custom.texi   [plain text]

@c This is part of the Emacs manual.
@c Copyright (C) 1985, 86, 87, 93, 94, 95, 1997 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
@c See file emacs.texi for copying conditions.
@node Customization, Quitting, Amusements, Top
@chapter Customization
@cindex customization

  This chapter talks about various topics relevant to adapting the
behavior of Emacs in minor ways.  See @cite{The Emacs Lisp Reference
Manual} for how to make more far-reaching changes.

  All kinds of customization affect only the particular Emacs session
that you do them in.  They are completely lost when you kill the Emacs
session, and have no effect on other Emacs sessions you may run at the
same time or later.  The only way an Emacs session can affect anything
outside of it is by writing a file; in particular, the only way to make
a customization ``permanent'' is to put something in your @file{.emacs}
file or other appropriate file to do the customization in each session.
@xref{Init File}.

* Minor Modes::		Each minor mode is one feature you can turn on
			  independently of any others.
* Variables::		Many Emacs commands examine Emacs variables
			  to decide what to do; by setting variables,
			  you can control their functioning.
* Keyboard Macros::	A keyboard macro records a sequence of
			  keystrokes to be replayed with a single
* Key Bindings::	The keymaps say what command each key runs.
			  By changing them, you can "redefine keys".
* Keyboard Translations::
                        If your keyboard passes an undesired code
			   for a key, you can tell Emacs to
			   substitute another code. 
* Syntax::		The syntax table controls how words and
			   expressions are parsed.
* Init File::		How to write common customizations in the
			  @file{.emacs} file. 
@end menu

@node Minor Modes
@section Minor Modes
@cindex minor modes
@cindex mode, minor

  Minor modes are optional features which you can turn on or off.  For
example, Auto Fill mode is a minor mode in which @key{SPC} breaks lines
between words as you type.  All the minor modes are independent of each
other and of the selected major mode.  Most minor modes say in the mode
line when they are on; for example, @samp{Fill} in the mode line means
that Auto Fill mode is on.

  Append @code{-mode} to the name of a minor mode to get the name of a
command function that turns the mode on or off.  Thus, the command to
enable or disable Auto Fill mode is called @kbd{M-x auto-fill-mode}.  These
commands are usually invoked with @kbd{M-x}, but you can bind keys to them
if you wish.  With no argument, the function turns the mode on if it was
off and off if it was on.  This is known as @dfn{toggling}.  A positive
argument always turns the mode on, and an explicit zero argument or a
negative argument always turns it off.

  Enabling or disabling some minor modes applies only to the current
buffer; each buffer is independent of the other buffers.  Therefore, you
can enable the mode in particular buffers and disable it in others.  The
per-buffer minor modes include Abbrev mode, Auto Fill mode, Auto Save
mode, Font-Lock mode, Hscroll mode, ISO Accents mode, Outline minor
mode, Overwrite mode, and Binary Overwrite mode.

  Abbrev mode allows you to define abbreviations that automatically expand
as you type them.  For example, @samp{amd} might expand to @samp{abbrev
mode}.  @xref{Abbrevs}, for full information.

  Auto Fill mode allows you to enter filled text without breaking lines
explicitly.  Emacs inserts newlines as necessary to prevent lines from
becoming too long.  @xref{Filling}.

  Auto Save mode causes the contents of a buffer to be saved
periodically to reduce the amount of work you can lose in case of a
system crash.  @xref{Auto Save}.

  Enriched mode enables editing and saving of formatted text.
@xref{Formatted Text}.

  Flyspell mode automatically highlights misspelled words.

  Font-Lock mode automatically highlights certain textual units found in
programs, such as comments, strings, and function names being defined.
This requires a window system that can display multiple fonts.

  Hscroll mode performs horizontal scrolling automatically
to keep point on the screen.  @xref{Horizontal Scrolling}.

  ISO Accents mode makes the characters @samp{`}, @samp{'}, @samp{"},
@samp{^}, @samp{/} and @samp{~} combine with the following letter, to
produce an accented letter in the ISO Latin-1 character set.
@xref{Single-Byte European Support}.

  Outline minor mode provides the same facilities as the major mode
called Outline mode; but since it is a minor mode instead, you can
combine it with any major mode.  @xref{Outline Mode}.

@cindex Overwrite mode
@cindex mode, Overwrite
@findex overwrite-mode
@findex binary-overwrite-mode
  Overwrite mode causes ordinary printing characters to replace existing
text instead of shoving it to the right.  For example, if point is in
front of the @samp{B} in @samp{FOOBAR}, then in Overwrite mode typing a
@kbd{G} changes it to @samp{FOOGAR}, instead of producing @samp{FOOGBAR}
as usual.  In Overwrite mode, the command @kbd{C-q} inserts the next
character whatever it may be, even if it is a digit---this gives you a
way to insert a character instead of replacing an existing character.

  Binary Overwrite mode is a variant of Overwrite mode for editing
binary files; it treats newlines and tabs like other characters, so that
they overwrite other characters and can be overwritten by them.

  The following minor modes normally apply to all buffers at once.
Since each is enabled or disabled by the value of a variable, you
@emph{can} set them differently for particular buffers, by explicitly
making the corresponding variables local in those buffers.

  Icomplete mode displays an indication of available completions when
you are in the minibuffer and completion is active.  @xref{Completion

  Line Number mode enables continuous display in the mode line of the
line number of point.  @xref{Mode Line}.

  Resize-Minibuffer mode makes the minibuffer expand as necessary to
hold the text that you put in it.  @xref{Minibuffer Edit}.

  Scroll Bar mode gives each window a scroll bar (@pxref{Scroll Bars}).
Menu Bar mode gives each frame a menu bar (@pxref{Menu Bars}).  Both of
these modes are enabled by default when you use the X Window System.

