefixed with 'V', again with dashes converted to underscores. These conventions enable you to easily set breakpoints or examine familiar lisp variables by name. Since Emacs data is often in the form of a lisp object, and the Lisp_Object type is difficult to examine manually in the MSVC debugger, Emacs provides a helper routine called debug_print that prints out a readable representation of a Lisp_Object. (If you are using gdb, there is a .gdbinit file in the src directory which provides definitions that are useful for examining lisp objects. The following tips are mainly of interest when using MSVC.) The output from debug_print is sent to stderr, and to the debugger via the OutputDebugString routine. The output sent to stderr should be displayed in the console window that was opened when the emacs.exe executable was started. The output sent to the debugger should be displayed in its "Debug" output window. When you are in the process of debugging Emacs and you would like to examine the contents of a Lisp_Object variable, popup the QuickWatch window (QuickWatch has an eyeglass symbol on its button in the toolbar). In the text field at the top of the window, enter debug_print(<variable>) and hit return. For example, start and run Emacs in the debugger until it is waiting for user input. Then click on the Break button in the debugger to halt execution. Emacs should halt in ZwUserGetMessage waiting for an input event. Use the Call Stack window to select the procedure w32_msp_pump up the call stack (see below for why you have to do this). Open the QuickWatch window and enter debug_print(Vexec_path). Evaluating this expression will then print out the contents of the lisp variable exec-path. If QuickWatch reports that the symbol is unknown, then check the call stack in the Call Stack window. If the selected frame in the call stack is not an Emacs procedure, then the debugger won't recognize Emacs symbols. Instead, select a frame that is inside an Emacs procedure and try using debug_print again. If QuickWatch invokes debug_print but nothing happens, then check the thread that is selected in the debugger. If the selected thread is not the last thread to run (the "current" thread), then it cannot be used to execute debug_print. Use the Debug menu to select the current thread and try using debug_print again. Note that the debugger halts execution (e.g., due to a breakpoint) in the context of the current thread, so this should only be a problem if you've explicitly switched threads. COPYING PERMISSIONS Permission is granted to anyone to make or distribute verbatim copies of this document as received, in any medium, provided that the copyright notice and permission notice are preserved, and that the distributor grants the recipient permission for further redistribution as permitted by this notice. Permission is granted to distribute modified versions of this document, or of portions of it, under the above conditions, provided also that they carry prominent notices stating who last changed them, and that any new or changed statements about the activities of the Free Software Foundation are approved by the Foundation.