mh-e.texi   [plain text]

\input texinfo   @c -*-texinfo-*-
@c $Id: mh-e.texi,v 2000/06/30 17:53:56 wsanchez Exp $
@c %**start of header
@setfilename ../info/mh-e
@settitle mh-e
@c %**end of header

@setchapternewpage odd

@dircategory Editors
* MH-E: (mh-e).		Emacs interface to the MH mail system.
@end direntry

@c Version variables.
@set EDITION 1.2
@set VERSION 5.0.2
@set UPDATED 22 August 1995
@set UPDATE-MONTH August 1995

This is Edition @value{EDITION}, last updated @value{UPDATED}, of
@cite{mh-e, The Emacs Interface to MH}, for mh-e, Version

Copyright 1995 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim
copies of this manual provided the copyright notice and
this permission notice are preserved on all copies.

Permission is granted to process this file through TeX
and print the results, provided the printed document
carries a copying permission notice identical to this
one except for the removal of this paragraph (this
paragraph not being relevant to the printed manual).

@end ignore
Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified
versions of this manual under the conditions for
verbatim copying, provided also that the section
entitled ``Copying''
is included exactly as in the original, and provided
that the entire resulting derived work is distributed
under the terms of a permission notice identical to this

Permission is granted to copy and distribute
translations of this manual into another language,
under the above conditions for modified versions,
except that this permission notice may be stated in a
translation approved by the Free Software Foundation.
@end ifinfo

@sp 10
@center @titlefont{mh-e}
@sp 2
@center The Emacs Interface to MH
@sp 2
@center by Bill Wohler
@sp 2
@center Edition @value{EDITION} for mh-e Version @value{VERSION}
@sp 2
@center @value{UPDATE-MONTH}

@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
Copyright @copyright{} 1995 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim
copies of this manual provided the copyright notice and
this permission notice are preserved on all copies.

Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified
versions of this manual under the conditions for
verbatim copying, provided also that the section
entitled ``The GNU General Public License''
is included exactly as in the original, and provided
that the entire resulting derived work is distributed
under the terms of a permission notice identical to this

Permission is granted to copy and distribute
translations of this manual into another language,
under the above conditions for modified versions,
except that this permission notice may be stated in a
translation approved by the Free Software Foundation.
@end titlepage

@node Top, Preface, (dir), (dir)
@top MH and Emacs
This is Edition @value{EDITION} of @cite{mh-e, The Emacs Interface to
MH}, last updated @value{UPDATED} for mh-e Version @value{VERSION}.

* Preface::                     Introduction to mh-e.
* Tour Through mh-e::           Use mh-e quickly!
* Using mh-e::                  Documentation for all commands.
* Customizing mh-e::            Documentation for all variables.
* Odds and Ends::               Getting mh-e, reporting bugs, mailing
                                list and FAQ.
* History::                     The authors speak up!
* Changes to mh-e::             Actual changes between Versions 3 and beyond.
* Copying::                     The GNU General Public License
* Command Index::              
* Variable Index::              
* Concept Index::               
@end menu
@end ifinfo

@node Preface, Tour Through mh-e, Top, Top
@unnumbered Preface

@cindex Emacs
@cindex Unix commands, Emacs

These chapters introduce another interface to MH that is accessible
through the GNU Emacs editor, namely, @emph{mh-e}.  mh-e is easy to use.
I don't assume that you know GNU Emacs or even MH at this point, since I
didn't know either of them when I discovered mh-e.  However, mh-e was
the tip of the iceberg, and I discovered more and more niceties about
GNU Emacs and MH@.  Now I'm fully hooked on both of them.

@cindex history

The mh-e package is distributed with GNU Emacs, @footnote{Note that mh-e
is supported with MH 6 and either @w{Emacs 18} or @w{Emacs 19}.
Reportedly, large parts of it work with @w{MH 5} and also with
Lucid/XEmacs and Epoch, but there are no guarantees.  It is also
distributed with Lucid/XEmacs, as well as with MH itself.} so you shouldn't
have to do anything special to use it.  But it's important to note a
brief history of mh-e.  @w{Version 3} was prevalent through the @w{Emacs
18} and early @w{Emacs 19} years.  Then @w{Version 4} came out (@w{Emacs
19.23}), which introduced several new and changed commands.  Finally,
@w{Version 5.0} was released, which fixed some bugs and
incompatibilities.  This is the version covered by this manual.
@ref{Getting Started} will help you decide which version you

If you don't already use GNU Emacs but want to learn more, you can read
an online tutorial by starting GNU Emacs and typing @kbd{C-h t}
(@code{help-with-tutorial}).  (This notation is described in
@ref{Conventions}.)  If you want to take the plunge, consult the
@cite{GNU Emacs Manual},
@end iftex
@ref{top, , GNU Emacs Manual, emacs, The GNU Emacs Manual},
@end ifinfo
from the Free Software Foundation.

If more information is needed, you can go to the Unix manual pages of
the individual MH commands.  When the name is not obvious, I'll guide
you to a relevant MH manual page that describes the action more fully.

I hope you enjoy these chapters!  If you have any comments, or
suggestions for this document, please let me know.

Bill Wohler <@i{}>@*
8 February 1995

@node    Tour Through mh-e, Using mh-e, Preface, Top
@chapter Tour Through mh-e

This chapter introduces some of the terms you'll need to know and then
takes you on a tour of mh-e. @footnote{The keys mentioned in these
chapters refer to the default key bindings.  If you've changed the
bindings, refer to the command summaries at the beginning of each major
section in @ref{Using mh-e}, for a mapping between default key bindings
and function names.}  When you're done, you'll be able to send, read,
and file mail, which is all that a lot of people ever do.  But if you're
the curious type, you'll read @ref{Using mh-e} to be able to use all
the features of mh-e.  If you're the adventurous type, you'll read
@ref{Customizing mh-e} to make mh-e do what you want.  I suggest you
read this chapter first to get the big picture, and then you can read
the other two as you wish.

* Conventions::                 GNU Emacs Terms and Conventions
* Getting Started::             
* Sending Mail Tour::           
* Reading Mail Tour::           
* Processing Mail Tour::        
* Leaving mh-e::                
* More About mh-e::             
@end menu

@node Conventions, Getting Started, Tour Through mh-e, Tour Through mh-e
@section GNU Emacs Terms and Conventions

@cindex Emacs, terms and conventions

@cindex Emacs
@cindex Unix commands, Emacs

If you're an experienced Emacs user, you can skip the following
conventions and definition of terms and go directly to @ref{Getting
Started} below.  The conventions are as follows:

@table @kbd
@item C-x
Hold down the @key{CTRL} (Control) key and press the @kbd{x} key.
@item M-x
Hold down the @key{META} or @key{ALT} key and press the @kbd{x} key.

Since some keyboards don't have a @key{META} key, you can generate
@kbd{M-x}, for example, by pressing @key{ESC} (Escape), @emph{releasing
it}, @footnote{This is emphasized because pressing ESC twice or holding
it down a second too long so that it repeats gives you an error message.}
and then pressing the @kbd{x} key.
@item RET
Press the @key{RETURN} or @key{ENTER} key.  This is normally used to
complete a command.
@item SPC
Press the space bar.
@item TAB
Press the @key{TAB} key.
@item DEL
Press the @key{DELETE} key.  This may also be a Backspace key, depending
on your keyboard or Emacs configuration.
@end table

@cindex Emacs, prefix argument
@cindex prefix argument

A @dfn{prefix argument} allows you to pass an argument to any Emacs
function.  To pass an argument, type @kbd{C-u} before the Emacs command
or keystroke.  Numeric arguments can be passed as well.  For example, to
insert five f's, use @kbd{C-u 5 f}.  There is a default of four when
using @kbd{C-u}, and you can use multiple prefix arguments to provide
arguments of powers of four.  To continue our example, you could insert
four f's with @kbd{C-u f}, 16 f's with @kbd{C-u C-u f}, 64 f's with
@kbd{C-u C-u C-u f}, and so on.  Numeric and valueless negative
arguments can also be inserted with the @key{META} key.  Examples
include @kbd{M-5} to specify an argument of 5, or @kbd{M--} which
specifies a negative argument with no particular value.

@sp 2
@need 1000
@center @strong{NOTE}

The prefix @kbd{C-u} or @kbd{M-} is not necessary in mh-e's MH-Folder
modes (@pxref{Reading Mail Tour}).  In these modes, simply enter the
numerical argument before entering the command.
@end quotation

@cindex point
@cindex Emacs, point
@cindex mark
@cindex Emacs, mark
@cindex region
@cindex Emacs, region

There are several other terms that are used in Emacs that you should
know.  The @dfn{point} is where the cursor currently is.  You can save
your current place in the file by setting a @dfn{mark}.  This operation
is useful in several ways.  The mark can be later used when defining a
@dfn{region}, which is the text between the point and mark.  Many
commands operate on regions, such as those for deleting text or filling
paragraphs.  A mark can be set with @kbd{C-@@} (or @kbd{C-SPC}).

@cindex minibuffer
@cindex Emacs, minibuffer
@cindex file completion
@cindex Emacs, file completion

The @dfn{minibuffer} is the bottom line of the Emacs window, where all
prompting and multiple-character input is directed.  If you are prompted
for information in the minibuffer, such as a filename, Emacs can help
you complete your answer if you type @key{SPC} or @key{TAB}.  A second
@key{SPC} or @key{TAB} will list all possibilities at that point.  The
minibuffer is also where you enter Emacs function names after typing
@kbd{M-x}.  For example, in the first paragraph, I mentioned that you
could obtain help with @kbd{C-h t} (@code{help-with-tutorial}).  What
this means is that you can get a tutorial by typing either @kbd{C-h t}
or @kbd{M-x help-with-tutorial}.  In the latter case, you are prompted
for @samp{help-with-tutorial} in the minibuffer after typing @kbd{M-x}.

@cindex interrupting
@cindex Emacs, interrupting
@cindex quitting
@cindex Emacs, quitting

@i{In case of trouble:} Emacs can be interrupted at any time with
@kbd{C-g}.  For example, if you've started a command that requests that
you enter something in the minibuffer, but then you change your mind,
type @kbd{C-g} and you'll be back where you started.  If you want to
exit Emacs entirely, use @kbd{C-x C-c}.

@node Getting Started, Sending Mail Tour, Conventions, Tour Through mh-e
@section Getting Started

Because there are many old versions of mh-e out there, it is important to
know which version you have.  I'll be talking about @w{Version 5} which
is similar to @w{Version 4} and vastly different from @w{Version 3}.

First, enter @kbd{M-x load-library @key{RET} mh-e
@key{RET}}. @footnote{You wouldn't ordinarily do this.}  The message,
@samp{Loading mh-e...done}, should be displayed in the minibuffer.  If
you get @samp{Cannot open load file: mh-e}, then your Emacs is very
badly configured, or mh-e is missing.  You may wish to have your system
administrator install a new Emacs or at least the latest mh-e files.

Having loaded mh-e successfully, enter @kbd{M-x mh-version @key{RET}}.
The version of mh-e should be displayed.  Hopefully it says that you're
running @w{Version @value{VERSION}} which is the latest version as of
this printing.  If instead Emacs beeps and says @samp{[No match]}, then
you're running an old version of mh-e.

If these tests reveal a non-existent or old version of mh-e, please
consider obtaining a new version.  You can have your system
administrator upgrade the system-wide version, or you can install your
own personal version.  It's really quite easy; instructions for getting
and installing mh-e are in @ref{Getting mh-e}.  In the meantime, see
@ref{Changes to mh-e}, which compares the old and new names of commands,
functions, variables, and buffers.

@cindex @code{install-mh}
@cindex MH commands, @code{install-mh}

Also, older versions of mh-e assumed that you had already set up your MH
environment.  Newer versions set up a new MH environment for you by
running @code{install-mh} and notifying you of this fact with the
message in a temporary buffer:

I'm going to create the standard MH path for you.
@end example

Therefore, if you've never run MH before and you're using an old version
of mh-e, you need to run @code{install-mh} from the shell before you
continue the tour.  If you don't, you'll be greeted with the error
message: @samp{Can't find MH profile}.

@cindex @file{.emacs}
@cindex files, @file{.emacs}

If, during the tour described in this chapter, you see a message like:
@samp{Searching for program: no such file or directory,
/usr/local/bin/mhpath}, it means that the MH programs and files are kept
in a nonstandard directory.  In this case, simply add the following to
@file{~/.emacs} and restart @code{emacs}.

@vindex @code{mh-progs}, example
@vindex @code{mh-lib}, example

@c XXX Real example for really naive user?
(setq mh-progs "@var{/path/to/MH/binary/directory/}")
(setq mh-lib "@var{/path/to/MH/library/directory/}")
@end group
@end example

@cindex ~

The @samp{~} notation used by @file{~/.emacs} above represents your home
directory.  This is used by the @code{bash} and @code{csh} shells.  If
your shell does not support this feature, you could use the environment
variable @samp{$HOME} (such as @file{$HOME/.emacs}) or the absolute path
(as in @file{/home/wohler/.emacs}) instead.

At this point, you should see something like the screen in the
figure in @ref{Reading Mail Tour}.  We're now ready to move on.

@node Sending Mail Tour, Reading Mail Tour, Getting Started, Tour Through mh-e
@section Sending Mail

@cindex sending mail
@findex @code{mh-smail}

Let's start our tour by sending ourselves a message which we can later
read and process.  Enter @kbd{M-x mh-smail} to invoke the mh-e program
to send messages.  You will be prompted in the minibuffer by @samp{To:}.
Enter your login name.  The next prompt is @samp{cc:}.  Hit @key{RET} to
indicate that no carbon copies are to be sent.  At the @samp{Subject:}
prompt, enter @kbd{Test} or anything else that comes to mind.

@cindex MH-Letter mode
@cindex modes, MH-Letter
@cindex mode

Once you've specified the recipients and subject, your message appears
in an Emacs buffer whose mode @footnote{A @dfn{mode} changes Emacs to
make it easier to edit a particular type of text.} is MH-Letter.
Enter some text in the body of the message, using normal Emacs commands.
You should now have something like this: @footnote{If you're running Emacs
under the X Window System, then you would also see a menubar.  I've left
out the menubar in all of the example screens.}


-----Emacs: *scratch*         (Lisp Interaction)--All---------------------
To: wohler
Subject: Test
  This is a test message to get the wheels churning...#

--**-@{draft@}      (MH-Letter)--All----------------------------------------

@end cartouche
@i{mh-e message composition window}
@end group
@end example

@cindex MH-Letter mode
@cindex modes, MH-Letter

Note the line of dashes that separates the header and the body of the
message.  It is essential that these dashes (or a blank line) are
present or the body of your message will be considered to be part of
the header.

There are several commands specific to MH-Letter mode, but at
this time we'll only use @kbd{C-c C-c} to send your message.  Type
@kbd{C-c C-c} now.  That's all there is to it!

@node Reading Mail Tour, Processing Mail Tour, Sending Mail Tour, Tour Through mh-e
@section Receiving Mail

@cindex reading mail
@findex @code{mh-rmail}
@cindex @code{inc}
@cindex MH commands, @code{inc}
@cindex @code{scan}
@cindex MH commands, @code{scan}
@cindex MH-Folder mode
@cindex modes, MH-Folder

To read the mail you've just sent yourself, enter @kbd{M-x mh-rmail}.
This incorporates the new mail and put the output from @code{inc}
(called @dfn{scan lines} after the MH program @code{scan} which prints a
one-line summary of each message) into a buffer called @samp{+inbox}
whose major mode is MH-Folder.

@sp 2
@need 1000
@center @strong{NOTE}

The @kbd{M-x mh-rmail} command will show you only new mail, not old
mail.  If you were to run this tour again, you would use @kbd{M-r} to
pull all your messages into mh-e.
@end quotation

You should see the scan line for your message, and perhaps others.  Use
@kbd{n} or @kbd{p} to move the cursor to your test message and type
@key{RET} to read your message.  You should see something like:

   3  24Aug  root       received fax files on Wed Aug 24 11:00:13 PDT 1994
#  4+ 24Aug  To:wohler  Test<<This is a test message to get the wheels chu

--%%-@{+inbox@} 4 msgs (1-4)      (MH-Folder Show)--Bot---------------------
To: wohler
Subject: Test
Date: Wed, 24 Aug 1994 13:01:13 -0700
From: Bill Wohler <>

  This is a test message to get the wheels churning...

-----@{show-+inbox@} 4      (MH-Show)--Bot----------------------------------

@end cartouche
@i{After incorporating new messages}
@end group
@end example

If you typed a long message, you can view subsequent pages with @key{SPC}
and previous pages with @key{DEL}.