  In Transient Mark mode, every change in the buffer contents
``deactivates'' the mark, so that commands that operate on the region
will get an error.  This means you must either set the mark, or
explicitly ``reactivate'' it, before each command that uses the region.
The advantage of Transient Mark mode is that Emacs can display the
region highlighted (currently only when using X).  @xref{Setting Mark}.

  For most minor modes, the command name is also the name of a variable
which directly controls the mode.  The mode is enabled whenever this
variable's value is non-@code{nil}, and the minor-mode command works by
setting the variable.  For example, the command
@code{outline-minor-mode} works by setting the value of
@code{outline-minor-mode} as a variable; it is this variable that
directly turns Outline minor mode on and off.  To check whether a given
minor mode works this way, use @kbd{C-h v} to ask for documentation on
the variable name.

  These minor-mode variables provide a good way for Lisp programs to turn
minor modes on and off; they are also useful in a file's local variables
list.  But please think twice before setting minor modes with a local
variables list, because most minor modes are matter of user
preference---other users editing the same file might not want the same
minor modes you prefer.

@node Variables
@section Variables
@cindex variable
@cindex option, user
@cindex user option

  A @dfn{variable} is a Lisp symbol which has a value.  The symbol's
name is also called the name of the variable.  A variable name can
contain any characters that can appear in a file, but conventionally
variable names consist of words separated by hyphens.  A variable can
have a documentation string which describes what kind of value it should
have and how the value will be used.

  Lisp allows any variable to have any kind of value, but most variables
that Emacs uses require a value of a certain type.  Often the value should
always be a string, or should always be a number.  Sometimes we say that a
certain feature is turned on if a variable is ``non-@code{nil},'' meaning
that if the variable's value is @code{nil}, the feature is off, but the
feature is on for @emph{any} other value.  The conventional value to use to
turn on the feature---since you have to pick one particular value when you
set the variable---is @code{t}.

  Emacs uses many Lisp variables for internal record keeping, as any
Lisp program must, but the most interesting variables for you are the
ones that exist for the sake of customization.  Emacs does not (usually)
change the values of these variables; instead, you set the values, and
thereby alter and control the behavior of certain Emacs commands.  These
variables are called @dfn{user options}.  Most user options are
documented in this manual, and appear in the Variable Index
(@pxref{Variable Index}).

  One example of a variable which is a user option is @code{fill-column}, which
specifies the position of the right margin (as a number of characters from
the left margin) to be used by the fill commands (@pxref{Filling}).

* Examining::	        Examining or setting one variable's value.
* Easy Customization::
                        Convenient and easy customization of variables.
* Hooks::	        Hook variables let you specify programs for parts
		          of Emacs to run on particular occasions.
* Locals::	        Per-buffer values of variables.
* File Variables::      How files can specify variable values.
@end menu

@node Examining
@subsection Examining and Setting Variables
@cindex setting variables

@table @kbd
@item C-h v @var{var} @key{RET}
Display the value and documentation of variable @var{var}
@item M-x set-variable @key{RET} @var{var} @key{RET} @var{value} @key{RET}
Change the value of variable @var{var} to @var{value}.
@end table

  To examine the value of a single variable, use @kbd{C-h v}
(@code{describe-variable}), which reads a variable name using the
minibuffer, with completion.  It displays both the value and the
documentation of the variable.  For example,

C-h v fill-column @key{RET}
@end example

displays something like this:

fill-column's value is 75

*Column beyond which automatic line-wrapping should happen.
Automatically becomes buffer-local when set in any fashion.
@end smallexample

The star at the beginning of the documentation indicates that this
variable is a user option.  @kbd{C-h v} is not restricted to user
options; it allows any variable name.

@findex set-variable
  The most convenient way to set a specific user option is with @kbd{M-x
set-variable}.  This reads the variable name with the minibuffer (with
completion), and then reads a Lisp expression for the new value using
the minibuffer a second time.  For example,

M-x set-variable @key{RET} fill-column @key{RET} 75 @key{RET}
@end example

sets @code{fill-column} to 75.

 @kbd{M-x set-variable} is limited to user option variables, but you can
set any variable with a Lisp expression, using the function @code{setq}.
Here is a @code{setq} expression to set @code{fill-column}:

(setq fill-column 75)
@end example

  To execute an expression like this one, go to the @samp{*scratch*}
buffer, type in the expression, and then type @kbd{C-j}.  @xref{Lisp

  Setting variables, like all means of customizing Emacs except where
otherwise stated, affects only the current Emacs session.

@node Easy Customization
@subsection Easy Customization Interface

@findex customize
@cindex customization buffer
  A convenient way to find the user option variables that you want to
change, and then change them, is with @kbd{M-x customize}.  This command
creates a @dfn{customization buffer} with which you can browse through
the Emacs user options in a logically organized structure, then edit and
set their values.  You can also use the customization buffer to save
settings permanently.  (Not all Emacs user options are included in this
structure as of yet, but we are adding the rest.)

* Groups: Customization Groups.
                             How options are classified in a structure.
* Changing an Option::       How to edit a value and set an option.
* Face Customization::       How to edit the attributes of a face.
* Specific Customization::   Making a customization buffer for specific
                                options, faces, or groups.
@end menu

@node Customization Groups
@subsubsection Customization Groups
@cindex customization groups

  For customization purposes, user options are organized into
@dfn{groups} to help you find them.  Groups are collected into bigger
groups, all the way up to a master group called @code{Emacs}.

  @kbd{M-x customize} creates a customization buffer that shows the
top-level @code{Emacs} group and the second-level groups immediately
under it.  It looks like this, in part:

/- Emacs group: ---------------------------------------------------\
      [State]: visible group members are all at standard settings.
   Customization of the One True Editor.
   See also [Manual].

Editing group: [Go to Group] 
Basic text editing facilities.

External group: [Go to Group] 
Interfacing to external utilities.

@var{more second-level groups}

\- Emacs group end ------------------------------------------------/

@end smallexample

This says that the buffer displays the contents of the @code{Emacs}
group.  The other groups are listed because they are its contents.  But
they are listed differently, without indentation and dashes, because
@emph{their} contents are not included.  Each group has a single-line
documentation string; the @code{Emacs} group also has a @samp{[State]}

@cindex editable fields (customization buffer)
@cindex active fields (customization buffer)
  Most of the text in the customization buffer is read-only, but it
typically includes some @dfn{editable fields} that you can edit.  There
are also @dfn{active fields}; this means a field that does something
when you @dfn{invoke} it.  To invoke an active field, either click on it
with @kbd{Mouse-1}, or move point to it and type @key{RET}.

  For example, the phrase @samp{[Go to Group]} that appears in a
second-level group is an active field.  Invoking the @samp{[Go to
Group]} field for a group creates a new customization buffer, which
shows that group and its contents.  This field is a kind of hypertext
link to another group.

  The @code{Emacs} group does not include any user options itself, but
other groups do.  By examining various groups, you will eventually find
the options and faces that belong to the feature you are interested in
customizing.  Then you can use the customization buffer to set them.

@findex customize-browse
  You can view the structure of customization groups on a larger scale
with @kbd{M-x customize-browse}.  This command creates a special kind of
customization buffer which shows only the names of the groups (and
options and faces), and their structure.

  In this buffer, you can show the contents of a group by invoking
@samp{[+]}.  When the group contents are visible, this button changes to
@samp{[-]}; invoking that hides the group contents.

  Each group, option or face name in this buffer has an active field
which says @samp{[Group]}, @samp{[Option]} or @samp{[Face]}.  Invoking
that active field creates an ordinary customization buffer showing just
that group and its contents, just that option, or just that face.
This is the way to set values in it.

@node Changing an Option
@subsubsection Changing an Option

  Here is an example of what a user option looks like in the
customization buffer:

Kill Ring Max: [Hide] 30
   [State]: this option is unchanged from its standard setting.
Maximum length of kill ring before oldest elements are thrown away.
@end smallexample

  The text following @samp{[Hide]}, @samp{30} in this case, indicates
the current value of the option.  If you see @samp{[Show]} instead of
@samp{[Hide]}, it means that the value is hidden; the customization
buffer initially hides values that take up several lines.  Invoke
@samp{[Show]} to show the value.

  The line after the option name indicates the @dfn{customization state}
of the option: in the example above, it says you have not changed the
option yet.  The word @samp{[State]} at the beginning of this line is
active; you can get a menu of various operations by invoking it with
@kbd{Mouse-1} or @key{RET}.  These operations are essential for
customizing the variable.

  The line after the @samp{[State]} line displays the beginning of the
option's documentation string.  If there are more lines of
documentation, this line ends with @samp{[More]}; invoke this to show
the full documentation string.

  To enter a new value for @samp{Kill Ring Max}, move point to the value
and edit it textually.  For example, you can type @kbd{M-d}, then insert
another number.

  When you begin to alter the text, you will see the @samp{[State]} line
change to say that you have edited the value:

[State]: you have edited the value as text, but not set the option.
@end smallexample

@cindex setting option value
  Editing the value does not actually set the option variable.  To do
that, you must @dfn{set} the option.  To do this, invoke the word
@samp{[State]} and choose @samp{Set for Current Session}.

  The state of the option changes visibly when you set it:

[State]: you have set this option, but not saved it for future sessions.
@end smallexample

   You don't have to worry about specifying a value that is not valid;
setting the option checks for validity and will not really install an
unacceptable value.

@kindex M-TAB @r{(customization buffer)}
@findex widget-complete
  While editing a value or field that is a file name, directory name,
command name, or anything else for which completion is defined, you can
type @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} (@code{widget-complete}) to do completion.

  Some options have a small fixed set of possible legitimate values.
These options don't let you edit the value textually.  Instead, an
active field @samp{[Value Menu]} appears before the value; invoke this
field to edit the value.  For a boolean ``on or off'' value, the active
field says @samp{[Toggle]}, and it changes to the other value.
@samp{[Value Menu]} and @samp{[Toggle]} edit the buffer; the changes
take effect when you use the @samp{Set for Current Session} operation.

  Some options have values with complex structure.  For example, the
value of @code{load-path} is a list of directories.  Here is how it
appears in the customization buffer:

Load Path:
[INS] [DEL] [Current dir?]: /usr/local/share/emacs/20.3/site-lisp
[INS] [DEL] [Current dir?]: /usr/local/share/emacs/site-lisp
[INS] [DEL] [Current dir?]: /usr/local/share/emacs/20.3/leim
[INS] [DEL] [Current dir?]: /usr/local/share/emacs/20.3/lisp
[INS] [DEL] [Current dir?]: /build/emacs/e20/lisp
[INS] [DEL] [Current dir?]: /build/emacs/e20/lisp/gnus
   [State]: this item has been changed outside the customization buffer.
List of directories to search for files to load....
@end smallexample

Each directory in the list appears on a separate line, and each line has
several editable or active fields.

  You can edit any of the directory names.  To delete a directory from
the list, invoke @samp{[DEL]} on that line.  To insert a new directory in
the list, invoke @samp{[INS]} at the point where you want to insert it.