@node Processing Mail Tour, Leaving mh-e, Reading Mail Tour, Tour Through mh-e
@section Processing Mail

@cindex processing mail

The first thing we want to do is reply to the message that we sent
ourselves.  Ensure that the cursor is still on the same line as your
test message and type @kbd{r}.  You are prompted in the minibuffer with
@samp{Reply to whom:}.  Here mh-e is asking whether you'd like to reply
to the original sender only, to the sender and primary recipients, or to
the sender and all recipients.  If you simply hit @key{RET}, you'll
reply only to the sender.  Hit @key{RET} now.

You'll find yourself in an Emacs buffer similar to that when you were
sending the original message, like this:

To: wohler
Subject: Re: Test
In-reply-to: Bill Wohler's message of Wed, 24 Aug 1994 13:01:13 -0700

--**-@{draft@}      (MH-Letter)--All----------------------------------------
To: wohler
Subject: Test
Date: Wed, 24 Aug 1994 13:01:13 -0700
From: Bill Wohler <>

  This is a test message to get the wheels churning...

-----@{show-+inbox@} 4      (MH-Show)--Bot----------------------------------
Composing a reply...done
@end cartouche
@i{Composition window during reply}
@end group
@end example

By default, MH will not add you to the address list of your replies, so
if you find that the @samp{To:} header field is missing, don't worry.
In this case, type @kbd{C-c C-f C-t} to create and go to the @samp{To:}
field, where you can type your login name again.  You can move around
with the arrow keys or with @kbd{C-p} (@code{previous-line}), @kbd{C-n}
(@code{next-line}), @kbd{C-b} (@code{backward-char}), and @kbd{C-f}
(@code{forward-char}) and can delete the previous character with
@key{DEL}.  When you're finished editing your message, send it with
@kbd{C-c C-c} as before.

@cindex folder

You'll often want to save messages that were sent to you in an organized
fashion.  This is done with @dfn{folders}.  You can use folders to keep
messages from your friends, or messages related to a particular topic.
With your cursor in the MH-Folder buffer and positioned on the message
you sent to yourself, type @kbd{o} to output (@code{refile} in MH
parlance) that message to a folder.  Enter @kbd{test} at the
@samp{Destination:} prompt and type @kbd{y} (or @key{SPC}) when mh-e
asks to create the folder @samp{+test}.  Note that a @samp{^} (caret)
appears next to the message number, which means that the message has
been marked for refiling but has not yet been refiled.  We'll talk about
how the refile is actually carried out in a moment.

@cindex MH-Folder mode
@cindex modes, MH-Folder

Your previous reply is now waiting in the system mailbox.  You
incorporate this mail into your MH-Folder buffer named @samp{+inbox}
with the @kbd{i} command.  Do this now.  After the mail is incorporated,
use @kbd{n} or @kbd{p} to move the cursor to the new message, and read
it with @key{RET}.  Let's delete this message by typing @kbd{d}.  Note
that a @samp{D} appears next to the message number.  This means that the
message is marked for deletion but is not yet deleted.  To perform the
deletion (and the refile we did previously), use the @kbd{x} command.

@findex @code{mh-smail}

If you want to send another message you can use @kbd{m} instead of
@kbd{M-x mh-smail}.  So go ahead, send some mail to your friends!

@node Leaving mh-e, More About mh-e, Processing Mail Tour, Tour Through mh-e
@section Leaving mh-e

@cindex Emacs, quitting
@cindex quitting

You may now wish to exit @code{emacs} entirely.  Use @kbd{C-x C-c} to
exit @code{emacs}.  If you exited without running @kbd{x} in the
@samp{+inbox} buffer, Emacs will offer to save it for you.  Type @kbd{y}
or @key{SPC} to save @samp{+inbox} changes, which means to perform any refiles
and deletes that you did there.

If you don't want to leave Emacs, you can type @kbd{q} to bury (hide)
the mh-e folder or delete them entirely with @kbd{C-x k}.  You can then
later recall them with @kbd{C-x b} or @kbd{M-x mh-rmail}.

@node More About mh-e,  , Leaving mh-e, Tour Through mh-e
@section More About mh-e

These are the basic commands to get you going, but there are plenty
more.  If you think that mh-e is for you, read @ref{Using mh-e} and
@ref{Customizing mh-e} to find out how you can:

@itemize @bullet
Print your messages.  (@ref{Printing} and @ref{Customizing Printing}.)
Edit messages and include your signature.  (@ref{Draft Editing}
and @ref{Customizing Draft Editing}.)
Forward messages.  (@ref{Forwarding} and @ref{Customizing Forwarding}.)
Read digests.  (@ref{Viewing}.)
Edit bounced messages.  (@ref{Old Drafts} and @ref{Customizing Old Drafts}.)
Send multimedia messages.  (@ref{Editing MIME} and @ref{Customizing Editing MIME}.)
Process mail that was sent with @code{shar} or @code{uuencode}.
(@ref{Files and Pipes}.)
Use sequences conveniently.  (@ref{Sequences}.)
Show header fields in different fonts.  (@ref{Customizing Viewing}.)
Find previously refiled messages.  (@ref{Searching}.)
Place messages in a file.  (@ref{Files and Pipes}.)
@end itemize

Remember that you can also use MH commands when you're not running mh-e
(and when you are!).

@node    Using mh-e, Customizing mh-e, Tour Through mh-e, Top
@chapter Using mh-e

This chapter leaves the tutorial style and goes into more detail about
every mh-e command.  The default, or "out of the box," behavior is
documented.  If this is not to your liking (for instance, you print with
something other than @code{lpr)}, see the associated section in
@ref{Customizing mh-e} which is organized exactly like this chapter.

@cindex Emacs, functions; describe-mode
@cindex Emacs, online help
@cindex online help

There are many commands, but don't get intimidated.  There are command
summaries at the beginning of each section.  In case you have or would
like to rebind the keys, the command summaries also list the associated
Emacs Lisp function.  Furthermore, even if you're stranded on a desert
island with a laptop and are without your manuals, you can get a summary
of all these commands with GNU Emacs online help: use @kbd{C-h m}
(@code{describe-mode}) for a brief summary of commands or @kbd{C-h i} to
read this manual via Info.  The online help is quite good; try running
@kbd{C-h C-h C-h}.  This brings up a list of available help topics, one
of which displays the documentation for a given key (like @kbd{C-h k
C-n}).  In addition, review @ref{Conventions}, if any of the GNU Emacs
conventions are strange to you.

Let's get started!

* Reading Mail::                
* Sending Mail::                
* Draft Editing::               
* Moving Mail::                 
* Searching::                   
* Sequences::                   
* Miscellaneous::               
@end menu

@node Reading Mail, Sending Mail, Using mh-e, Using mh-e
@section Reading Your Mail

@cindex reading mail
@findex @code{mh-rmail}
@cindex MH-Folder mode
@cindex modes, MH-Folder

The mh-e entry point for reading mail is @kbd{M-x mh-rmail}.  This
command incorporates your mail and creates a buffer called @samp{+inbox}
in MH-Folder mode.  The @kbd{M-x mh-rmail} command shows you only new
mail, not old mail. @footnote{If you want to see your old mail as well,
use @kbd{M-r} to pull all your messages into mh-e.  Or, give a prefix
argument to @code{mh-rmail} so it will prompt you for folder to visit
like @kbd{M-f} (for example, @kbd{C-u M-x mh-rmail @key{RET} bob
@key{RET}}).  Both @kbd{M-r} and @kbd{M-f} are described in
@ref{Organizing}.}  The @samp{+inbox} buffer contains @dfn{scan lines},
which are one-line summaries of each incorporated message.  You can
perform most MH commands on these messages via one-letter commands
discussed in this chapter.  See @code{scan}(1) for a description of the
contents of the scan lines, and see the Figure in @ref{Reading Mail
Tour}, for an example.

@table @kbd
@item RET
Display a message (@code{mh-show}).

@item SPC
Go to next page in message (@code{mh-page-msg}).

@item DEL
Go to previous page in message (@code{mh-previous-page}).

@item , (comma)
Display a message with all header fields (@code{mh-header-display}).

@item M-SPC
Go to next message in digest (@code{mh-page-digest}).

@item M-DEL
Go to previous message in digest (@code{mh-page-digest-backwards}).

@item M-b
Break up digest into separate messages (@code{mh-burst-digest}).

@item n
Display next message (@code{mh-next-undeleted-msg}).

@item p
Display previous message (@code{mh-previous-undeleted-msg}).

@item g
Go to a message (@code{mh-goto-msg}).

@item M-<
Go to first message (@code{mh-first-msg}).

@item M->
Go to last message (@code{mh-last-msg}).

@item t
Toggle between MH-Folder and MH-Folder Show modes (@code{mh-toggle-showing}).
@end table

* Viewing::                     
* Moving Around::               
@end menu

@node Viewing, Moving Around, Reading Mail, Reading Mail
@subsection Viewing Your Mail

@findex @code{mh-show}
@findex @code{mh-page-msg}
@findex @code{mh-previous-page}

The @kbd{RET} (@code{mh-show}) command displays the message that the
cursor is on.  If the message is already displayed, it scrolls to the
beginning of the message.  Use @key{SPC} (@code{mh-page-msg}) and
@key{DEL} (@code{mh-previous-page}) to move forwards and backwards one
page at a time through the message.  You can give either of these
commands a prefix argument that specifies the number of lines to scroll
(such as @kbd{10 SPC}).  mh-e normally hides a lot of the
superfluous header fields that mailers add to a message, but if you wish
to see all of them, use the @kbd{,} (comma; @code{mh-header-display})

* Reading Digests::             
* Reading MIME::                
@end menu

@node Reading Digests, Reading MIME, Viewing, Viewing
@subsubsection Reading Digests

@cindex digests
@findex @code{mh-page-digest}
@findex @code{mh-page-digest-backwards}

A digest is a message that contains other messages.  Special mh-e
commands let you read digests conveniently.  You can use @key{SPC} and
@key{DEL} to page through the digest as if it were a normal message, but
if you wish to skip to the next message in the digest, use @kbd{M-SPC}
(@code{mh-page-digest}).  To return to a previous message, use
@kbd{M-DEL} (@code{mh-page-digest-backwards}).

@cindex @code{burst}
@cindex MH commands, @code{burst}
@cindex MH-Folder Show mode
@cindex modes, MH-Folder Show
@findex @code{mh-burst-digest}

@c There was a page break at the colon in the following paragraph which
@c broke the transition to the example.
@need 2000

Another handy command is @kbd{M-b} (@code{mh-burst-digest}).  This
command uses the MH command @code{burst} to break out each message in
the digest into its own message.  Using this command, you can quickly
delete unwanted messages, like this: Once the digest is split up, toggle
out of MH-Folder Show mode with @kbd{t} (@pxref{Moving Around}) so that
the scan lines fill the screen and messages aren't displayed.  Then use
@kbd{d} (@pxref{Deleting}) to quickly delete messages that you don't
want to read (based on the @samp{Subject:} header field).  You can also
burst the digest to reply directly to the people who posted the messages
in the digest.  One problem you may encounter is that the @samp{From:}
header fields are preceded with a @samp{>} so that your reply can't
create the @samp{To:} field correctly.  In this case, you must correct
the @samp{To:} field yourself.  This is described later in @ref{Editing

@node Reading MIME,  , Reading Digests, Viewing
@subsubsection Reading Multimedia Mail

@cindex multimedia mail
@cindex MIME
@cindex @code{show}
@cindex MH commands, @code{show}
@cindex @code{mhn}
@cindex MH commands, @code{mhn}

MH has the ability to read @dfn{@sc{mime}} (Multipurpose Internet Mail
Extensions) messages.  Unfortunately, mh-e does not yet have this
ability, so you have to use the MH commands @code{show} or @code{mhn}
from the shell to read @sc{mime} messages.  @footnote{You can call them
directly from Emacs if you're running the X Window System: type @kbd{M-!
xterm -e mhn @var{message-number}}.  You can leave out the @code{xterm
-e} if you use @code{mhn -list} or @code{mhn -store}.}

@node Moving Around,  , Viewing, Reading Mail
@subsection Moving Around

@cindex moving between messages
@findex @code{mh-next-undeleted-msg}
@findex @code{mh-previous-undeleted-msg}
@findex @code{mh-goto-msg}
@findex @code{mh-last-msg}
@findex @code{mh-first-msg}

To move on to the next message, use the @kbd{n}
(@code{mh-next-undeleted-msg}) command; use the @kbd{p}
(@code{mh-previous-undeleted-msg}) command to read the previous message.
Both of these commands can be given a prefix argument to specify how
many messages to skip (for example, @kbd{5 n}).  You can also move to a
specific message with @kbd{g} (@code{mh-goto-msg}).  You can enter the
message number either before or after typing @kbd{g}.  In the latter
case, Emacs prompts you.  Finally, you can go to the first or last
message with @kbd{M-<} (@code{mh-first-msg}) and @kbd{M->}
(@code{mh-last-msg}) respectively.

@cindex MH-Folder mode
@cindex modes, MH-Folder

You can also use the Emacs commands @kbd{C-p} (@code{previous-line}) and
@kbd{C-n} (@code{next-line}) to move up and down the scan lines in the
MH-Folder window.  These commands can be used in conjunction with
@kbd{RET} to look at deleted or refiled messages.

@cindex MH-Folder mode
@cindex modes, MH-Folder
@cindex MH-Folder Show mode
@cindex modes, MH-Folder Show
@cindex junk mail
@findex @code{mh-toggle-showing}

The command @kbd{t} (@code{mh-toggle-showing}) switches between
MH-Folder mode and MH-Folder Show mode.  @footnote{For you Emacs
wizards, this is implemented as an Emacs minor mode.} MH-Folder mode
turns off the associated show buffer so that you can perform operations
on the messages quickly without reading them.  This is an excellent way
to prune out your junk mail or to refile a group of messages to another
folder for later examination.

@node Sending Mail, Draft Editing, Reading Mail, Using mh-e
@section Sending Mail

@cindex sending mail
@findex @code{mh-smail}

You can send a mail message in several ways.  You can call @kbd{M-x
mh-smail} directly, or from the command line like this:

@cindex starting from command line

% @kbd{emacs -f mh-smail}
@end example

From within mh-e's MH-Folder mode, other methods of sending mail
are available as well:

@table @kbd
@item m
Compose a message (@code{mh-send}).

@item r
Reply to a message (@code{mh-reply}).

@item f
Forward message(s) (@code{mh-forward}).

@item M-d
Redistribute a message (@code{mh-redistribute}).

@item M-e
Edit a message that was bounced by mailer (@code{mh-extract-rejected-mail}).

@item M-a
Edit a message to send it again (@code{mh-edit-again}).
@end table

@cindex MH-Folder mode
@cindex modes, MH-Folder
@cindex MH-Letter mode
@cindex modes, MH-Letter
@findex @code{mh-send}

From within a MH-Folder buffer, you can simply use the command @kbd{m}
(@code{mh-send}).  However you invoke @code{mh-send}, you are prompted
for the @samp{To:}, @samp{cc:}, and @samp{Subject:} header fields.  Once
you've specified the recipients and subject, your message appears in an
Emacs buffer whose mode is MH-Letter (see the Figure in @ref{Sending
Mail} to see what the buffer looks like).  MH-Letter mode allows you to
edit your message, to check the validity of the recipients, to insert
other messages into your message, and to send the message.  We'll go
more into depth about editing a @dfn{draft} @footnote{I highly recommend
that you use a @dfn{draft folder} so that you can edit several drafts in
parallel.  To do so, create a folder (e.g., @file{+drafts}), and add a
profile component called @samp{Draft-Folder:} which contains
@file{+drafts} (see @code{mh-profile}(5)).} (a message you're composing)
in just a moment.

@findex @code{mh-smail}
@findex @code{mh-smail-other-window}

@code{mh-smail} always creates a two-window layout with the current
buffer on top and the draft on the bottom.  If you would rather preserve
the window layout, use @kbd{M-x mh-smail-other-window}.

* Replying::                    
* Forwarding::                  
* Redistributing::              
* Old Drafts::                  
@end menu

@node Replying, Forwarding, Sending Mail, Sending Mail
@subsection Replying to Mail

@cindex replying
@cindex @code{mhl}
@cindex MH commands, @code{mhl}
@cindex @file{mhl.reply}
@cindex files, @file{mhl.reply}
@findex @code{mh-reply}

To compose a reply to a message, use the @kbd{r} (@code{mh-reply})
command.  If you supply a prefix argument (as in @kbd{C-u r}), the
message you are replying to is inserted in your reply after having first
been run through @code{mhl} with the format file @file{mhl.reply}.  See
@code{mhl}(1) to see how you can modify the default @file{mhl.reply}

When you reply to a message, you are first prompted with @samp{Reply to
whom?}.  You have several choices here.