  You can also invoke @samp{[Current dir?]} to switch between including
a specific named directory in the path, and including @code{nil} in the
path.  (@code{nil} in a search path means ``try the current

@kindex TAB @r{(customization buffer)}
@kindex S-TAB @r{(customization buffer)}
@findex widget-forward
@findex widget-backward
  Two special commands, @key{TAB} and @kbd{S-@key{TAB}}, are useful for
moving through the customization buffer.  @key{TAB}
(@code{widget-forward}) moves forward to the next active or editable
field; @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} (@code{widget-backward}) moves backward to the
previous active or editable field.

  Typing @key{RET} on an editable field also moves forward, just like
@key{TAB}.  The reason for this is that people have a tendency to type
@key{RET} when they are finished editing a field.  If you have occasion
to insert a newline in an editable field, use @kbd{C-o} or @kbd{C-q

@cindex saving option value
  Setting the option changes its value in the current Emacs session;
@dfn{saving} the value changes it for future sessions as well.  This
works by writing code into your @file{~/.emacs} file so as to set the
option variable again each time you start Emacs.  To save the option,
invoke @samp{[State]} and select the @samp{Save for Future Sessions}

  You can also restore the option to its standard value by invoking
@samp{[State]} and selecting the @samp{Reset to Standard Settings}
operation.  There are actually three reset operations:

@table @samp
@item Reset
If you have made some modifications and not yet set the option,
this restores the text in the customization buffer to match
the actual value.

@item Reset to Saved
This restores the value of the option to the last saved value,
and updates the text accordingly.

@item Reset to Standard Settings
This sets the option to its standard value, and updates the text
accordingly.  This also eliminates any saved value for the option,
so that you will get the standard value in future Emacs sessions.
@end table

  The state of a group indicates whether anything in that group has been
edited, set or saved.  You can select @samp{Set for Current Session},
@samp{Save for Future Sessions} and the various kinds of @samp{Reset}
operation for the group; these operations on the group apply to all
options in the group and its subgroups.

  Near the top of the customization buffer there are two lines
containing several active fields:

 [Set for Current Session] [Save for Future Sessions]
 [Reset] [Reset to Saved] [Reset to Standard]   [Bury Buffer]
@end smallexample

Invoking @samp{[Bury Buffer]} buries this customization buffer.  Each of
the other fields performs an operation---set, save or reset---on each of
the items in the buffer that could meaningfully be set, saved or reset.

@node Face Customization
@subsubsection Customizing Faces
@cindex customizing faces
@cindex bold font
@cindex italic font
@cindex fonts and faces

  In addition to user options, some customization groups also include
faces.  When you show the contents of a group, both the user options and
the faces in the group appear in the customization buffer.  Here is an
example of how a face looks:

Custom Changed Face: (sample)
   [State]: this face is unchanged from its standard setting.
Face used when the customize item has been changed.
Attributes: [ ] Bold: [toggle] off
            [X] Italic: [toggle] on
            [ ] Underline: [toggle] off
            [ ] Inverse-Video: [toggle] on
            [ ] Foreground: black (sample)
            [ ] Background: white (sample)
            [ ] Stipple:  
@end smallexample

  Each face attribute has its own line.  The @samp{[@var{x}]} field
before the attribute name indicates whether the attribute is
@dfn{enabled}; @samp{X} means that it is.  You can enable or disable the
attribute by invoking that field.  When the attribute is enabled, you
can change the attribute value in the usual ways.

  On a black-and-white display, the colors you can use for the
background are @samp{black}, @samp{white}, @samp{gray}, @samp{gray1},
and @samp{gray3}.  Emacs supports these shades of gray by using
background stipple patterns instead of a color.

  Setting, saving and resetting a face work like the same operations for
options (@pxref{Changing an Option}).

  A face can specify different appearances for different types of
display.  For example, a face can make text red on a color display, but
use a bold font on a monochrome display.  To specify multiple
appearances for a face, select @samp{Show Display Types} in the menu you
get from invoking @samp{[State]}.

@findex modify-face
  Another more basic way to set the attributes of a specific face is
with @kbd{M-x modify-face}.  This command reads the name of a face, then
reads the attributes one by one.  For the color and stipple attributes,
the attribute's current value is the default---type just @key{RET} if
you don't want to change that attribute.  Type @samp{none} if you want
to clear out the attribute.

@node Specific Customization
@subsubsection Customizing Specific Items

  Instead of finding the options you want to change by moving down
through the structure of groups, you can specify the particular option,
face or group that you want to customize.

@table @kbd
@item M-x customize-option @key{RET} @var{option} @key{RET}
Set up a customization buffer with just one option, @var{option}.
@item M-x customize-face @key{RET} @var{face} @key{RET}
Set up a customization buffer with just one face, @var{face}.
@item M-x customize-group @key{RET} @var{group} @key{RET}
Set up a customization buffer with just one group, @var{group}.
@item M-x customize-apropos @key{RET} @var{regexp} @key{RET}
Set up a customization buffer with all the options, faces and groups
that match @var{regexp}.
@item M-x customize-changed-options @key{RET} @var{version} @key{RET}
Set up a customization buffer with all the options, faces and groups
whose meaning has changed since Emacs version @var{version}.
@item M-x customize-saved 
Set up a customization buffer containing all options and faces that you
have saved with customization buffers.
@item M-x customize-customized
Set up a customization buffer containing all options and faces that you
have customized but not saved.
@end table

@findex customize-option
  If you want to alter a particular user option variable with the
customization buffer, and you know its name, you can use the command
@kbd{M-x customize-option} and specify the option name.  This sets up
the customization buffer with just one option---the one that you asked
for.  Editing, setting and saving the value work as described above, but
only for the specified option.

@findex customize-face
  Likewise, you can modify a specific face, chosen by name, using
@kbd{M-x customize-face}.

@findex customize-group
  You can also set up the customization buffer with a specific group,
using @kbd{M-x customize-group}.  The immediate contents of the chosen
group, including option variables, faces, and other groups, all appear
as well.  However, these subgroups' own contents start out hidden.  You
can show their contents in the usual way, by invoking @samp{[Show]}.

@findex customize-apropos
  To control more precisely what to customize, you can use @kbd{M-x
customize-apropos}.  You specify a regular expression as argument; then
all options, faces and groups whose names match this regular expression
are set up in the customization buffer.  If you specify an empty regular
expression, this includes @emph{all} groups, options and faces in the
customization buffer (but that takes a long time).

@findex customize-changed-options
  When you upgrade to a new Emacs version, you might want to customize
new options and options whose meanings or default values have changed.
To do this, use @kbd{M-x customize-changed-options} and specify a
previous Emacs version number using the minibuffer.  It creates a
customization buffer which shows all the options (and groups) whose
definitions have been changed since the specified version.

@findex customize-saved
@findex customize-customized
  If you change option values and then decide the change was a mistake,
you can use two special commands to revisit your previous changes.  Use
@kbd{customize-saved} to look at the options and faces that you have
saved.  Use @kbd{M-x customize-customized} to look at the options and
faces that you have set but not saved.

@node Hooks
@subsection Hooks
@cindex hook

  A @dfn{hook} is a variable where you can store a function or functions
to be called on a particular occasion by an existing program.  Emacs
provides a number of hooks for the sake of customization.

  Most of the hooks in Emacs are @dfn{normal hooks}.  These variables
contain lists of functions to be called with no arguments.  The reason
most hooks are normal hooks is so that you can use them in a uniform
way.  Every variable in Emacs whose name ends in @samp{-hook} is a
normal hook.

  Most major modes run hooks as the last step of initialization.  This
makes it easy for a user to customize the behavior of the mode, by
overriding the local variable assignments already made by the mode.  But
hooks may also be used in other contexts.  For example, the hook
@code{suspend-hook} runs just before Emacs suspends itself

  The recommended way to add a hook function to a normal hook is by
calling @code{add-hook}.  You can use any valid Lisp function as the
hook function.  For example, here's how to set up a hook to turn on Auto
Fill mode when entering Text mode and other modes based on Text mode:

(add-hook 'text-mode-hook 'turn-on-auto-fill)
@end example

  The next example shows how to use a hook to customize the indentation
of C code.  (People often have strong personal preferences for one
format compared to another.)  Here the hook function is an anonymous
lambda expression.

(setq my-c-style
  '((c-comment-only-line-offset . 4)
@end group
    (c-cleanup-list . (scope-operator
@end group
    (c-offsets-alist . ((arglist-close . c-lineup-arglist)
			(substatement-open . 0)))))
@end group

(add-hook 'c-mode-common-hook
  (function (lambda ()
    (c-add-style "my-style" my-c-style t))))
@end group
@end example

  It is best to design your hook functions so that the order in which
they are executed does not matter.  Any dependence on the order is
``asking for trouble.''  However, the order is predictable: the most
recently added hook functions are executed first.

@node Locals
@subsection Local Variables

@table @kbd
@item M-x make-local-variable @key{RET} @var{var} @key{RET}
Make variable @var{var} have a local value in the current buffer.
@item M-x kill-local-variable @key{RET} @var{var} @key{RET}
Make variable @var{var} use its global value in the current buffer.
@item M-x make-variable-buffer-local @key{RET} @var{var} @key{RET}
Mark variable @var{var} so that setting it will make it local to the
buffer that is current at that time.
@end table

@cindex local variables
  Almost any variable can be made @dfn{local} to a specific Emacs
buffer.  This means that its value in that buffer is independent of its
value in other buffers.  A few variables are always local in every
buffer.  Every other Emacs variable has a @dfn{global} value which is in
effect in all buffers that have not made the variable local.

@findex make-local-variable
  @kbd{M-x make-local-variable} reads the name of a variable and makes it
local to the current buffer.  Further changes in this buffer will not
affect others, and further changes in the global value will not affect this

@findex make-variable-buffer-local
@cindex per-buffer variables
  @kbd{M-x make-variable-buffer-local} reads the name of a variable and
changes the future behavior of the variable so that it will become local
automatically when it is set.  More precisely, once a variable has been
marked in this way, the usual ways of setting the variable automatically
do @code{make-local-variable} first.  We call such variables
@dfn{per-buffer} variables.

  Major modes (@pxref{Major Modes}) always make variables local to the
buffer before setting the variables.  This is why changing major modes
in one buffer has no effect on other buffers.  Minor modes also work by
setting variables---normally, each minor mode has one controlling
variable which is non-@code{nil} when the mode is enabled (@pxref{Minor
Modes}).  For most minor modes, the controlling variable is per buffer.

  Emacs contains a number of variables that are always per-buffer.
These include @code{abbrev-mode}, @code{auto-fill-function},
@code{case-fold-search}, @code{comment-column}, @code{ctl-arrow},
@code{fill-column}, @code{fill-prefix}, @code{indent-tabs-mode},
@code{left-margin}, @code{mode-line-format}, @code{overwrite-mode},
@code{selective-display-ellipses}, @code{selective-display},
@code{tab-width}, and @code{truncate-lines}.  Some other variables are
always local in every buffer, but they are used for internal

  A few variables cannot be local to a buffer because they are always
local to each display instead (@pxref{Multiple Displays}).  If you try to
make one of these variables buffer-local, you'll get an error message.

@findex kill-local-variable
  @kbd{M-x kill-local-variable} reads the name of a variable and makes
it cease to be local to the current buffer.  The global value of the
variable henceforth is in effect in this buffer.  Setting the major mode
kills all the local variables of the buffer except for a few variables
specially marked as @dfn{permanent locals}.