@b{Response}     @b{Reply Goes To}

@kbd{from}         @r{The person who sent the message.  This is the default,}
             @r{so @key{RET} is sufficient.}

@kbd{to}           @r{Replies to the sender, plus all recipients in the}
             @r{@samp{To:} header field.}

@kbd{cc}           @r{Forms a reply to the sender, plus all recipients.}
@end group
@end example

@cindex @code{repl}
@cindex MH commands, @code{repl}

Depending on your answer, @code{repl} is given a different argument to
form your reply.  Specifically, a choice of @kbd{from} or none at all
runs @code{repl -nocc all}, and a choice of @kbd{to} runs @code{repl -cc
to}.  Finally, either @kbd{cc} or @kbd{all} runs @code{repl -cc all
-nocc me}.

@cindex MH-Letter mode
@cindex modes, MH-Letter

Two windows are then created.  One window contains the message to which
you are replying.  Your draft, in MH-Letter mode (described in
@ref{Draft Editing}), is in the other window.

If you wish to customize the header or other parts of the reply draft,
please see @code{repl}(1) and @code{mh-format}(5).

@node Forwarding, Redistributing, Replying, Sending Mail
@subsection Forwarding Mail

@cindex forwarding
@cindex @code{forw}
@cindex MH commands, @code{forw}
@findex @code{mh-forward}

To forward a message, use the @kbd{f} (@code{mh-forward}) command.  You
are given a draft to edit that looks like it would if you had run the MH
command @code{forw}.  You are given a chance to add some text (see
@ref{Draft Editing}).

You can forward several messages by using a prefix argument; in this
case, you are prompted for the name of a @dfn{sequence}, a symbolic name
that represents a list or range of message numbers (for example,
@kbd{C-u f forbob @key{RET}}).  All of the messages in the sequence are
inserted into your draft.  By the way, although sequences are often
mentioned in this chapter, you don't have to worry about them for now;
the full description of sequences in mh-e is at the end in
@ref{Sequences}.  To learn more about sequences in general, please see

@node Redistributing, Old Drafts, Forwarding, Sending Mail
@subsection Redistributing Your Mail

@cindex redistributing
@findex @code{mh-redistribute}

The command @kbd{M-d} (@code{mh-redistribute}) is similar in function to
forwarding mail, but it does not allow you to edit the message, nor does
it add your name to the @samp{From:} header field.  It appears to the
recipient as if the message had come from the original sender.  For more
information on redistributing messages, see @code{dist}(1).  Also
investigate the @kbd{M-a} (@code{mh-edit-again}) command in @ref{Old
Drafts}, for another way to redistribute messages.

@node Old Drafts,  , Redistributing, Sending Mail
@subsection Editing Old Drafts and Bounced Messages

@cindex re-editing drafts
@cindex @file{draft}
@cindex files, @file{draft}
@findex @code{mh-edit-again}

If you don't complete a draft for one reason or another, and if the
draft buffer is no longer available, you can pick your draft up again
with @kbd{M-a} (@code{mh-edit-again}).  If you don't use a draft folder,
your last @file{draft} file will be used.  If you use draft folders,
you'll need to visit the draft folder with @kbd{M-f drafts @key{RET}},
use @kbd{n} to move to the appropriate message, and then use @kbd{M-a}
to prepare the message for editing.

The @kbd{M-a} command can also be used to take messages that were sent
to you and to send them to more people.

@cindex Mailer-Daemon
@findex @code{mh-extract-rejected-mail}

Don't use @kbd{M-a} to re-edit a message from a @i{Mailer-Daemon} who
complained that your mail wasn't posted for some reason or another.  In
this case, use @kbd{M-e} (@code{mh-extract-rejected-mail}) to prepare
the message for editing by removing the @i{Mailer-Daemon} envelope and
unneeded header fields.  Fix whatever addressing problem you had, and
send the message again with @kbd{C-c C-c}.

@node Draft Editing, Moving Mail, Sending Mail, Using mh-e
@section Editing a Draft

@cindex editing draft
@cindex MH-Letter mode
@cindex modes, MH-Letter

When you edit a message that you want to send (called a @dfn{draft} in
this case), the mode used is MH-Letter.  This mode provides
several commands in addition to the normal Emacs editing commands to
help you edit your draft.

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-y
Insert contents of message to which you're replying (@code{mh-yank-cur-msg}).

@item C-c C-i
Insert a message from a folder (@code{mh-insert-letter}).

@item C-c C-f C-t
Move to @samp{To:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).

@item C-c C-f C-c
Move to @samp{cc:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).

@item C-c C-f C-s
Move to @samp{Subject:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).

@item C-c C-f C-f
Move to @samp{From:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).

@item C-c C-f C-b
Move to @samp{Bcc:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).

@item C-c C-f C-f
Move to @samp{Fcc:} header field (@code{mh-to-fcc}).

@item C-c C-f C-d
Move to @samp{Dcc:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).

@item C-c C-w
Display expanded recipient list (@code{mh-check-whom}).

@item C-c C-s
Insert signature in message (@code{mh-insert-signature}).

@item C-c C-m C-f
Include forwarded message (@sc{mime}) (@code{mh-mhn-compose-forw}).

@item C-c C-m C-e
Include anonymous ftp reference (@sc{mime}) (@code{mh-mhn-compose-anon-ftp}).

@item C-c C-m C-t
Include anonymous ftp reference to compressed tar file (@sc{mime})

@item C-c C-m C-i
Include binary, image, sound, etc. (@sc{mime})

@item C-c C-e
Run through @code{mhn} before sending (@code{mh-edit-mhn}).

@item C-c C-m C-u
Undo effects of @code{mhn} (@code{mh-revert-mhn-edit}).

@item C-c C-c
Save draft and send message (@code{mh-send-letter}).

@item C-c C-q
Quit editing and delete draft message (@code{mh-fully-kill-draft}).
@end table

* Editing Textual::             
* Editing MIME::                
* Sending Message::             
* Killing Draft::               
@end menu

@node Editing Textual, Editing MIME, Draft Editing, Draft Editing
@subsection Editing Textual Messages

The following sections show you how to edit a draft.
The commands described here are also applicable to messages that have
multimedia components.

* Inserting Letter::            
* Inserting Messages::          
* Header::                      
* Recipients::                  
* Signature::                   
@end menu

@node Inserting Letter, Inserting Messages, Editing Textual, Editing Textual
@subsubsection Inserting letter to which you're replying

@cindex inserting messages
@findex @code{mh-yank-cur-msg}

It is often useful to insert a snippet of text from a letter that
someone mailed to provide some context for your reply.  The command
@kbd{C-c C-y} (@code{mh-yank-cur-msg}) does this by yanking a portion of
text from the message to which you're replying and inserting @samp{> }
before each line.

@cindex mark
@cindex Emacs, mark
@cindex point
@cindex Emacs, point
@cindex region
@cindex Emacs, region

You can control how much text is included when you run this command.  If
you run this command right away, without entering the buffer containing
the message to you, this command will yank the entire message, as is,
into your reply. @footnote{If you'd rather have the header cleaned up,
use @kbd{C-u r} instead of @kbd{r} when replying (see @ref{Replying}).}
If you enter the buffer containing the message sent to you and move the
cursor to a certain point and return to your reply and run @kbd{C-c
C-y}, then the text yanked will range from that point to the end of the
message.  Finally, the most common action you'll perform is to enter the
message sent to you, move the cursor to the beginning of a paragraph or
phrase, set the @dfn{mark} with @kbd{C-SPC} or @kbd{C-@@}, and move the
cursor to the end of the paragraph or phrase.  The cursor position is
called the @dfn{point}, and the space between the mark and point is
called the @dfn{region}.  Having done that, @kbd{C-c C-y} will insert
the region you selected.

@node Inserting Messages, Header, Inserting Letter, Editing Textual
@subsubsection Inserting messages

@cindex inserting messages
@findex @code{mh-insert-letter}

Messages can be inserted with @kbd{C-c C-i} (@code{mh-insert-letter}).
This command prompts you for the folder and message number and inserts
the message, indented by @samp{> }.  Certain undesirable header fields
are removed before insertion.  If given a prefix argument (like @kbd{C-u
C-c C-i}), the header is left intact, the message is not indented, and
@samp{> } is not inserted before each line.

@node Header, Recipients, Inserting Messages, Editing Textual
@subsubsection Editing the header

@cindex editing header
@findex @code{mh-to-field}

Because the header is part of the message, you can edit the header
fields as you wish.  However, several convenience functions exist to
help you create and edit them.  For example, the command @kbd{C-c C-f
C-t} (@code{mh-to-field}; alternatively, @kbd{C-c C-f t}) moves the
cursor to the @samp{To:} header field, creating it if necessary.  The
functions to move to the @samp{cc:}, @samp{Subject:}, @samp{From:},
@samp{Bcc:}, and @samp{Dcc:} header fields are similar.

@findex @code{mh-to-fcc}

One function behaves differently from the others, namely, @kbd{C-c C-f
C-f} (@code{mh-to-fcc}; alternatively, @kbd{C-c C-f f}).  This function
will prompt you for the folder name in which to file a copy of the draft.

Be sure to leave a row of dashes or a blank line between the header and
the body of the message.

@node Recipients, Signature, Header, Editing Textual
@subsubsection Checking recipients

@cindex checking recipients
@cindex @code{whom}
@cindex MH commands, @code{whom}
@findex @code{mh-check-whom}

The @kbd{C-c C-w} (@code{mh-check-whom}) command expands aliases so you
can check the actual address(es) in the alias.  A new buffer is created
with the output of @code{whom}.

@node Signature,  , Recipients, Editing Textual
@subsubsection Inserting your signature

@cindex inserting signature
@cindex signature
@cindex @file{.signature}
@cindex files, @file{.signature}
@findex @code{mh-insert-signature}

You can insert your signature at the current cursor location with the
@kbd{C-c C-s} (@code{mh-insert-signature}) command.  The text of your
signature is taken from the file @file{~/.signature}.

@node Editing MIME, Sending Message, Editing Textual, Draft Editing
@subsection Editing Multimedia Messages

@cindex MIME
@cindex multimedia mail
@cindex @code{mhn}
@cindex MH commands, @code{mhn}

mh-e has the capability to create multimedia messages.  It uses the
@sc{mime} (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) protocol.  The
@sc{mime} protocol allows you to incorporate images, sound, video,
binary files, and even commands that fetch a file with @samp{ftp} when
your recipient reads the message!  If you were to create a multimedia
message with plain MH commands, you would use @code{mhn}.  Indeed, the
mh-e @sc{mime} commands merely insert @code{mhn} directives which are
later expanded by @code{mhn}.

Each of the mh-e commands for editing multimedia messages or for
incorporating multimedia objects is prefixed with @kbd{C-c C-m} .

@cindex content types
@cindex MIME, content types

Several @sc{mime} objects are defined.  They are called @dfn{content
types}.  The table in @ref{Customizing Draft Editing} contains a list of
the content types that mh-e currently knows about.  Several of the mh-e
commands fill in the content type for you, whereas others require you to
enter one.  Most of the time, it should be obvious which one to use
(e.g., use @kbd{image/jpeg} to include a @sc{jpeg} image).  If not, you
can refer to @sc{rfc} 1521, 
@c Footnotes are very fragile.  Hence the duplication.
@c The line break in the footnote was necessary since TeX wasn't creating one.
@ifclear html
@footnote{This @sc{rfc} (Request For Comments) is
available via the @sc{url} @*
@end ifclear
@ifset html
@footnote{This @sc{rfc} (Request For Comments) is
available via the @sc{url} @*
@file{<A HREF=""></A>}.}
@end ifset
which defines the @sc{mime} protocol, for a list of valid content types.

@cindex content description
@cindex MIME, content description

You are also sometimes asked for a @dfn{content description}.  This is
simply an optional brief phrase, in your own words, that describes the
object.  If you don't care to enter a content description, just press
return and none will be included; however, a reader may skip over
multimedia fields unless the content description is compelling.

Remember: you can always add @code{mhn} directives by hand.

* Forwarding MIME::             
* FTP::                         
* Tar::                         
* Other MIME Objects::          
* Sending MIME::                
@end menu

@node Forwarding MIME, FTP, Editing MIME, Editing MIME
@subsubsection Forwarding multimedia messages

@findex @code{mh-mhn-compose-forw}

Mail may be forwarded with @sc{mime} using the command @kbd{C-c C-m C-f}
(@code{mh-mhn-compose-forw}).  You are prompted for a content
description, the name of the folder in which the messages to forward are
located, and the messages' numbers.

@node FTP, Tar, Forwarding MIME, Editing MIME
@subsubsection Including an ftp reference

@cindex @code{ftp}
@cindex Unix commands, @code{ftp}
@cindex MIME, @code{ftp}
@findex @code{mh-mhn-compose-anon-ftp}

You can even have your message initiate an @code{ftp} transfer when the
recipient reads the message.  To do this, use the @kbd{C-c C-m C-e}
(@code{mh-mhn-compose-anon-ftp}) command.  You are prompted for the
remote host and pathname, the content type, and the content description.

@node Tar, Other MIME Objects, FTP, Editing MIME
@subsubsection Including tar files

@cindex @code{tar}
@cindex Unix commands, @code{tar}
@cindex MIME, @code{tar}
@cindex @code{ftp}
@cindex Unix commands, @code{ftp}
@cindex MIME, @code{ftp}
@findex @code{mh-mhn-compose-external-compressed-tar}

If the remote file (@pxref{FTP}) is a compressed tar file, you can use
@kbd{C-c C-m C-t} (@code{mh-mhn-compose-external-compressed-tar}).
Then, in addition to retrieving the file via anonymous @emph{ftp}, the
file will also be uncompressed and untarred.  You are prompted for the
remote host and pathname and the content description.  The pathname
should contain at least one @samp{/} (slash), because the pathname is
broken up into directory and name components.

@node Other MIME Objects, Sending MIME, Tar, Editing MIME
@subsubsection Including other multimedia objects

@cindex images
@cindex MIME, images
@cindex sound
@cindex MIME, sound
@cindex video
@cindex MIME, video
@findex @code{mh-mhn-compose-insertion}

Images, sound, and video can be inserted in your message with the
@kbd{C-c C-m C-i} (@code{mh-mhn-compose-insertion}) command.  You are
prompted for the filename containing the object, the content type, and a
content description of the object.

@node Sending MIME,  , Other MIME Objects, Editing MIME
@subsubsection Readying multimedia messages for sending

When you are finished editing a @sc{mime} message, it might look like this:

   3  24Aug  root               received fax files on Wed Aug 24 11:00:13
   4+ 24Aug  To:wohler          Test<<This is a test message to get the wh

--%%-@{+inbox@} 4 msgs (1-4)      (MH-Folder Show)--Bot-------------------
To: wohler
Subject: Test of MIME
#@@application/octet-stream [Nonexistent ftp test file] \
access-type=anon-ftp;; name=panacea.tar.gz; \
#audio/basic [Test sound bite] /tmp/
--**-@{draft@}      (MH-Letter)--All--------------------------------------

@end cartouche
@i{mh-e @sc{mime} draft}
@end group
@end example

@cindex @code{mhn}
@cindex MH commands, @code{mhn}
@findex @code{mh-edit-mhn}

The lines added by the previous commands are @code{mhn} directives and
need to be converted to @sc{mime} directives before sending.  This is
accomplished by the command @kbd{C-c C-e} (@code{mh-edit-mhn}), which
runs @code{mhn} on the message.  The following screen shows what those
commands look like in full @sc{mime} format.  You can see why mail user
agents are usually built to hide these details from the user.

To: wohler
Subject: Test of MIME
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary="----- =_aaaaaaaaaa0"
Content-ID: <>

------- =_aaaaaaaaaa0
Content-Type: message/external-body; access-type="anon-ftp";
        site=""; name="panacea.tar.gz"; directory="/pub/"

Content-Type: application/octet-stream
Content-ID: <>
Content-Description: Nonexistent ftp test file

------- =_aaaaaaaaaa0
Content-Type: audio/basic
Content-ID: <>
Content-Description: Test sound bite
Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64

-----@{draft@}      (MH-Letter)--Top--------------------------------------

@end cartouche
@i{mh-e @sc{mime} draft ready to send}
@end group
@end example

@findex @code{mh-revert-mhn-edit}

This action can be undone by running @kbd{C-c C-m C-u}
(@code{mh-revert-mhn-edit}).  It does this by reverting to a backup
file.  You are prompted to confirm this action, but you can avoid the
confirmation by adding an argument (for example, @kbd{C-u C-c C-m C-u}).

@node Sending Message, Killing Draft, Editing MIME, Draft Editing
@subsection Sending a Message

@cindex sending mail
@findex @code{mh-send-letter}

When you are all through editing a message, you send it with the
@kbd{C-c C-c} (@code{mh-send-letter}) command.  You can give an argument
(as in @kbd{C-u C-c C-c}) to monitor the first stage of the delivery.