@findex setq-default
  To set the global value of a variable, regardless of whether the
variable has a local value in the current buffer, you can use the Lisp
construct @code{setq-default}.  This construct is used just like
@code{setq}, but it sets variables' global values instead of their local
values (if any).  When the current buffer does have a local value, the
new global value may not be visible until you switch to another buffer.
Here is an example:

(setq-default fill-column 75)
@end example

@code{setq-default} is the only way to set the global value of a variable
that has been marked with @code{make-variable-buffer-local}.

@findex default-value
  Lisp programs can use @code{default-value} to look at a variable's
default value.  This function takes a symbol as argument and returns its
default value.  The argument is evaluated; usually you must quote it
explicitly.  For example, here's how to obtain the default value of

(default-value 'fill-column)
@end example

@node File Variables
@subsection Local Variables in Files
@cindex local variables in files
@cindex file local variables

  A file can specify local variable values for use when you edit the
file with Emacs.  Visiting the file checks for local variable
specifications; it automatically makes these variables local to the
buffer, and sets them to the values specified in the file.

  There are two ways to specify local variable values: in the first
line, or with a local variables list.  Here's how to specify them in the
first line:

-*- mode: @var{modename}; @var{var}: @var{value}; @dots{} -*-
@end example

You can specify any number of variables/value pairs in this way, each
pair with a colon and semicolon as shown above.  @code{mode:
@var{modename};} specifies the major mode; this should come first in the
line.  The @var{value}s are not evaluated; they are used literally.
Here is an example that specifies Lisp mode and sets two variables with
numeric values:

;; -*-mode: Lisp; fill-column: 75; comment-column: 50; -*-
@end smallexample

  You can also specify the coding system for a file in this way: just
specify a value for the ``variable'' named @code{coding}.  The ``value''
must be a coding system name that Emacs recognizes.  @xref{Coding

  A @dfn{local variables list} goes near the end of the file, in the
last page.  (It is often best to put it on a page by itself.)  The local
variables list starts with a line containing the string @samp{Local
Variables:}, and ends with a line containing the string @samp{End:}.  In
between come the variable names and values, one set per line, as
@samp{@var{variable}:@: @var{value}}.  The @var{value}s are not
evaluated; they are used literally.  If a file has both a local
variables list and a @samp{-*-} line, Emacs processes @emph{everything}
in the @samp{-*-} line first, and @emph{everything} in the local
variables list afterward.

Here is an example of a local variables list:

;;; Local Variables: ***
;;; mode:lisp ***
;;; comment-column:0 ***
;;; comment-start: ";;; "  ***
;;; comment-end:"***" ***
;;; End: ***
@end example

  As you see, each line starts with the prefix @samp{;;; } and each line
ends with the suffix @samp{ ***}.  Emacs recognizes these as the prefix
and suffix based on the first line of the list, by finding them
surrounding the magic string @samp{Local Variables:}; then it
automatically discards them from the other lines of the list.

  The usual reason for using a prefix and/or suffix is to embed the
local variables list in a comment, so it won't confuse other programs
that the file is intended as input for.  The example above is for a
language where comment lines start with @samp{;;; } and end with
@samp{***}; the local values for @code{comment-start} and
@code{comment-end} customize the rest of Emacs for this unusual syntax.
Don't use a prefix (or a suffix) if you don't need one.

  Two ``variable names'' have special meanings in a local variables
list: a value for the variable @code{mode} really sets the major mode,
and a value for the variable @code{eval} is simply evaluated as an
expression and the value is ignored.  @code{mode} and @code{eval} are
not real variables; setting variables named @code{mode} and @code{eval}
in any other context has no special meaning.  If @code{mode} is used to
set a major mode, it should be the first ``variable'' in the list.

  You can use the @code{mode} ``variable'' to set minor modes as well as
major modes; in fact, you can use it more than once, first to set the
major mode and then to set minor modes which are specific to particular
buffers.  But most minor modes should not be specified in the file in
any fashion, because they represent user preferences.

  For example, you may be tempted to try to turn on Auto Fill mode with
a local variable list.  That is a mistake.  The choice of Auto Fill mode
or not is a matter of individual taste, not a matter of the contents of
particular files.  If you want to use Auto Fill, set up major mode hooks
with your @file{.emacs} file to turn it on (when appropriate) for you
alone (@pxref{Init File}).  Don't use a local variable list to impose
your taste on everyone.

  The start of the local variables list must be no more than 3000
characters from the end of the file, and must be in the last page if the
file is divided into pages.  Otherwise, Emacs will not notice it is
there.  The purpose of this rule is so that a stray @samp{Local
Variables:}@: not in the last page does not confuse Emacs, and so that
visiting a long file that is all one page and has no local variables
list need not take the time to search the whole file.

  Use the command @code{normal-mode} to reset the local variables and
major mode of a buffer according to the file name and contents,
including the local variables list if any.  @xref{Choosing Modes}.

@findex enable-local-variables
  The variable @code{enable-local-variables} controls whether to process
local variables in files, and thus gives you a chance to override them.
Its default value is @code{t}, which means do process local variables in
files.  If you set the value to @code{nil}, Emacs simply ignores local
variables in files.  Any other value says to query you about each file
that has local variables, showing you the local variable specifications
so you can judge.

@findex enable-local-eval
  The @code{eval} ``variable,'' and certain actual variables, create a
special risk; when you visit someone else's file, local variable
specifications for these could affect your Emacs in arbitrary ways.
Therefore, the option @code{enable-local-eval} controls whether Emacs
processes @code{eval} variables, as well variables with names that end
in @samp{-hook}, @samp{-hooks}, @samp{-function} or @samp{-functions},
and certain other variables.  The three possibilities for the option's
value are @code{t}, @code{nil}, and anything else, just as for
@code{enable-local-variables}.  The default is @code{maybe}, which is
neither @code{t} nor @code{nil}, so normally Emacs does ask for
confirmation about file settings for these variables.