@node Killing Draft,  , Sending Message, Draft Editing
@subsection Killing the Draft

@cindex killing draft
@findex @code{mh-fully-kill-draft}

If for some reason you are not happy with the draft, you can kill it
instead with @kbd{C-c C-q} (@code{mh-fully-kill-draft}).  Emacs then
kills the draft buffer and deletes the draft message.

@node Moving Mail, Searching, Draft Editing, Using mh-e
@section Moving Your Mail Around

@cindex processing mail

This section covers how messages and folders can be moved about or
manipulated.  Messages may be incorporated into your @file{+inbox},
deleted, and refiled.  Messages containing @code{shar} or
@code{uuencode} output can be stored.  Folders can be visited, sorted,
packed, or deleted.  Here's a list of the available commands to do these

@c Stephen thinks that ? should be documented here, since it also shows
@c which folders a message will be refiled to.

@table @kbd
@item i
Incorporate new mail into folder (@code{mh-inc-folder}).

@item d
Delete message (@code{mh-delete-msg}).

@item C-d
Delete message, don't move to next message (@code{mh-delete-msg-no-motion}).

@item M-s
Find messages that meet search criteria (@code{mh-search-folder}).

@item o
Output (refile) message to folder (@code{mh-refile-msg}).

@item c
Copy message to folder (@code{mh-copy-msg}).

@item C-o
Output (write) message to file (@code{mh-write-msg-to-file}).

@item !
Repeat last output command (@code{mh-refile-or-write-again}).

@item l
Print message with @code{lpr} (@code{mh-print-msg}).

@item |
Pipe message through shell command (@code{mh-pipe-msg}).

@item M-n
Unpack message created with @code{uudecode} or @code{shar}

@item M-l
List all folders (@code{mh-list-folders}).

@item M-f
Visit folder (@code{mh-visit-folder}).

@item M-r
Regenerate scan lines (@code{mh-rescan-folder}).

@item M-x mh-sort-folder
Sort folder.

@item M-p
Pack folder (@code{mh-pack-folder}).

@item M-k
Remove folder (@code{mh-kill-folder}).

@item x
Execute pending refiles and deletes (@code{mh-execute-commands}).

@item u
Undo pending refile or delete (@code{mh-undo}).

@item M-u
Undo all pending refiles and deletes (@code{mh-undo-folder}).

@item q
Quit (@code{mh-quit}).
@end table

* Incorporating::               
* Deleting::                    
* Organizing::                  
* Printing::                    
* Files and Pipes::             
* Finishing Up::                
@end menu

@node Incorporating, Deleting, Moving Mail, Moving Mail
@subsection Incorporating Your Mail

@cindex incorporating
@findex @code{mh-inc-folder}

If at any time you receive new mail, incorporate the new mail into your
@samp{+inbox} buffer with @kbd{i} (@code{mh-inc-folder}).  Note that
@kbd{i} will display the @samp{+inbox} buffer, even if there isn't any
new mail.  You can incorporate mail from any file into the current
folder by specifying a prefix argument; you'll be prompted for the name
of the file to use (for example, @kbd{C-u i ~/mbox @key{RET}}).

@cindex Emacs, notification of new mail
@cindex notification of new mail
@cindex new mail
@cindex @file{.emacs}
@cindex files, @file{.emacs}

Emacs can notify you when you have new mail by displaying @samp{Mail} in
the mode line.  To enable this behavior, and to have a clock in the mode
line besides, add the following to @file{~/.emacs}:

@findex @code{display-time}

@end lisp

@node Deleting, Organizing, Incorporating, Moving Mail
@subsection Deleting Your Mail

@cindex deleting
@findex @code{mh-delete-msg}
@findex @code{mh-delete-msg-no-motion}

To mark a message for deletion, use the @kbd{d} (@code{mh-delete-msg})
command.  A @samp{D} is placed by the message in the scan window, and
the next message is displayed.  If the previous command had been
@kbd{p}, then the next message displayed is the message previous to the
message just deleted.  If you specify a prefix argument, you will be
prompted for a sequence (@pxref{Sequences}) to delete (for example,
@kbd{C-u d frombob RET}).  The @kbd{x} command actually carries out the
deletion (@pxref{Finishing Up}).  @kbd{C-d}
(@code{mh-delete-msg-no-motion}) marks the message for deletion but
leaves the cursor at the current message in case you wish to perform
other operations on the message.

@node Organizing, Printing, Deleting, Moving Mail
@subsection Organizing Your Mail with Folders

@cindex using folders
@cindex @code{folder}
@cindex MH commands, @code{folder}
@cindex @code{refile}
@cindex MH commands, @code{refile}
@findex @code{mh-refile-msg}

mh-e has analogies for each of the MH @code{folder} and @code{refile}
commands.  To refile a message in another folder, use the @kbd{o}
(@code{mh-refile-msg}) (mnemonic: ``output'') command.  You are prompted
for the folder name.

@findex @code{mh-refile-or-write-again}

If you are refiling several messages into the same folder, you can use
the @kbd{!} (@code{mh-refile-or-write-again}) command to repeat the last
refile or write (see the description of @kbd{C-o} in @ref{Files and
Pipes}).  Or, place the messages into a sequence (@ref{Sequences}) and
specify a prefix argument to @kbd{o}, in which case you'll be prompted
for the name of the sequence (for example, @kbd{C-u o search RET}).

@findex @code{mh-copy-msg}

If you wish to copy a message to another folder, you can use the @kbd{c}
(@code{mh-copy-msg}) command (see the @code{-link} argument to
@code{refile}(1)).  You are prompted for a folder, and you can specify a
prefix argument if you want to copy a sequence into another folder.  In
this case, you are then prompted for the sequence.  Note that unlike the
@kbd{o} command, the copy takes place immediately.  The original copy
remains in the current folder.

@findex @code{mh-visit-folder}

When you want to read the messages that you have refiled into folders,
use the @kbd{M-f} (@code{mh-visit-folder}) command to visit the folder.
You are prompted for the folder name.

@findex @code{mh-list-folders}
@findex @code{mh-visit-folder}
@findex @code{mh-sort-folder}
@findex @code{mh-pack-folder}
@findex @code{mh-rescan-folder}

Other commands you can perform on folders include: @kbd{M-l}
(@code{mh-list-folders}), to list all the folders in your mail
directory; @kbd{M-k} (@code{mh-kill-folder}), to remove a folder;
@kbd{M-x mh-sort-folder}, to sort the messages by date (see
@code{sortm}(1) to see how to sort by other criteria); @kbd{M-p}
(@code{mh-pack-folder}), to pack a folder, removing gaps from the
numbering sequence; and @kbd{M-r} (@code{mh-rescan-folder}), to rescan
the folder, which is useful to grab all messages in your @file{+inbox}
after processing your new mail for the first time.  If you don't want to
rescan the entire folder, give @kbd{M-r} or @kbd{M-p} a prefix argument
and you'll be prompted for a range of messages to display (for instance,
@kbd{C-u M-r last:50 RET}).

@node Printing, Files and Pipes, Organizing, Moving Mail
@subsection Printing Your Mail

@cindex printing
@cindex @code{mhl}
@cindex MH commands, @code{mhl}
@cindex @code{lpr}
@cindex Unix commands, @code{lpr}
@findex @code{mh-print-msg}

Printing mail is simple.  Enter @kbd{l} (@code{mh-print-msg}) (for
@i{l}ine printer or @i{l}pr).  The message is formatted with @code{mhl}
and printed with the @code{lpr} command.  You can print all the messages
in a sequence by specifying a prefix argument, in which case you are
prompted for the name of the sequence (as in @kbd{C-u l frombob RET}).

@node Files and Pipes, Finishing Up, Printing, Moving Mail
@subsection Files and Pipes

@cindex using files
@cindex using pipes
@findex @code{mh-write-msg-to-file}

mh-e does offer a couple of commands that are not a part of MH@.  The
first one, @kbd{C-o} (@code{mh-write-msg-to-file}), writes a message to
a file (think of the @kbd{o} as in "output").  You are prompted for the
filename.  If the file already exists, the message is appended to it.
You can also write the message to the file without the header by
specifying a prefix argument (such as @kbd{C-u C-o /tmp/foobar RET}).
Subsequent writes to the same file can be made with the @kbd{!}

@findex @code{mh-pipe-msg}

You can also pipe the message through a Unix shell command with the
@kbd{|} (@code{mh-pipe-msg}) command.  You are prompted for the
Unix command through which you wish to run your message.  If you
give an argument to this command, the message header is included in the
text passed to the command (the contrived example @kbd{C-u | lpr}
would be done with the @kbd{l} command instead).

@cindex @code{shar}
@cindex Unix commands, @code{shar}
@cindex @code{uuencode}
@cindex Unix commands, @code{uuencode}
@findex @code{mh-store-msg}

If the message is a shell archive @code{shar} or has been run through
@code{uuencode} use @kbd{M-n} (@code{mh-store-msg}) to extract the body
of the message.  The default directory for extraction is the current
directory, and you have a chance to specify a different extraction
directory.  The next time you use this command, the default directory is
the last directory you used.

@node Finishing Up,  , Files and Pipes, Moving Mail
@subsection Finishing Up

@cindex expunging refiles and deletes
@findex @code{mh-undo}
@findex @code{mh-undo-folder}

If you've deleted a message or refiled it, but changed your mind, you
can cancel the action before you've executed it.  Use @kbd{u}
(@code{mh-undo}) to undo a refile on or deletion of a single message.
You can also undo refiles and deletes for messages that belong to a
given sequence by specifying a prefix argument.  You'll be prompted for
the name of the sequence (as in @kbd{C-u u frombob RET}).
Alternatively, you can use @kbd{M-u} (@code{mh-undo-folder}) to undo all
refiles or deletes in the current folder.

@findex @code{mh-execute-commands}

If you've marked messages to be deleted or refiled and you want to go
ahead and delete or refile the messages, use @kbd{x}
(@code{mh-execute-commands}).  Many mh-e commands that may affect the
numbering of the messages (such as @kbd{M-r} or @kbd{M-p}) will ask if you
want to process refiles or deletes first and then either run @kbd{x} for
you or undo the pending refiles and deletes, which are lost.

@findex @code{mh-rmail}
@findex @code{mh-quit}

When you want to quit using mh-e and go back to editing, you can use the
@kbd{q} (@code{mh-quit}) command.  This buries the buffers of the
current mh-e folder and restores the buffers that were present when you
first ran @kbd{M-x mh-rmail}.  You can later restore your mh-e session
by selecting the @samp{+inbox} buffer or by running @kbd{M-x mh-rmail}

@node Searching, Sequences, Moving Mail, Using mh-e
@section Searching Through Messages

@cindex searching
@findex @code{mh-search-folder}

You can search a folder for messages to or from a particular person or
about a particular subject.  In fact, you can also search for messages
containing selected strings in any arbitrary header field or any string
found within the messages.  Use the @kbd{M-s} (@code{mh-search-folder})
command.  You are first prompted for the name of the folder to search
and then placed in the following buffer in MH-Pick mode:

From: #

--**-Emacs: pick-pattern    (MH-Pick)------All----------------------------

@end cartouche
@i{Pick window}
@end group
@end example

@cindex @code{pick}
@cindex MH commands, @code{pick}

Edit this template by entering your search criteria in an appropriate
header field that is already there, or create a new field yourself.  If
the string you're looking for could be anywhere in a message, then place
the string underneath the row of dashes.  The @kbd{M-s} command uses the
MH command @code{pick} to do the real work, so read @code{pick}(1) to
find out more about how to enter the criteria.

There are no semantics associated with the search criteria---they are
simply treated as strings.  Case is ignored when all lowercase is used,
and regular expressions (a la @code{ed}) are available.  It is all right
to specify several search criteria.  What happens then is that a logical
@emph{and} of the various fields is performed.  If you prefer a logical
@emph{or} operation, run @kbd{M-s} multiple times.

As an example, let's say that we want to find messages from Ginnean
about horseback riding in the Kosciusko National Park (Australia) during
January, 1994.  Normally we would start with a broad search and narrow
it down if necessary to produce a manageable amount of data, but we'll
cut to the chase and create a fairly restrictive set of criteria as

From: ginnean
Date: Jan 1994
Subject: horse.*kosciusko
@end group
@end example

@findex @code{mh-to-field}

As with MH-Letter mode, MH-Pick provides commands like
@kbd{C-c C-f C-t} to help you fill in the blanks.

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-f C-t
Move to @samp{To:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).

@item C-c C-f C-c
Move to @samp{cc:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).

@item C-c C-f C-s
Move to @samp{Subject:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).

@item C-c C-f C-f
Move to @samp{From:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).

@item C-c C-f C-b
Move to @samp{Bcc:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).

@item C-c C-f C-f
Move to @samp{Fcc:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).

@item C-c C-f C-d
Move to @samp{Dcc:} header field (@code{mh-to-field}).

@item C-c C-c
Execute the search (@code{mh-do-pick-search}).
@end table

@findex @code{mh-do-pick-search}

To perform the search, type @kbd{C-c C-c} (@code{mh-do-pick-search}).
The selected messages are placed in the @i{search} sequence, which you
can use later in forwarding (@pxref{Forwarding}), printing
(@pxref{Printing}), or narrowing your field of view (@pxref{Sequences}).
Subsequent searches are appended to the @i{search} sequence.  If,
however, you wish to start with a clean slate, first delete the
@i{search} sequence (how to do this is discussed in @ref{Sequences}).

@cindex MH-Folder mode
@cindex modes, MH-Folder

If you're searching in a folder that is already displayed in a
MH-Folder buffer, only those messages contained in the buffer are
used for the search.  Therefore, if you want to search in all messages,
first kill the folder's buffer with @kbd{C-x k} or scan the entire
folder with @kbd{M-r}.

@node Sequences, Miscellaneous, Searching, Using mh-e
@section Using Sequences

@cindex sequences

For the whole scoop on MH sequences, refer to @code{mh-sequence}(5).  As
you've read, several of the mh-e commands can operate on a sequence,
which is a shorthand for a range or group of messages.  For example, you
might want to forward several messages to a friend or colleague.  Here's
how to manipulate sequences.

@table @kbd
@item %
Put message in a sequence (@code{mh-put-msg-in-seq}).

@item ?
Display sequences that message belongs to (@code{mh-msg-is-in-seq}).

@item M-q
List all sequences in folder (@code{mh-list-sequences}).

@item M-%
Remove message from sequence (@code{mh-delete-msg-from-seq}).

@item M-#
Delete sequence (@code{mh-delete-seq}).

@item C-x n
Restrict display to messages in sequence (@code{mh-narrow-to-seq}).

@item C-x w
Remove restriction; display all messages (@code{mh-widen}).

@item M-x mh-update-sequences
Push mh-e's state out to MH@.
@end table

@cindex @code{pick}
@cindex MH commands, @code{pick}
@findex @code{mh-put-msg-in-seq}

To place a message in a sequence, use @kbd{%} (@code{mh-put-msg-in-seq})
to do it manually, or use the MH command @code{pick} or the mh-e version
of @code{pick} (@ref{Searching}) which create a sequence automatically.
Give @kbd{%} a prefix argument and you can add all the messages in one
sequence to another sequence (for example, @kbd{C-u % SourceSequence

@cindex MH-Folder mode
@cindex modes, MH-Folder
@findex @code{mh-narrow-to-seq}
@findex @code{mh-widen}

Once you've placed some messages in a sequence, you may wish to narrow
the field of view to just those messages in the sequence you've created.
To do this, use @kbd{C-x n} (@code{mh-narrow-to-seq}).  You are prompted
for the name of the sequence.  What this does is show only those
messages that are in the selected sequence in the MH-Folder buffer.  In
addition, it limits further mh-e searches to just those messages.  When
you want to widen the view to all your messages again, use @kbd{C-x w}

@findex @code{mh-msg-is-in-seq}
@findex @code{mh-list-sequences}

You can see which sequences a message is in with the @kbd{?}
(@code{mh-msg-is-in-seq}) command.
@c Doesn't work:
@c use a prefix argument to query a
@c message other than the current one (as in @kbd{C-u ? 42 RET}).
Or, you can list all sequences in a selected folder (default is current
folder) with @kbd{M-q} (@code{mh-list-sequences}).

@findex @code{mh-delete-msg-from-seq}
@findex @code{mh-delete-seq}

If you want to remove a message from a sequence, use @kbd{M-%}
(@code{mh-delete-msg-from-seq}), and if you want to delete an entire
sequence, use @kbd{M-#} (@code{mh-delete-seq}).  In the latter case you
are prompted for the sequence to delete.  Note that this deletes only
the sequence, not the messages in the sequence.  If you want to delete
the messages, use @kbd{C-u d} (see @ref{Deleting} above).

@cindex @code{mark}
@cindex MH commands, @code{mark}

@findex @code{mh-update-sequences}

Two sequences are maintained internally by mh-e and pushed out to MH
when you type either the @kbd{x} or @kbd{q} command.  They are the
sequence specified by your @samp{Unseen-Sequence:} profile entry and
@i{cur}.  However, you can also just update MH's state with the command
@kbd{M-x mh-update-sequences}.  See @ref{Customizing Viewing} for an
example of how this command might be used.

With the exceptions of @kbd{C-x n} and @kbd{C-x w}, the underlying MH
command dealing with sequences is @code{mark}.

@node Miscellaneous,  , Sequences, Using mh-e
@section Miscellaneous Commands

@findex @code{mh-version}

One other command worth noting is @kbd{M-x mh-version}.  Since there
were a few changes in command letters between @w{Versions 3} and 4, use
this command to see which version you are running.  This command didn't
exist before @w{Version 4}, so the message @samp{[No match]}
indicates that it's time to upgrade (@pxref{Getting mh-e}).  In the
meantime, use the older commands that are listed in @ref{Changes to
mh-e}.  The output of @kbd{M-x mh-version} should also be included with
any bug report you send (@pxref{Bug Reports}).

@node    Customizing mh-e, Odds and Ends, Using mh-e, Top
@chapter Customizing mh-e

Until now, we've talked about the mh-e commands as they work ``out of the
box.''  Of course, it is also possible to reconfigure mh-e
@c to fit the needs of even the most demanding user. ???
beyond recognition.  The following sections describe all of the
customization variables, show the defaults, and make recommendations for
customization.  The outline of this chapter is identical to that of
@ref{Using mh-e}, to make it easier to find the variables you'd need to
modify to affect a particular command.

However, when customizing your mail environment, first try to change
what you want in MH, and only change mh-e if changing MH is not
possible.  That way you will get the same behavior inside and outside
GNU Emacs.  Note that mh-e does not provide hooks for customizations
that can be done in MH; this omission is intentional.

@cindex @file{.emacs}
@cindex files, @file{.emacs}

Many string or integer variables are easy enough to modify using Emacs
Lisp.  Any such modifications should be placed in a file called
@file{.emacs} in your home directory (that is, @file{~/.emacs}).  For
example, to modify the variable that controls printing, you could add:

@vindex @code{mh-lpr-command-format}, example

(setq mh-lpr-command-format "nenscript -G -r -2 -i'%s'")
@end lisp

@ref{Customizing Printing} talks more about this variable.

@cindex setting variables
@cindex Emacs, setting variables

Variables can also hold Boolean values.  In Emacs Lisp, the Boolean
values are @code{nil}, which means false, and @code{t}, which means true.
Usually, variables are turned off by setting their value to @code{nil}, as

@vindex @code{mh-bury-show-buffer}, example

(setq mh-bury-show-buffer nil)
@end lisp

which keeps the MH-Show buffer at the top of the buffer stack.
To turn a variable on, you use

(setq mh-bury-show-buffer t)
@end lisp

which places the MH-Show buffer at the bottom of the buffer
stack.  However, the text says to turn on a variable by setting it to a
@emph{non-@code{nil}} value, because sometimes values other than @code{t} are
meaningful (for example, see @code{mhl-formfile}, described in
@ref{Customizing Viewing}).  Other variables, such as hooks, involve a
little more Emacs Lisp programming expertise.

You can also ``preview'' the effects of changing variables before
committing the changes to @file{~/.emacs}.  Variables can be changed in
the current Emacs session by using @kbd{M-x set-variable}.

@c XXX Stephen says: would be easier to just call them functions, which
@c you mostly do.
In general, @dfn{commands} in this text refer to Emacs Lisp functions.
Programs outside of Emacs are specifically called MH commands, shell
commands, or Unix commands.

@cindex Emacs, Emacs Lisp manual
@cindex Emacs, online help
@cindex online help
@cindex Emacs, info
@cindex info

I hope I've included enough examples here to get you well on your way.
If you want to explore Emacs Lisp further, a programming manual does
@c Yes, some of the stuff in the following sections is redundant, but
@c TeX barfs if the @ifs are inside the @footnote.
@footnote{The @cite{GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual} may be available
online in the Info system by typing @kbd{C-h i m Emacs Lisp RET}.  If
not, you can order a printed manual, which has the desirable side-effect
of helping to support the Free Software Foundation which made all this
great software available.  You can find an order form by running
@kbd{C-h C-d}, or you can request an order form from
@end iftex
@footnote{Perhaps you can find the online version of @ref{Top, The GNU
Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, , elisp, GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual}.
If not, you can order a printed manual, which has the desirable
side-effect of helping to support the Free Software Foundation which
made all this great software available.  You can find an order form by
running @kbd{C-h C-d}, or you can request an order form from
@end ifinfo
and you can look at the code itself for examples.  Look in the Emacs
Lisp directory on your system (such as @file{/usr/local/lib/emacs/lisp})
and find all the @file{mh-*.el} files there.  When calling mh-e and
other Emacs Lisp functions directly from Emacs Lisp code, you'll need to
know the correct arguments.  Use the online help for this.  For example,
try @kbd{C-h f mh-execute-commands RET}.  If you write your own
functions, please do not prefix your symbols (variables and functions)
with @code{mh-}.  This prefix is reserved for the mh-e package.  To
avoid conflicts with existing mh-e symbols, use a prefix like @code{my-}
or your initials.

* Customizing Reading::         
* Customizing Sending::         
* Customizing Draft Editing::   
* Customizing Moving Mail::     
* Customizing Searching::       
@end menu

@node Customizing Reading, Customizing Sending, Customizing mh-e, Customizing mh-e
@section Reading Your Mail

@cindex reading mail
@cindex @file{.emacs}
@cindex files, @file{.emacs}

I'll start out by including a function that I use as a front end to
mh-e.  @footnote{Stephen Gildea's favorite binding is
@kbd{(global-set-key "\C-cr" 'mh-rmail)}.} It toggles between your
working window configuration, which may be quite involved---windows
filled with source, compilation output, man pages, and other
documentation---and your mh-e window configuration.  Like the rest of
the customization described in this chapter, simply add the following
code to @file{~/.emacs}.  Don't be intimidated by the size of this
example; most customizations are only one line.

@end iftex

@findex @code{mh-rmail}, example

@i{Starting mh-e}

(defvar my-mh-screen-saved nil
  "Set to non-@code{nil} when mh-e window configuration shown.")
(defvar my-normal-screen nil "Normal window configuration.")
(defvar my-mh-screen nil "mh-e window configuration.")

(defun my-mh-rmail (&optional arg)
  "Toggle between mh-e and normal screen configurations.
With non-@code{nil} or prefix argument, @i{inc} mailbox as well
when going into mail."
  (interactive "P")                 ; @r{user callable function, P=prefix arg}
  (setq my-mh-screen-saved          ; @r{save state}
         ;; @r{Bring up mh-e screen if arg or normal window configuration.}
         ;; @r{If arg or +inbox buffer doesn't exist, run mh-rmail.}
         ((or arg (null my-mh-screen-saved))
          (setq my-normal-screen (current-window-configuration))
          (if (or arg (null (get-buffer "+inbox")))
            (set-window-configuration my-mh-screen))
          t)                        ; @r{set my-mh-screen-saved to @code{t}}
         ;; @r{Otherwise, save mh-e screen and restore normal screen.}
          (setq my-mh-screen (current-window-configuration))
          (set-window-configuration my-normal-screen)
          nil))))                   ; @r{set my-mh-screen-saved to nil}

(global-set-key "\C-x\r" 'my-mh-rmail)  ;@r{ call with C-x RET}
@end group
@end lisp

If you type an argument (@kbd{C-u}) or if @code{my-mh-screen-saved}
is @code{nil} (meaning a non-mh-e window configuration), the current window
configuration is saved, either +inbox is displayed or @code{mh-rmail} is
run, and the mh-e window configuration is shown.  Otherwise, the mh-e
window configuration is saved and the original configuration is

Now to configure mh-e.  The following table lists general mh-e variables
and variables that are used while reading mail.
@c XXX Seth wishes the descriptions to be more parallel.  That is,
@c some are actions, and some are objects. Hmmm.

@table @code
@item mh-progs
Directory containing MH programs (default: dynamic).

@item mh-lib
Directory containing MH support files and programs (default: dynamic).

@item mh-do-not-confirm
Don't confirm on non-reversible commands (default: @code{nil}).

@item mh-summary-height
Number of scan lines to show (includes mode line) (default: 4).

@item mh-folder-mode-hook
Functions to run in MH-Folder mode (default: @code{nil}).

@item mh-clean-message-header
Remove extraneous headers (default: @code{nil}).

@item mh-invisible-headers
Headers to hide (default: @samp{"^Received: \\| ^Message-Id: \\|
^Remailed-\\| ^Via: \\| ^Mail-from: \\| ^Return-Path: \\| ^In-Reply-To:
\\| ^Resent-"}).

@item mh-visible-headers
Headers to display (default: @code{nil}).

@item mhl-formfile
Format file for @code{mhl} (default: @code{nil}).

@item mh-show-hook
Functions to run when showing message (default: @code{nil}).

@item mh-show-mode-hook
Functions to run when showing message (default: @code{nil}).

@item mh-bury-show-buffer
Leave show buffer at bottom of stack (default: @code{t}).

@item mh-show-buffer-mode-line-buffer-id
Name of show buffer in mode line (default: @samp{"@{show-%s@} %d"}).
@end table

@vindex @code{mh-progs}
@vindex @code{mh-lib}

The two variables @code{mh-progs} and @code{mh-lib} are used to tell
mh-e where the MH programs and supporting files are kept, respectively.
mh-e does try to figure out where they are kept for itself by looking in
common places and in the user's @samp{PATH} environment variable, but if
it cannot find the directories, or finds the wrong ones, you should set
these variables.  The name of the directory should be placed in double
quotes, and there should be a
trailing slash (@samp{/}).  See the example in @ref{Getting Started}.

@vindex @code{mh-do-not-confirm}

If you never make mistakes, and you do not like confirmations for your
actions, you can set @code{mh-do-not-confirm} to a non-@code{nil} value to
disable confirmation for unrecoverable commands such as @kbd{M-k}
(@code{mh-kill-folder}) and @kbd{M-u} (@code{mh-undo-folder}).  Here's
how you set boolean values:

(setq mh-do-not-confirm t)
@end lisp

@vindex @code{mh-summary-height}
@cindex MH-Folder mode
@cindex modes, MH-Folder

@c Prevent page break between paragraph and example.
@need 2000
The variable @code{mh-summary-height} controls the number of scan lines
displayed in the MH-Folder window, including the mode line.  The
default value of 4 means that 3 scan lines are displayed.  Here's how
you set numerical values:

(setq mh-summary-height 2)              ; @r{only show the current scan line}
@end lisp

@vindex @code{mh-bury-show-buffer}
@cindex MH-Folder mode
@cindex modes, MH-Folder

Normally the buffer for displaying messages is buried at the bottom at
the buffer stack.  You may wish to disable this feature by setting
@code{mh-bury-show-buffer} to @code{nil}.  One advantage of not burying the
show buffer is that one can delete the show buffer more easily in an
electric buffer list because of its proximity to its associated
MH-Folder buffer.  Try running @kbd{M-x electric-buffer-list} to
see what I mean.

@vindex @code{mh-folder-mode-hook}
@cindex MH-Folder mode
@cindex modes, MH-Folder

The hook @code{mh-folder-mode-hook} is called when a new folder is
created with MH-Folder mode.  This could be used to set your own
key bindings, for example:

@vindex @code{mh-folder-mode-hook}, example

@i{Create additional key bindings via mh-folder-mode-hook}

(defvar my-mh-init-done nil "Non-@code{nil} when one-time mh-e settings made.")

(defun my-mh-folder-mode-hook ()
  "Hook to set key bindings in MH-Folder mode."
  (if (not my-mh-init-done)             ; @r{only need to bind the keys once }
        (local-set-key "/" 'search-msg)
        (local-set-key "b" 'mh-burst-digest)    ; @r{better use of @kbd{b}}
        (setq my-mh-init-done t))))

;;; @r{Emacs 19}
(add-hook 'mh-folder-mode-hook 'my-mh-folder-mode-hook)
;;; @r{Emacs 18}
;;;   @r{(setq mh-folder-mode-hook (cons 'my-mh-folder-mode-hook}
;;;                               @r{mh-folder-mode-hook))}

(defun search-msg ()
  "Search for a regexp in the current message."
  (interactive)                         ; @r{user function}
    (other-window 1)                    ; @r{go to next window}
    (isearch-forward-regexp)))          ; @r{string search; hit return (ESC}
                                        ;   @r{in Emacs 18) when done}
@end group
@end lisp

* Customizing Viewing::         
* Customizing Moving Around::   
@end menu

@node Customizing Viewing, Customizing Moving Around, Customizing Reading, Customizing Reading
@subsection Viewing Your Mail

@vindex @code{mh-clean-message-header}
@vindex @code{mh-invisible-headers}
@vindex @code{mh-visible-headers}

Several variables control what displayed messages look like.  Normally
messages are delivered with a handful of uninteresting header fields.
You can make them go away by setting @code{mh-clean-message-header} to a
non-@code{nil} value.  The header can then be cleaned up in two ways.  By
default, the header fields in @code{mh-invisible-headers} are removed.
On the other hand, you could set @code{mh-visible-headers} to the fields
that you would like to see.  If this variable is set,
@code{mh-invisible-headers} is ignored.  I suggest that you not set
@code{mh-visible-headers} since if you use this variable, you might miss
a lot of header fields that you'd rather not miss.  As an example of how
to set a string variable, @code{mh-visible-headers} can be set to show a
minimum set of header fields (see (@ref{Regexps, , Syntax of Regular
Expressions, emacs, The GNU Emacs Manual}, for a description of the
special characters in this string):

(setq mh-visible-headers "^From: \\|^Subject: \\|^Date: ")
@end lisp

@cindex @code{mhl}
@cindex MH commands, @code{mhl}
@vindex @code{mhl-formfile}

Normally mh-e takes care of displaying messages itself (rather than
calling an MH program to do the work).  If you'd rather have @code{mhl}
display the message (within mh-e), set the variable @code{mhl-formfile}
to a non-@code{nil} value.  You can set this variable either to @code{t}
to use the default format file or to a filename if you have your own
format file (@code{mhl}(1) tells you how to write one).  When writing
your own format file, use a nonzero value for @code{overflowoffset} to
ensure the header is RFC 822 compliant and parsable by mh-e.
@code{mhl} is always used for printing and forwarding; in this case, the
value of @code{mhl-formfile} is consulted if it is a filename.

@vindex @code{mh-show-mode-hook}

Two hooks can be used to control how messages are displayed.  The first
hook, @code{mh-show-mode-hook}, is called early on in the process of
displaying of messages.  It is used to perform some actions on the
contents of messages, such as highlighting the header fields.  If you're
running Emacs 19 under the X Window System, the following example will
highlight the @samp{From:} and @samp{Subject:} header fields.  This is a
very nice feature indeed.

@vindex @code{mh-show-mode-hook}, example

@i{Emphasize header fields in different fonts via mh-show-mode-hook}

(defvar my-mh-keywords
   '(("^From: \\(.*\\)" 1 'bold t)
     ("^Subject: \\(.*\\)" 1 'highlight t))
  "mh-e additions for font-lock-keywords.")

(defun my-mh-show-mode-hook ()
  "Hook to turn on and customize fonts."
  (require 'font-lock)                 ; @r{for font-lock-keywords below}
  (make-local-variable 'font-lock-mode-hook) ; @r{don't affect other buffers}
  (add-hook 'font-lock-mode-hook       ; @r{set a hook with inline function}
            (function                  ; @r{modifies font-lock-keywords when}
             (lambda ()                ; @r{font-lock-mode run}
               (setq font-lock-keywords
                     (append my-mh-keywords font-lock-keywords)))))
  (font-lock-mode 1))                  ; @r{change the typefaces}

(if window-system                      ; @r{can't do this on @sc{ascii} terminal}
    (add-hook 'mh-show-mode-hook 'my-mh-show-mode-hook))
@end group
@end lisp

@vindex @code{mh-show-hook}

The second hook, @code{mh-show-hook}, is the last thing called after
messages are displayed.  It's used to affect the behavior of mh-e in
general or when @code{mh-show-mode-hook} is too early.  For example, if
you wanted to keep mh-e in sync with MH, you could use
@code{mh-show-hook} as follows:

@vindex @code{mh-show-hook}, example

(add-hook 'mh-show-hook 'mh-update-sequences)
@end lisp

@vindex @code{mh-show-buffer-mode-line-buffer-id}
@cindex MH-Show mode
@cindex modes, MH-Show

The function @code{mh-update-sequences} is documented in @ref{Finishing
Up}.  For those who like to modify their mode lines, use
@code{mh-show-buffer-mode-line-buffer-id} to modify the mode line in the
MH-Show buffers.  Place the two escape strings @samp{%s} and @samp{%d},
which will display the folder name and the message number, respectively,
somewhere in the string in that order.  The default value of
@samp{"@{show-%s@} %d"} yields a mode line of

-----@{show-+inbox@} 4      (MH-Show)--Bot----------------------------------
@end example

@node Customizing Moving Around,  , Customizing Viewing, Customizing Reading
@subsection Moving Around

@cindex moving between messages
@cindex MH-Show mode
@cindex modes, MH-Show
@cindex MH-Folder mode
@cindex modes, MH-Folder
@vindex @code{mh-recenter-summary-p}

When you use @kbd{t} (@code{mh-toggle-showing}) to toggle between show
mode and scan mode, the MH-Show buffer is hidden and the
MH-Folder buffer is left alone.  Setting
@code{mh-recenter-summary-p} to a non-@code{nil} value causes the toggle to
display as many scan lines as possible, with the cursor at the middle.
The effect of @code{mh-recenter-summary-p} is rather useful, but it can
be annoying on a slow network connection.