@node Keyboard Macros
@section Keyboard Macros

@cindex defining keyboard macros
@cindex keyboard macro
  A @dfn{keyboard macro} is a command defined by the user to stand for
another sequence of keys.  For example, if you discover that you are
about to type @kbd{C-n C-d} forty times, you can speed your work by
defining a keyboard macro to do @kbd{C-n C-d} and calling it with a
repeat count of forty.

@c widecommands
@table @kbd
@item C-x (
Start defining a keyboard macro (@code{start-kbd-macro}).
@item C-x )
End the definition of a keyboard macro (@code{end-kbd-macro}).
@item C-x e
Execute the most recent keyboard macro (@code{call-last-kbd-macro}).
@item C-u C-x (
Re-execute last keyboard macro, then add more keys to its definition.
@item C-x q
When this point is reached during macro execution, ask for confirmation
@item M-x name-last-kbd-macro
Give a command name (for the duration of the session) to the most
recently defined keyboard macro.
@item M-x insert-kbd-macro
Insert in the buffer a keyboard macro's definition, as Lisp code.
@item C-x C-k
Edit a previously defined keyboard macro (@code{edit-kbd-macro}).
@item M-x apply-macro-to-region-lines
Run the last keyboard macro on each complete line in the region.
@end table

  Keyboard macros differ from ordinary Emacs commands in that they are
written in the Emacs command language rather than in Lisp.  This makes it
easier for the novice to write them, and makes them more convenient as
temporary hacks.  However, the Emacs command language is not powerful
enough as a programming language to be useful for writing anything
intelligent or general.  For such things, Lisp must be used.

  You define a keyboard macro while executing the commands which are the
definition.  Put differently, as you define a keyboard macro, the
definition is being executed for the first time.  This way, you can see
what the effects of your commands are, so that you don't have to figure
them out in your head.  When you are finished, the keyboard macro is
defined and also has been, in effect, executed once.  You can then do the
whole thing over again by invoking the macro.

* Basic Kbd Macro::     Defining and running keyboard macros.
* Save Kbd Macro::      Giving keyboard macros names; saving them in files.
* Kbd Macro Query::     Making keyboard macros do different things each time.
@end menu

@node Basic Kbd Macro
@subsection Basic Use

@kindex C-x (
@kindex C-x )
@kindex C-x e
@findex start-kbd-macro
@findex end-kbd-macro
@findex call-last-kbd-macro
  To start defining a keyboard macro, type the @kbd{C-x (} command
(@code{start-kbd-macro}).  From then on, your keys continue to be
executed, but also become part of the definition of the macro.  @samp{Def}
appears in the mode line to remind you of what is going on.  When you are
finished, the @kbd{C-x )} command (@code{end-kbd-macro}) terminates the
definition (without becoming part of it!).  For example,

C-x ( M-f foo C-x )
@end example

defines a macro to move forward a word and then insert @samp{foo}.

  The macro thus defined can be invoked again with the @kbd{C-x e}
command (@code{call-last-kbd-macro}), which may be given a repeat count
as a numeric argument to execute the macro many times.  @kbd{C-x )} can
also be given a repeat count as an argument, in which case it repeats
the macro that many times right after defining it, but defining the
macro counts as the first repetition (since it is executed as you define
it).  Therefore, giving @kbd{C-x )} an argument of 4 executes the macro
immediately 3 additional times.  An argument of zero to @kbd{C-x e} or
@kbd{C-x )} means repeat the macro indefinitely (until it gets an error
or you type @kbd{C-g} or, on MS-DOS, @kbd{C-@key{BREAK}}).

  If you wish to repeat an operation at regularly spaced places in the
text, define a macro and include as part of the macro the commands to move
to the next place you want to use it.  For example, if you want to change
each line, you should position point at the start of a line, and define a
macro to change that line and leave point at the start of the next line.
Then repeating the macro will operate on successive lines.

  After you have terminated the definition of a keyboard macro, you can add
to the end of its definition by typing @kbd{C-u C-x (}.  This is equivalent
to plain @kbd{C-x (} followed by retyping the whole definition so far.  As
a consequence it re-executes the macro as previously defined.

  You can use function keys in a keyboard macro, just like keyboard
keys.  You can even use mouse events, but be careful about that: when
the macro replays the mouse event, it uses the original mouse position
of that event, the position that the mouse had while you were defining
the macro.  The effect of this may be hard to predict.  (Using the
current mouse position would be even less predictable.)

  One thing that doesn't always work well in a keyboard macro is the
command @kbd{C-M-c} (@code{exit-recursive-edit}).  When this command
exits a recursive edit that started within the macro, it works as you'd
expect.  But if it exits a recursive edit that started before you
invoked the keyboard macro, it also necessarily exits the keyboard macro
as part of the process.

@findex edit-kbd-macro
@kindex C-x C-k
  You can edit a keyboard macro already defined by typing @kbd{C-x C-k}
(@code{edit-kbd-macro}).  Follow that with the keyboard input that you
would use to invoke the macro---@kbd{C-x e} or @kbd{M-x @var{name}} or
some other key sequence.  This formats the macro definition in a buffer
and enters a specialized major mode for editing it.  Type @kbd{C-h m}
once in that buffer to display details of how to edit the macro.  When
you are finished editing, type @kbd{C-c C-c}.

@findex apply-macro-to-region-lines
  The command @kbd{M-x apply-macro-to-region-lines} repeats the last
defined keyboard macro on each complete line within the current region.
It does this line by line, by moving point to the beginning of the line
and then executing the macro.