@node Customizing Sending, Customizing Draft Editing, Customizing Reading, Customizing mh-e
@section Sending Mail

@cindex sending mail

You may wish to start off by adding the following useful key bindings to
your @file{.emacs} file:

(global-set-key "\C-xm" 'mh-smail)
(global-set-key "\C-x4m" 'mh-smail-other-window)
@end lisp

In addition, several variables are useful when sending mail or replying
to mail.  They are summarized in the following table.

@table @code
@item mh-comp-formfile
Format file for drafts (default: @samp{"components"}).

@item mh-repl-formfile
Format file for replies (default: @samp{"replcomps"}).

@item mh-letter-mode-hook
Functions to run in MH-Letter mode (default: @code{nil}).

@item mh-compose-letter-function
Functions to run when starting a new draft (default: @code{nil}).

@item mh-reply-default-reply-to
Whom reply goes to (default: @code{nil}).

@item mh-forward-subject-format
Format string for forwarded message subject (default: @samp{"%s: %s"}).

@item mh-redist-full-contents
@code{send} requires entire message (default: @code{nil}).

@item mh-new-draft-cleaned-headers
Remove these header fields from re-edited draft (default:
@samp{"^Date:\\| ^Received:\\| ^Message-Id:\\| ^From:\\| ^Sender:\\|
^Delivery-Date:\\| ^Return-Path:"}).
@end table

@cindex @code{comp}
@cindex MH commands, @code{comp}
@vindex @code{mh-comp-formfile}
@cindex @file{components}
@cindex files, @file{components}
@cindex @code{repl}
@cindex MH commands, @code{repl}
@cindex @file{replcomps}
@cindex files, @file{replcomps}
@vindex @code{mh-repl-formfile}

Since mh-e does not use @code{comp} to create the initial draft, you
need to set @code{mh-comp-formfile} to the name of your components file
if it isn't @file{components}.  This is the name of the file that
contains the form for composing messages.  If it does not contain an
absolute pathname, mh-e searches for the file first in your MH directory
and then in the system MH library directory (such as
@file{/usr/local/lib/mh}).  Replies, on the other hand, are built using
@code{repl}.  You can change the location of the field file from the
default of @file{replcomps} by modifying @code{mh-repl-formfile}.

@vindex @code{mh-letter-mode-hook}
@cindex @code{repl}
@cindex MH commands, @code{repl}
@cindex @file{components}
@cindex files, @file{components}

Two hooks are provided to run commands on your freshly created draft.
The first hook, @code{mh-letter-mode-hook}, allows you to do some
processing before editing a letter.  For example, you may wish to modify
the header after @code{repl} has done its work, or you may have a
complicated @file{components} file and need to tell mh-e where the
cursor should go.  Here's an example of how you would use this hook---all
of the other hooks are set in this fashion as well.

@findex @code{mh-insert-signature}, example

@i{Prepare draft for editing via mh-letter-mode-hook}

(defvar letter-mode-init-done nil
  "Non-@code{nil} when one-time mh-e settings have made.")

(defun my-mh-letter-mode-hook ()
  "Hook to prepare letter for editing."
  (if (not letter-mode-init-done)    ; @r{only need to bind the keys once}
        (local-set-key "\C-ctb" 'add-enriched-text)
        (local-set-key "\C-cti" 'add-enriched-text)
        (local-set-key "\C-ctf" 'add-enriched-text)
        (local-set-key "\C-cts" 'add-enriched-text)
        (local-set-key "\C-ctB" 'add-enriched-text)
        (local-set-key "\C-ctu" 'add-enriched-text)
        (local-set-key "\C-ctc" 'add-enriched-text)
        (setq letter-mode-init-done t)))
  (setq fill-prefix "  ")            ; @r{I find indented text easier to read}
    (goto-char (point-max))          ; @r{go to end of message to}
    (mh-insert-signature)))          ;   @r{insert signature}

(add-hook 'mh-letter-mode-hook 'my-mh-letter-mode-hook)
@end group
@end lisp

The function, @code{add-enriched-text} is defined in the example in
@ref{Customizing Editing MIME}.

@vindex @code{mh-compose-letter-function}

The second hook, a function really, is
@code{mh-compose-letter-function}.  Like @code{mh-letter-mode-hook}, it
is called just before editing a new message; however, it is the last
function called before you edit your message.  The consequence of this
is that you can write a function to write and send the message for you.
This function is passed three arguments: the contents of the @samp{To:},
@samp{Subject:}, and @samp{cc:} header fields.

* Customizing Replying::        
* Customizing Forwarding::      
* Customizing Redistributing::  
* Customizing Old Drafts::      
@end menu

@node Customizing Replying, Customizing Forwarding, Customizing Sending, Customizing Sending
@subsection Replying to Mail

@cindex replying
@vindex @code{mh-reply-default-reply-to}

If you find that most of the time that you specify @kbd{cc} when you
reply to a message, set @code{mh-reply-default-reply-to} to @samp{cc}.
This variable is normally set to @code{nil} so that you are prompted for
the recipient of a reply.  It can be set to one of @samp{from},
@samp{to}, or @samp{cc}; you are then no longer prompted for the
recipient(s) of your reply.

@node Customizing Forwarding, Customizing Redistributing, Customizing Replying, Customizing Sending
@subsection Forwarding Mail

@cindex forwarding
@vindex @code{mh-forward-subject-format}

When forwarding a message, the format of the @samp{Subject:} header
field can be modified by the variable @code{mh-forward-subject-format}.
This variable is a string which includes two escapes (@samp{%s}).  The
first @samp{%s} is replaced with the sender of the original message, and
the second one is replaced with the original @samp{Subject:}.  The
default value of @samp{"%s: %s"} takes a message with the header:

To: Bill Wohler <>
Subject: Re: 49er football
From: Greg DesBrisay <>
@end group
@end example

and creates a subject header field of:

Subject: Greg DesBrisay: Re: 49er football
@end example

@node Customizing Redistributing, Customizing Old Drafts, Customizing Forwarding, Customizing Sending
@subsection Redistributing Your Mail

@cindex redistributing
@vindex @code{mh-redist-full-contents}
@cindex @code{dist}
@cindex MH commands, @code{dist}
@cindex @code{send}
@cindex MH commands, @code{send}

The variable @code{mh-redist-full-contents} must be set to non-@code{nil} if
@code{dist} requires the whole letter for redistribution, which is the
case if @code{send} is compiled with the @sc{berk} @footnote{To see which
options your copy of MH was compiled with, use @kbd{M-x mh-version}
(@ref{Miscellaneous}).}  option (which many people abhor).  If you find
that MH will not allow you to redistribute a message that has been
redistributed before, this variable should be set to @code{nil}.

@node Customizing Old Drafts,  , Customizing Redistributing, Customizing Sending
@subsection Editing Old Drafts and Bounced Messages

@cindex re-editing drafts
@vindex @code{mh-new-draft-cleaned-headers}

The header fields specified by @code{mh-new-draft-cleaned-headers} are
removed from an old draft that has been recreated with @kbd{M-e}
(@code{mh-extract-rejected-mail}) or @kbd{M-a} (@code{mh-edit-again}).
If when you edit an old draft with these commands you find that there
are header fields that you don't want included, you can append them to
this variable.  For example,

@vindex @code{mh-new-draft-cleaned-headers}, example

(setq mh-new-draft-cleaned-headers
      (concat mh-new-draft-cleaned-headers "\\|^Some-Field:"))
@end lisp

@cindex regular expressions

This appends the regular expression @samp{\\|^Some-Field:} to the
variable (@pxref{Regexps, , Syntax of Regular Expressions, emacs, The
GNU Emacs Manual}).  The @samp{\\|} means @emph{or}, and the @samp{^}
(caret) matches the beginning of the line.  This is done to be very
specific about which fields match.  The literal @samp{:} is appended for
the same reason.

@node Customizing Draft Editing, Customizing Moving Mail, Customizing Sending, Customizing mh-e
@section Editing a Draft

@cindex editing draft

There are several variables used during the draft editing phase.
Examples include changing the name of the file that holds your signature
or telling mh-e about new multimedia types.  They are:

@table @code
@item mh-yank-from-start-of-msg
How to yank when region not set (default: @code{t}).

@item mh-ins-buf-prefix
Indent for yanked messages (default: @samp{"> "}).

@item mail-citation-hook
Functions to run on yanked messages (default: @code{nil}).

@item mh-delete-yanked-msg-window
Delete message window on yank (default: @code{nil}).

@c Need the @* because otherwise TeX fills it wrong and complains
@c about overfull hbox.
@item mh-mime-content-types
List of valid content types (default: @samp{'(("text/plain")@*
("text/richtext") ("multipart/mixed") ("multipart/alternative")@*
("multipart/digest") ("multipart/parallel") ("message/rfc822")@*
("message/partial") ("message/external-body")@*
("application/octet-stream") ("application/postscript")@*
("image/jpeg") ("image/gif") ("audio/basic") ("video/mpeg"))}).

@item mh-mhn-args
Additional arguments for @code{mhn} (default: @code{nil}).

@item mh-signature-file-name
File containing signature (default: @samp{"~/.signature"}).

@item mh-before-send-letter-hook
Functions to run before sending draft (default: @code{nil}).

@item mh-send-prog
MH program used to send messages (default: @samp{"send"}).
@end table

* Customizing Editing Textual::  
* Customizing Editing MIME::    
* Customizing Sending Message::  
@end menu

@node Customizing Editing Textual, Customizing Editing MIME, Customizing Draft Editing, Customizing Draft Editing
@subsection Editing Textual Messages

The following two sections include variables that customize the way you
edit a draft.  The discussion here applies to editing multimedia
messages as well.

* Customizing Inserting Letter::  
* Customizing Signature::       
@end menu

@node Customizing Inserting Letter, Customizing Signature, Customizing Editing Textual, Customizing Editing Textual
@subsubsection Inserting letter to which you're replying

@cindex inserting messages
@vindex @code{mh-yank-from-start-of-msg}
@vindex @code{mh-ins-buf-prefix}
@vindex @code{mail-citation-hook}
@vindex @code{mh-ins-buf-prefix}
@vindex @code{mh-delete-yanked-msg-window}

To control how much of the message to which you are replying is yanked
by @kbd{C-c C-y} (@code{mh-yank-cur-msg}) into your reply, modify
@code{mh-yank-from-start-of-msg}.  The default value of @code{t} means
that the entire message is copied.  If it is set to @code{'body} (don't
forget the apostrophe), then only the message body is copied.  If it is
set to @code{nil}, only the part of the message following point (the
current cursor position in the message's buffer) is copied.  In any
case, this variable is ignored if a region is set in the message you are
replying to.  The string contained in @code{mh-ins-buf-prefix} is
inserted before each line of a message that is inserted into a draft
with @kbd{C-c C-y} (@code{mh-yank-cur-msg}).  I suggest that you not
modify this variable.  The default value of @samp{"> "} is the default
string for many mailers and news readers: messages are far easier to
read if several included messages have all been indented by the same
string.  The variable @code{mail-citation-hook} is @code{nil} by
default, which means that when a message is inserted into the letter,
each line is prefixed by @code{mh-ins-buf-prefix}.  Otherwise, it can be
set to a function that modifies an included
@cindex Emacs, packages, supercite
@c Footnotes are fragile; hence the redundancy.
@c TeX not inserting a line break; hence the @*
@ifclear html
@footnote{@emph{Supercite} is an example of a full-bodied, full-featured
citation package.  It is in Emacs versions 19.15 and later, and can be
found via anonymous @code{ftp} on @samp{} in
@* @file{/pub/gnu/emacs/elisp-archive/packages/sc3.1.tar.Z}}
@end ifclear
@ifset html
@footnote{@emph{Supercite} is an example of a full-bodied,
full-featured citation package.  It is in Emacs versions 19.15 and
later, and its @sc{url} is @*
@file{<A HREF=""></A>}}
@end ifset
If you like to yank all the text from the message you're replying to in
one go, set @code{mh-delete-yanked-msg-window} to non-@code{nil} to delete
the window containing the original message after yanking it to make more
room on your screen for your reply.

@node Customizing Signature,  , Customizing Inserting Letter, Customizing Editing Textual
@subsubsection Inserting your signature

@cindex inserting signature
@cindex signature
@vindex @code{mh-signature-file-name}
@cindex @file{.signature}
@cindex files, @file{.signature}

You can change the name of the file inserted with @kbd{C-c C-s}
(@code{mh-insert-signature}) by changing @code{mh-signature-file-name}
(default: @file{"~/.signature"}).

@node Customizing Editing MIME, Customizing Sending Message, Customizing Editing Textual, Customizing Draft Editing
@subsection Editing Multimedia Messages

@cindex MIME
@cindex multimedia mail
@vindex @code{mh-mime-content-types}

The variable @code{mh-mime-content-types} contains a list of the
currently valid content types.  They are listed in the table in
@ref{Customizing Draft Editing}.  If you encounter a new content type,
you can add it like this:

@vindex @code{mh-mime-content-types}, example

(setq mh-mime-content-types (append mh-mime-content-types
@end lisp

Emacs macros can be used to insert enriched text directives like
@samp{<bold>}.  The following code will make, for example, @kbd{C-c t
b} insert the @samp{<bold>} directive.

@i{Emacs macros for entering enriched text}

(defvar enriched-text-types '(("b" . "bold") ("i" . "italic") ("f" . "fixed")
                              ("s" . "smaller") ("B" . "bigger")
                              ("u" . "underline") ("c" . "center"))
  "Alist of (final-character . directive) choices for add-enriched-text.
Additional types can be found in RFC 1563.")

(defun add-enriched-text (begin end)
  "Add enriched text directives around region.
The directive used comes from the list enriched-text-types and is
specified by the last keystroke of the command.  When called from Lisp,
arguments are BEGIN and END@."
  (interactive "r")
  ;; @r{Set type to the directive indicated by the last keystroke.}
  (let ((type (cdr (assoc (char-to-string (logior last-input-char ?@w{`}))
    (save-restriction              ; @r{restores state from narrow-to-region}
      (narrow-to-region begin end) ; @r{narrow view to region}
      (goto-char (point-min))      ; @r{move to beginning of text}
      (insert "<" type ">")        ; @r{insert beginning directive}
      (goto-char (point-max))      ; @r{move to end of text}
      (insert "</" type ">"))))    ; @r{insert terminating directive}
@end group
@end lisp

To use the function @code{add-enriched-text}, first create keybindings
for it (@pxref{Customizing Sending}).  Then, set the mark with
@kbd{C-@@} or @kbd{C-SPC}, type in the text to be highlighted, and type
@kbd{C-c t b}.  This adds @samp{<bold>} where you set the mark and
adds @samp{</bold>} at the location of your cursor, giving you something
like: @samp{You should be <bold>very</bold>}.  You may also be
interested in investigating @code{sgml-mode}.

* Customizing Sending MIME::    
@end menu

@node Customizing Sending MIME,  , Customizing Editing MIME, Customizing Editing MIME
@subsubsection Readying multimedia messages for sending

@vindex @code{mh-mhn-args}

If you wish to pass additional arguments to @code{mhn} to affect how it
builds your message, use the variable @code{mh-mhn-args}.  For example,
you can build a consistency check into the message by setting
@code{mh-mhn-args} to @code{-check}.  The recipient of your message can
then run @code{mhn -check} on the message---@code{mhn} will complain if
the message has been corrupted on the way.  The @kbd{C-c C-e}
(@code{mh-mhn-edit}) command only consults this variable when given a
prefix argument.

@node Customizing Sending Message,  , Customizing Editing MIME, Customizing Draft Editing
@subsection Sending a Message

@cindex sending mail
@cindex spell check
@vindex @code{mh-before-send-letter-hook}

If you want to check your spelling in your message before sending, use
@code{mh-before-send-letter-hook} like this:

@i{Spell-check message via mh-before-send-letter-hook}

@vindex @code{mh-before-send-letter-hook}, example

(add-hook 'mh-before-send-letter-hook 'ispell-message)
@end lisp

@cindex @code{send}
@cindex MH commands, @code{send}
@vindex @code{mh-send-prog}

In case the MH @code{send} program is installed under a different name,
use @code{mh-send-prog} to tell mh-e the name.

@node Customizing Moving Mail, Customizing Searching, Customizing Draft Editing, Customizing mh-e
@section Moving Your Mail Around

@cindex processing mail

If you change the name of some of the MH programs or have your own
printing programs, the following variables can help you.
They are described in detail in the subsequent sections.

@table @code
@item mh-inc-prog
Program to incorporate mail (default: @samp{"inc"}).

@item mh-inc-folder-hook
Functions to run when incorporating mail (default: @code{nil}).

@item mh-delete-msg-hook
Functions to run when deleting messages (default: @code{nil}).

@item mh-print-background
Print in foreground or background (default: @code{nil}).

@item mh-lpr-command-format
Command used to print (default: @samp{"lpr -J '%s'"}).

@item mh-default-folder-for-message-function
Function to generate a default folder (default: @code{nil}).

@item mh-auto-folder-collect
Collect folder names in background at startup (default: @code{t}).

@item mh-recursive-folders
Collect nested folders (default: @code{nil}).

@item mh-refile-msg-hook
Functions to run when refiling message (default: @code{nil}).

@item mh-store-default-directory
Default directory for storing files created by @code{uuencode} or @code{shar}
(default: @code{nil}).

@item mh-sortm-args
Additional arguments for @code{sortm} (default: @code{nil}).

@item mh-scan-prog
Program to scan messages (default: @samp{"scan"}).

@item mh-before-quit-hook
Functions to run before quitting (default: @code{nil}).  See also

@item mh-quit-hook
Functions to run after quitting (default: @code{nil}). See also
@end table

* Customizing Incorporating::   
* Customizing Deleting::        
* Customizing Organizing::      
* Customizing Printing::        
* Customizing Files and Pipes::  
* Customizing Finishing Up::    
@end menu

@node Customizing Incorporating, Customizing Deleting, Customizing Moving Mail, Customizing Moving Mail
@subsection Incorporating Your Mail

@cindex incorporating
@vindex @code{mh-inc-prog}
@cindex @code{inc}
@cindex MH commands, @code{inc}
@vindex @code{mh-progs}
@vindex @code{mh-scan-prog}
@vindex @code{mh-inc-folder-hook}

The name of the program that incorporates new mail is stored in
@code{mh-inc-prog}; it is @samp{"inc"} by default.  This program
generates a one-line summary for each of the new messages.  Unless it is
an absolute pathname, the file is assumed to be in the @code{mh-progs}
directory.  You may also link a file to @code{inc} that uses a different
format (see @code{mh-profile}(5)).  You'll then need to modify several
variables appropriately; see @code{mh-scan-prog} below.  You can set the
hook @code{mh-inc-folder-hook}, which is called after new mail is
incorporated by the @kbd{i} (@code{mh-inc-folder}) command.  A good use
of this hook is to rescan the whole folder either after running @kbd{M-x
mh-rmail} the first time or when you've changed the message numbers from
outside of mh-e.

@findex @code{mh-execute-commands}
@findex @code{mh-rescan-folder}, example
@findex @code{mh-show}, example
@vindex @code{mh-inc-folder-hook}, example

@i{Rescan folder after incorporating new mail via mh-inc-folder-hook}

(defun my-mh-inc-folder-hook ()
  "Hook to rescan folder after incorporating mail."
  (if (buffer-modified-p)            ; @r{if outstanding refiles and deletes,}
      (mh-execute-commands))         ;   @r{carry them out}
  (mh-rescan-folder)                 ; @r{synchronize with +inbox}
  (mh-show))                         ; @r{show the current message}

(add-hook 'mh-inc-folder-hook 'my-mh-inc-folder-hook)
@end group
@end lisp

@node Customizing Deleting, Customizing Organizing, Customizing Incorporating, Customizing Moving Mail
@subsection Deleting Your Mail

@cindex deleting
@vindex @code{mh-delete-msg-hook}

The hook @code{mh-delete-msg-hook} is called after you mark a message
for deletion.  For example, the current maintainer of mh-e used this
once when he kept statistics on his mail usage.

@node Customizing Organizing, Customizing Printing, Customizing Deleting, Customizing Moving Mail
@subsection Organizing Your Mail with Folders

@cindex using folders
@vindex @code{mh-recursive-folders}
@vindex @code{mh-auto-folder-collect}

By default, operations on folders work only one level at a time.  Set
@code{mh-recursive-folders} to non-@code{nil} to operate on all folders.
This mostly means that you'll be able to see all your folders when you
press @key{TAB} when prompted for a folder name.  The variable
@code{mh-auto-folder-collect} is normally turned on to generate a list
of folder names in the background as soon as mh-e is loaded.  Otherwise,
the list is generated when you need a folder name the first time (as
with @kbd{o} (@code{mh-refile-msg})).  If you have a lot of folders and
you have @code{mh-recursive-folders} set, this could take a while, which
is why it's nice to do the folder collection in the background.

@vindex @code{mh-default-folder-for-message-function}
@findex @code{mh-refile-msg}
@findex @code{mh-to-fcc}
@cindex @file{.emacs}
@cindex files, @file{.emacs}

The function @code{mh-default-folder-for-message-function} is used by
@kbd{o} (@code{mh-refile-msg}) and @kbd{C-c C-f C-f} (@code{mh-to-fcc})
to generate a default folder.  The generated folder name should be a
string with a @samp{+} before it.  For each of my correspondents, I use the
same name for both an alias and a folder.  So, I wrote a function that
takes the address in the @samp{From:} header field, finds it in my alias
file, and returns the alias, which is used as a default folder name.
This is the most complicated example given here, and it demonstrates
several features of Emacs Lisp programming.  You should be able to drop
this into @file{~/.emacs}, however.  If you use this to store messages
in a subfolder of your Mail directory, you can modify the line that
starts @samp{(format +%s...}  and insert your subfolder after the folder
symbol @samp{+}.
@c Note for me: if I insert a new version, don't forget to remove the
@c "a/" from the folder name.

@end iftex

@vindex @code{mh-default-folder-for-message-function}, example
@vindex @code{mh-user-path}, example

@i{Creating useful default folder for refiling via mh-default-folder-for-message-function}

(defun my-mh-folder-from-address ()
  "Determine folder name from address.
Takes the address in the From: header field, and returns its corresponding
alias from the user's personal aliases file. Returns @code{nil} if the address
was not found."
  (require 'rfc822)                         ; @r{for the rfc822 functions}
  (search-forward-regexp "^From: \\(.*\\)") ; @r{grab header field contents}
  (save-excursion                     ; @r{save state}
    (let ((addr (car (rfc822-addresses  ; @r{get address}
                      (buffer-substring (match-beginning 1)
                                        (match-end 1)))))
          (buffer (get-buffer-create " *temp*")) ; @r{set local variables}
      (set-buffer buffer)             ; @r{jump to temporary buffer}
      (unwind-protect                 ; @r{run kill-buffer when done}
          (progn                      ; @r{function grouping construct}
            (insert-file-contents (expand-file-name "aliases"
            (goto-char (point-min))   ; @r{grab aliases file and go to start}
            (setq folder
                  ;; @r{Search for the given address, even commented-out}
                  ;; @r{addresses are found!}
                  ;; @r{The function search-forward-regexp sets values that are}
                  ;; @r{later used by match-beginning and match-end.}
                  (if (search-forward-regexp (format "^;*\\(.*\\):.*%s"
                                                     addr) nil t)
                      ;; @r{NOTE WELL: this is what the return value looks like.}
                      ;; @r{You can modify the format string to match your own}
                      ;; @r{Mail hierarchy.}
                      (format "+%s" (buffer-substring (match-beginning 1)
                                                      (match-end 1))))))
        (kill-buffer buffer))          ; @r{get rid of our temporary buffer}
      folder)))                        ; @r{function's return value}

(setq mh-default-folder-for-message-function 'my-mh-folder-from-address)
@end group
@end lisp

@vindex @code{mh-refile-msg-hook}

The hook @code{mh-refile-msg-hook} is called after a message is marked
to be refiled.

@vindex @code{mh-sortm-args}
@cindex @code{sortm}
@cindex MH commands, @code{sortm}
@findex @code{mh-sort-folder}
@cindex MH profile components, @code{sortm}
@cindex @file{.mh_profile}
@cindex files, @file{.mh_profile}

The variable @code{mh-sortm-args} holds extra arguments to pass on to
the @code{sortm} command.  Note: this variable is only consulted when a
prefix argument is given to @kbd{M-x mh-sort-folder}.  It is used to
override any arguments given in a @code{sortm:} entry in your MH profile

* Customizing Scan Line Formats::  
@end menu

@node Customizing Scan Line Formats,  , Customizing Organizing, Customizing Organizing
@subsubsection Scan line formatting

@vindex @code{mh-scan-prog}
@cindex @code{scan}
@cindex MH commands, @code{scan}
@vindex @code{mh-progs}

The name of the program that generates a listing of one line per message
is held in @code{mh-scan-prog} (default: @samp{"scan"}).  Unless this
variable contains an absolute pathname, it is assumed to be in the
@code{mh-progs} directory.  You may link another program to @code{scan}
(see @code{mh-profile}(5)) to produce a different type of listing.

If you change the format of the scan lines you'll need to tell mh-e how
to parse the new format.  As you see, quite a lot of variables are
involved to do that.  The first variable has to do with pruning out

@table @code
@item mh-valid-scan-line
@vindex @code{mh-valid-scan-line}
@cindex @code{inc}
@cindex MH commands, @code{inc}
@cindex @code{scan}
@cindex MH commands, @code{scan}
This regular expression describes a valid scan line.  This is used to
eliminate error messages that are occasionally produced by @code{inc} or
@code{scan} (default: @samp{"^ *[0-9]"}).
@end table

Next, two variables control how the message numbers are parsed.

@table @code

@item mh-msg-number-regexp
@vindex @code{mh-msg-number-regexp}
This regular expression is used to extract the message number from a
scan line.  Note that the message number must be placed in quoted
parentheses, (\\(...\\)), as in the default of @w{@samp{"^

@item mh-msg-search-regexp
@vindex @code{mh-msg-search-regexp}
Given a message number (which is inserted in @samp{%d}), this regular
expression will match the scan line that it represents (default:
@end table

Finally, there are a slew of variables that control how mh-e marks up
the scan lines.

@table @code
@item mh-cmd-note
@vindex @code{mh-cmd-note}
Number of characters to skip over before inserting notation (default:
4).  Note how it relates to the following regular expressions.

@item mh-deleted-msg-regexp
@vindex @code{mh-deleted-msg-regexp}
This regular expression describes deleted messages (default:
@samp{"^....D"}).  See also @code{mh-note-deleted}.

@item mh-refiled-msg-regexp
@vindex @code{mh-refiled-msg-regexp}
This regular expression describes refiled messages (default:
@samp{"^....\\^"}).  See also @code{mh-note-refiled}.

@item mh-cur-scan-msg-regexp
@vindex @code{mh-cur-scan-msg-regexp}
This regular expression matches the current message (default:
@samp{"^....\\+"}).  See also @code{mh-note-cur}.

@item mh-good-msg-regexp
@vindex @code{mh-good-msg-regexp}
This regular expression describes which messages should be shown when
mh-e goes to the next or previous message.  Normally, deleted or refiled
messages are skipped over (default: @samp{"^....[^D^]"}).

@item mh-note-deleted
@vindex @code{mh-note-deleted}
Messages that have been deleted to are marked by this string (default:
@samp{"D"}).  See also @code{mh-deleted-msg-regexp}.

@item mh-note-refiled
@vindex @code{mh-note-refiled}
Messages that have been refiled are marked by this string (default:
@samp{"^"}).  See also @code{mh-refiled-msg-regexp}.

@item mh-note-copied
@vindex @code{mh-note-copied}
Messages that have been copied are marked by this string (default:

@item mh-note-cur
@vindex @code{mh-note-cur}
The current message (in MH, not in mh-e) is marked by this string
(default: @samp{"+"}).  See also @code{mh-cur-scan-msg-regexp}.

@item mh-note-repl
@vindex @code{mh-note-repl}
Messages that have been replied to are marked by this string (default:

@item mh-note-forw
@vindex @code{mh-note-forw}
Messages that have been forwarded are marked by this string (default:

@item mh-note-dist
@vindex @code{mh-note-dist}
Messages that have been redistributed are marked by this string
(default: @samp{"R"}).

@item mh-note-printed
@vindex @code{mh-note-printed}
Messages that have been printed are marked by this string (default:

@item mh-note-seq
@vindex @code{mh-note-seq}
Messages in a sequence are marked by this string (default: @samp{"%"}).
@end table

@node Customizing Printing, Customizing Files and Pipes, Customizing Organizing, Customizing Moving Mail
@subsection Printing Your Mail

@cindex printing
@vindex @code{mh-print-background}
@vindex @code{mh-lpr-command-format}
@cindex @code{lpr}
@cindex Unix commands, @code{lpr}

Normally messages are printed in the foreground.  If this is slow on
your system, you may elect to set @code{mh-print-background} to
non-@code{nil} to print in the background.  If you do this, do not delete
the message until it is printed or else the output may be truncated.
The variable @code{mh-lpr-command-format} controls how the printing is
actually done.  The string can contain one escape, @samp{%s}, which is
filled with the name of the folder and the message number and is useful
for print job names.  As an example, the default is @samp{"lpr -J

@node Customizing Files and Pipes, Customizing Finishing Up, Customizing Printing, Customizing Moving Mail
@subsection Files and Pipes

@cindex using files
@cindex using pipes
@findex @code{mh-store-msg}
@vindex @code{mh-store-default-directory}

The initial directory for the @code{mh-store-msg} command is held in
@code{mh-store-default-directory}.  Since I almost always run
@code{mh-store-msg} on sources, I set it to my personal source directory
like this:

@vindex @code{mh-store-default-directory}, example

(setq mh-store-default-directory (expand-file-name "~/src/"))
@end lisp

@findex @code{mh-store-buffer}
@cindex @code{uuencode}
@cindex Unix commands, @code{uuencode}
@cindex @code{shar}
@cindex Unix commands, @code{shar}

Subsequent incarnations of @code{mh-store-msg} offer the last directory
used as the default.  By the way, @code{mh-store-msg} calls the Emacs
Lisp function @code{mh-store-buffer}.  I mention this because you can use
it directly if you're editing a buffer that contains a file that has
been run through @code{uuencode} or @code{shar}.  For example, you can
extract the contents of the current buffer in your home directory by
typing @kbd{M-x mh-store-buffer @key{RET} ~ @key{RET}}.

@node Customizing Finishing Up,  , Customizing Files and Pipes, Customizing Moving Mail
@subsection Finishing Up

@cindex quitting
@vindex @code{mh-before-quit-hook}
@vindex @code{mh-quit-hook}
@findex @code{mh-execute-commands}

The two variables @code{mh-before-quit-hook} and @code{mh-quit-hook} are
called by @kbd{q} (@code{mh-quit}).  The former one is called before the
quit occurs, so you might use it to perform any mh-e operations; you
could perform some query and abort the quit or call
@code{mh-execute-commands}, for example.  The latter is not run in an
mh-e context, so you might use it to modify the window setup.

@node Customizing Searching,  , Customizing Moving Mail, Customizing mh-e
@section Searching Through Messages
@cindex searching

@vindex @code{mh-pick-mode-hook}
@vindex @code{mh-partial-folder-mode-line-annotation}

If you find that you do the same thing over and over when editing the
search template, you may wish to bind some shortcuts to keys.  This can
be done with the variable @code{mh-pick-mode-hook}, which is called when
@kbd{M-s} (@code{mh-search-folder}) is run on a new pattern.  

The string
@code{mh-partial-folder-mode-line-annotation} is used to annotate the
mode line when only a portion of the folder is shown.  For example, this
will be displayed after running @kbd{M-s} (@code{mh-search-folder}) to
list messages based on some search criteria (see @ref{Searching}).  The
default annotation of @samp{"select"} yields a mode line that looks

--%%-@{+inbox/select@} 2 msgs (2-3)      (MH-Folder)--All-----------------
@end example

@node Odds and Ends, History, Customizing mh-e, Top
@appendix Odds and Ends

This appendix covers a few topics that don't fit elsewhere.  Here I tell
you how to report bugs and how to get on the mh-e mailing list.  I also
point out some additional sources of information.

* Bug Reports::                 
* Mailing List::                
* MH FAQ::                      
* Getting mh-e::                
@end menu

@node Bug Reports, Mailing List, Odds and Ends, Odds and Ends
@appendixsec Bug Reports

@cindex bugs
@cindex Gildea, Stephen

The current maintainer of mh-e is Stephen Gildea
<@i{}>.  Please mail bug reports directly to him, as
well as any praise or suggestions.  Please include the output of
@kbd{M-x mh-version} (@pxref{Miscellaneous}) in any bug report you send.

@node Mailing List, MH FAQ, Bug Reports, Odds and Ends
@appendixsec mh-e Mailing List

@cindex mailing list

There is a mailing list, @i{}, for discussion of mh-e and
announcements of new versions.  Send a ``subscribe'' message to
@i{} to be added.  Do not report bugs on this list;
mail them directly to the maintainer (@pxref{Bug Reports}).

@node MH FAQ, Getting mh-e, Mailing List, Odds and Ends
@appendixsec MH FAQ

@cindex MH FAQ
@cindex FAQ

An FAQ appears monthly in the newsgroup @samp{}.  While very
little is there that deals with mh-e specifically, there is an
incredible wealth of material about MH itself which you will find
useful.  The subject of the FAQ is @cite{MH Frequently Asked Questions
(FAQ) with Answers}.

The FAQ can be also obtained by anonymous @code{ftp} or via the
World Wide Web (WWW)@.  It is located at:

@ifclear html
@end example
@end ifclear

@ifset html
<A HREF=""></A>
<A HREF=""></A>
@end example
@end ifset

Otherwise, you can use mail.  Send mail to @i{}
containing the following:

send usenet/news.answers/mail/mh-faq/part1
@end example

@node Getting mh-e,  , MH FAQ, Odds and Ends
@appendixsec Getting mh-e

@cindex obtaining mh-e

If you're running a pre-4.0 version of mh-e, please consider upgrading.
You can either have your system administrator upgrade your Emacs, or
just the files for mh-e.

The MH distribution contains a copy of mh-e in @file{miscellany/mh-e}.
Make sure it is at least @w{Version 4.0}.

The latest version of mh-e can be obtained via anonymous @code{ftp} from
@samp{}.  The file containing mh-e is currently
@ifclear html
@end ifclear
@ifset html
@file{<A HREF="{VERSION}.tar.Z">/misc/mh-e/mh-e-@value{VERSION}.tar.Z</A>}
@end ifset
I suggest that you
extract the files from @file{mh-e-@value{VERSION}.tar.Z} in the
following fashion:

% @kbd{cd}                                  # @r{Start in your home directory}
% @kbd{mkdir lib lib/emacs}                 # @r{Create directory for mh-e}
% @kbd{cd lib/emacs}
% @kbd{zcat @var{path/to/}mh-e-@value{VERSION}.tar.Z | tar xvf -}    # @r{Extract files}
@end group
@end example

@cindex @file{.emacs}
@cindex files, @file{.emacs}

To use these new files, add the following to @file{~/.emacs}:

(setq load-path (cons (expand-file-name "~/lib/emacs") load-path))
@end lisp

@cindex news
@cindex files, @samp{MH-E-NEWS}

That's it!  If you're already running Emacs, please quit that session
and start again to load in the new mh-e.  Check that you're running the
new version with the command @kbd{M-x mh-version} after running any mh-e
command.  The distribution comes with a file called @file{MH-E-NEWS} so
you can see what's new.

@node    History, Changes to mh-e, Odds and Ends, Top
@appendix History of mh-e

@cindex history of mh-e

mh-e was originally written by Brian Reid in 1983 and has changed hands
twice since then.  Jim Larus wanted to do something similar for GNU
Emacs, and ended up completely rewriting it that same year.  In 1989,
Stephen Gildea picked it up and is now currently improving and
maintaining it.

* From Brian Reid::             
* From Jim Larus::              
* From Stephen Gildea::         
@end menu

@node From Brian Reid, From Jim Larus, History, History
@appendixsec From Brian Reid

@cindex Reid, Brian

One day in 1983 I got the flu and had to stay home from work for three
days with nothing to do.  I used that time to write MHE@.  The
fundamental idea behind MHE was that it was a ``puppeteer'' driving the MH
programs underneath it.  MH had a model that the editor was supposed to
run as a subprocess of the mailer, which seemed to me at the time to be
the tail wagging the dog.  So I turned it around and made the editor
drive the MH programs.  I made sure that the UCI people (who were
maintaining MH at the time) took in my changes and made them stick.

Today, I still use my own version of MHE because I don't at all like the
way that GNU mh-e works and I've never gotten to be good enough at
hacking Emacs Lisp to make GNU mh-e do what I want.  The Gosling-emacs
version of MHE and the GNU Emacs version of mh-e have almost nothing in
common except similar names.  They work differently, have different
conceptual models, and have different key bindings.  @footnote{After
reading this article, I questioned Brian about his version of MHE, and
received some great ideas for improving mh-e such as a dired-like method
of selecting folders; and removing the prompting when sending mail,
filling in the blanks in the draft buffer instead.  I passed them on to
Stephen Gildea, the current maintainer, and he was excited about the
ideas as well.  Perhaps one day, mh-e will again resemble MHE, although
none of these ideas are manifest in Version 5.0.}

Brian Reid, June 1994

@node From Jim Larus, From Stephen Gildea, From Brian Reid, History
@appendixsec From Jim Larus

@cindex Larus, Jim

Brian Reid, while at CMU or shortly after going to Stanford wrote a mail
reading program called MHE for Gosling Emacs.  It had much the same
structure as mh-e (i.e., invoked MH programs), though it was simpler and
the commands were slightly different.  Unfortunately, I no longer have a
copy so the differences are lost in the mists of time.

In '82-83, I was working at BBN and wrote a lot of mlisp code in Gosling
Emacs to make it look more like Tennex Emacs.  One of the packages that
I picked up and improved was Reid's mail system.  In '83, I went back to
Berkeley.  About that time, Stallman's first version of GNU Emacs came
out and people started to move to it from Gosling Emacs (as I recall,
the transition took a year or two).  I decided to port Reid's MHE and
used the mlisp to Emacs Lisp translator that came with GNU Emacs.  It
did a lousy job and the resulting code didn't work, so I bit the bullet
and rewrote the code by hand (it was a lot smaller and simpler then, so
it took only a day or two).

Soon after that, mh-e became part of the standard Emacs distribution and
suggestions kept dribbling in for improvements.  mh-e soon reached
sufficient functionality to keep me happy, but I kept on improving it
because I was a graduate student with plenty of time on my hands and it
was more fun than my dissertation.  In retrospect, the one thing that I
regret is not writing any documentation, which seriously limited the use
and appeal of the package.

@cindex @code{xmh}, in mh-e history

In '89, I came to Wisconsin as a professor and decided not to work on
mh-e.  It was stable, except for minor bugs, and had enough
functionality, so I let it be for a few years.  Stephen Gildea of BBN
began to pester me about the bugs, but I ignored them.  In 1990, he went
off to the X Consortium, said good bye, and said that he would now be
using @code{xmh}.  A few months later, he came back and said that he
couldn't stand @code{xmh} and could I put a few more bug fixes into
mh-e.  At that point, I had no interest in fixing mh-e, so I gave the
responsibility of maintenance to him and he has done a fine job since

Jim Larus, June 1994

@node From Stephen Gildea,  , From Jim Larus, History
@appendixsec From Stephen Gildea

@cindex Gildea, Stephen

In 1987 I went to work for Bolt Beranek and Newman, as Jim had before
me.  In my previous job, I had been using RMAIL, but as my folders tend
to run large, I was frustrated with the speed of RMAIL@.  However, I
stuck with it because I wanted the GNU Emacs interface.  I am very
familiar and comfortable with the Emacs interface (with just a few
modifications of my own) and dislike having to use applications with
embedded editors; they never live up to Emacs.

MH is the mail reader of choice at BBN, so I converted to it.  Since I
didn't want to give up using an Emacs interface, I started using mh-e.
As is my wont, I started hacking on it almost immediately.  I first used
version 3.4m.  One of the first features I added was to treat the folder
buffer as a file-visiting buffer: you could lock it, save it, and be
warned of unsaved changes when killing it.  I also worked to bring its
functionality a little closer to RMAIL@.  Jim Larus was very cooperative
about merging in my changes, and my efforts first appeared in version
3.6, distributed with Emacs 18.52 in 1988.  Next I decided mh-e was too
slow and optimized it a lot.  Version, 3.7, distributed with Emacs 18.56
in 1990, was noticeably faster.

When I moved to the X Consortium I became the first person there to not
use xmh.  (There is now one other engineer there using mh-e.)  About
this point I took over maintenance of mh-e from Jim and was finally able
to add some features Jim hadn't accepted, such as the backward searching
undo.  My first release was 3.8 (Emacs 18.58) in 1992.

Now, in 1994, we see a flurry of releases, with both 4.0 and 5.0.
Version 4.0 added many new features, including background folder
collection and support for composing @sc{mime} messages.  (Reading
@sc{mime} messages remains to be done, alas.)  While writing this book,
Bill Wohler gave mh-e its closest examination ever, uncovering bugs and
inconsistencies that required a new major version to fix, and so version
5 was released.

Stephen Gildea, June 1994

@node Changes to mh-e, Copying, History, Top
@appendix Changes to mh-e

@cindex @code{mh-e}: comparison between versions

mh-e had a fairly major facelift between @w{Versions 3} and 4.  The
differences between @w{Versions 4} and 5 from the user's viewpoint are
relatively minor.  The prompting order for the folder and message number
in a couple of functions had been switched inadvertently in @w{Version
4}.  @w{Version 5} switches the order back.  The @file{+inbox} folder is
no longer hard-coded, but rather uses the @samp{Inbox} MH Profile entry.
See the file @file{etc/MH-E-NEWS} in the Emacs distribution for more
details on the changes.

This section documents the changes between @w{Version 3} and newer
versions so that you'll know which commands to use (or which commands
you won't have) in case you're stuck with an old version.

The following tables summarize the changes to buffer names, commands
and variables.

@unnumberedsec Buffer Mode Names

@b{Version 3}           @b{Version 4}

mh-e folder        MH-Folder
mh-e scan          MH-Folder
mh-e show          MH-Folder Show
Fundamental        MH-Show
mh-e letter        MH-Letter
mh-e letter        MH-Pick
@end group
@end example


@unnumberedsec Commands

           @b{Version 3}                        @b{Version 4}

@b{Function}               @b{Command}   @b{Command}          @b{Function}

mh-first-msg           <          M-<               mh-first-msg
-                      -          M->               mh-last-msg
mh-show                .          RET               mh-show
-                      -          ,                 mh-header-display
mh-reply               a          r                 mh-reply
mh-redistribute        r          M-d               mh-redistribute
mh-unshar-msg          -          M-n               mh-store-msg
mh-write-msg-to-file   M-o        C-o               mh-write-msg-to-file
mh-delete-msg-from-seq C-u M-%    M-#               mh-delete-seq
-                      -          M-q               mh-list-sequences
mh-quit                b          q                 mh-quit
-                      -          C-C C-f C-r       mh-to-field (@samp{From:})
-                      -          C-C C-f C-d       mh-to-field (@samp{Dcc:})
@end group
@end example

@unnumberedsec Variables

          @b{Version 3}                           @b{Version 4}

@b{Variable}              @b{Value}             @b{Value}           @b{Variable}

mh-show-buffer-      "@{%%b@}  %s/%d"    "@{show-%s@} %d"  mh-show-buffer-
mode-line-buffer-id                                    mode-line-buffer-id
mh-unshar-default-   ""                nil             mh-store-default-
directory                                              directory
@end group
@end example

@unnumberedsec New Variables

mail-citation-hook                           mh-new-draft-cleaned-headers
mail-header-separator                        mh-pick-mode-hook
mh-auto-folder-collect                       mh-refile-msg-hook
mh-comp-formfile                             mh-scan-prog
mh-repl-formfile                             mh-send-prog
mh-delete-msg-hook                           mh-show-hook
mh-forward-subject-format                    mh-show-mode-hook
mh-inc-prog                                  mh-signature-file-name
mh-mime-content-types                        mh-sortm-args
mh-default-folder-for-message-function       mh-repl-formfile
@end group
@end example

@node Copying, Command Index, Changes to mh-e, Top
@center Version 2, June 1991

Copyright @copyright{} 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
@end display

@appendixsec Preamble

  The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
freedom to share and change it.  By contrast, the GNU General Public
License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
software---to make sure the software is free for all its users.  This
General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
using it.  (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
the GNU Library General Public License instead.)  You can apply it to
your programs, too.

  When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
price.  Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.

  To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.

  For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
you have.  You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
source code.  And you must show them these terms so they know their

  We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
(2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
distribute and/or modify the software.

  Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
software.  If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
authors' reputations.

  Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
patents.  We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
program proprietary.  To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.

  The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
modification follow.

@end iftex
@end ifinfo

@enumerate 0
This License applies to any program or other work which contains
a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
under the terms of this General Public License.  The ``Program'', below,
refers to any such program or work, and a ``work based on the Program''
means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
language.  (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
the term ``modification''.)  Each licensee is addressed as ``you''.

Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
covered by this License; they are outside its scope.  The act of
running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.

You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
along with the Program.

You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.

You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:

@enumerate a
You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.

You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
parties under the terms of this License.

If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
License.  (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
@end enumerate

These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole.  If
identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
sections when you distribute them as separate works.  But when you
distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.

Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
collective works based on the Program.

In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
the scope of this License.

You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:

@enumerate a
Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,

Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
customarily used for software interchange; or,

Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
to distribute corresponding source code.  (This alternative is
allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
received the program in object code or executable form with such
an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
@end enumerate

The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
making modifications to it.  For an executable work, complete source
code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
control compilation and installation of the executable.  However, as a
special exception, the source code distributed need not include
anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
itself accompanies the executable.

If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
compelled to copy the source along with the object code.

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
parties remain in full compliance.

You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
signed it.  However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
distribute the Program or its derivative works.  These actions are
prohibited by law if you do not accept this License.  Therefore, by
modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
the Program or works based on it.

Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
these terms and conditions.  You may not impose any further
restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
this License.

If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
excuse you from the conditions of this License.  If you cannot
distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
may not distribute the Program at all.  For example, if a patent
license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.

If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other

It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
implemented by public license practices.  Many people have made
generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
impose that choice.

This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
be a consequence of the rest of this License.

If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
countries not thus excluded.  In such case, this License incorporates
the limitation as if written in the body of this License.

The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
of the General Public License from time to time.  Such new versions will
be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
address new problems or concerns.

Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the Program
specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and ``any
later version'', you have the option of following the terms and conditions
either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
Software Foundation.  If the Program does not specify a version number of
this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software

If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
to ask for permission.  For software which is copyrighted by the Free
Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
make exceptions for this.  Our decision will be guided by the two goals
of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.

@heading NO WARRANTY
@end iftex
@end ifinfo


@end enumerate

@end iftex
@end ifinfo

@appendixsec How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

  If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

  To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
the ``copyright'' line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

@var{one line to give the program's name and an idea of what it does.}
Copyright (C) 19@var{yy}  @var{name of author}

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.
@end smallexample

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
when it starts in an interactive mode:

Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) 19@var{yy} @var{name of author}
Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details
type `show w'.  This is free software, and you are welcome
to redistribute it under certain conditions; type `show c' 
for details.
@end smallexample

The hypothetical commands @samp{show w} and @samp{show c} should show
the appropriate parts of the General Public License.  Of course, the
commands you use may be called something other than @samp{show w} and
@samp{show c}; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items---whatever
suits your program.

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
school, if any, to sign a ``copyright disclaimer'' for the program, if
necessary.  Here is a sample; alter the names:

Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright
interest in the program `Gnomovision'
(which makes passes at compilers) written 
by James Hacker.

@var{signature of Ty Coon}, 1 April 1989
Ty Coon, President of Vice
@end group
@end smallexample

This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine library, you may
consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
library.  If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General
Public License instead of this License.

@node    Command Index, Variable Index, Copying, Top
@unnumbered Command Index

@printindex fn

@node    Variable Index, Concept Index, Command Index, Top
@unnumbered Variable Index

@printindex vr

@node    Concept Index,  , Variable Index, Top
@unnumbered Concept Index

@printindex cp


@c XXX In the sections on customizing mh-e, you can add cross-references
@c to the Emacs manual and the Emacs Lisp manual wherever they are
@c useful. @pxref{node, , section, emacs, The GNU Emacs Manual}