@node Save Kbd Macro
@subsection Naming and Saving Keyboard Macros

@cindex saving keyboard macros
@findex name-last-kbd-macro
  If you wish to save a keyboard macro for longer than until you define the
next one, you must give it a name using @kbd{M-x name-last-kbd-macro}.
This reads a name as an argument using the minibuffer and defines that name
to execute the macro.  The macro name is a Lisp symbol, and defining it in
this way makes it a valid command name for calling with @kbd{M-x} or for
binding a key to with @code{global-set-key} (@pxref{Keymaps}).  If you
specify a name that has a prior definition other than another keyboard
macro, an error message is printed and nothing is changed.

@findex insert-kbd-macro
  Once a macro has a command name, you can save its definition in a file.
Then it can be used in another editing session.  First, visit the file
you want to save the definition in.  Then use this command:

M-x insert-kbd-macro @key{RET} @var{macroname} @key{RET}
@end example

This inserts some Lisp code that, when executed later, will define the
same macro with the same definition it has now.  (You need not
understand Lisp code to do this, because @code{insert-kbd-macro} writes
the Lisp code for you.)  Then save the file.  You can load the file
later with @code{load-file} (@pxref{Lisp Libraries}).  If the file you
save in is your init file @file{~/.emacs} (@pxref{Init File}) then the
macro will be defined each time you run Emacs.

  If you give @code{insert-kbd-macro} a numeric argument, it makes
additional Lisp code to record the keys (if any) that you have bound to the
keyboard macro, so that the macro will be reassigned the same keys when you
load the file.

@node Kbd Macro Query
@subsection Executing Macros with Variations

@kindex C-x q
@findex kbd-macro-query
  Using @kbd{C-x q} (@code{kbd-macro-query}), you can get an effect
similar to that of @code{query-replace}, where the macro asks you each
time around whether to make a change.  While defining the macro,
type @kbd{C-x q} at the point where you want the query to occur.  During
macro definition, the @kbd{C-x q} does nothing, but when you run the
macro later, @kbd{C-x q} asks you interactively whether to continue.

  The valid responses when @kbd{C-x q} asks are @key{SPC} (or @kbd{y}),
@key{DEL} (or @kbd{n}), @key{RET} (or @kbd{q}), @kbd{C-l} and @kbd{C-r}.
The answers are the same as in @code{query-replace}, though not all of
the @code{query-replace} options are meaningful.

  These responses include @key{SPC} to continue, and @key{DEL} to skip
the remainder of this repetition of the macro and start right away with
the next repetition.  @key{RET} means to skip the remainder of this
repetition and cancel further repetitions.  @kbd{C-l} redraws the screen
and asks you again for a character to say what to do.

  @kbd{C-r} enters a recursive editing level, in which you can perform
editing which is not part of the macro.  When you exit the recursive
edit using @kbd{C-M-c}, you are asked again how to continue with the
keyboard macro.  If you type a @key{SPC} at this time, the rest of the
macro definition is executed.  It is up to you to leave point and the
text in a state such that the rest of the macro will do what you

  @kbd{C-u C-x q}, which is @kbd{C-x q} with a numeric argument,
performs a completely different function.  It enters a recursive edit
reading input from the keyboard, both when you type it during the
definition of the macro, and when it is executed from the macro.  During
definition, the editing you do inside the recursive edit does not become
part of the macro.  During macro execution, the recursive edit gives you
a chance to do some particularized editing on each repetition.
@xref{Recursive Edit}.

@node Key Bindings
@section Customizing Key Bindings
@cindex key bindings

  This section describes @dfn{key bindings}, which map keys to commands,
and @dfn{keymaps}, which record key bindings.  It also explains how
to customize key bindings.

  Recall that a command is a Lisp function whose definition provides for
interactive use.  Like every Lisp function, a command has a function
name which usually consists of lower-case letters and hyphens.

* Keymaps::             Generalities.  The global keymap.
* Prefix Keymaps::      Keymaps for prefix keys.
* Local Keymaps::       Major and minor modes have their own keymaps.
* Minibuffer Maps::     The minibuffer uses its own local keymaps.
* Rebinding::           How to redefine one key's meaning conveniently.
* Init Rebinding::      Rebinding keys with your init file, @file{.emacs}.
* Function Keys::       Rebinding terminal function keys.
* Named ASCII Chars::   Distinguishing @key{TAB} from @kbd{C-i}, and so on.
* Non-ASCII Rebinding:: Rebinding non-ASCII characters such as Latin-1.
* Mouse Buttons::       Rebinding mouse buttons in Emacs.
* Disabling::           Disabling a command means confirmation is required
                          before it can be executed.  This is done to protect
                          beginners from surprises.
@end menu

@node Keymaps
@subsection Keymaps
@cindex keymap

  The bindings between key sequences and command functions are recorded
in data structures called @dfn{keymaps}.  Emacs has many of these, each
used on particular occasions.

  Recall that a @dfn{key sequence} (@dfn{key}, for short) is a sequence
of @dfn{input events} that have a meaning as a unit.  Input events
include characters, function keys and mouse buttons---all the inputs
that you can send to the computer with your terminal.  A key sequence
gets its meaning from its @dfn{binding}, which says what command it
runs.  The function of keymaps is to record these bindings.

@cindex global keymap
  The @dfn{global} keymap is the most important keymap because it is
always in effect.  The global keymap defines keys for Fundamental mode;
most of these definitions are common to most or all major modes.  Each
major or minor mode can have its own keymap which overrides the global
definitions of some keys.

  For example, a self-inserting character such as @kbd{g} is
self-inserting because the global keymap binds it to the command
@code{self-insert-command}.  The standard Emacs editing characters such
as @kbd{C-a} also get their standard meanings from the global keymap.
Commands to rebind keys, such as @kbd{M-x global-set-key}, actually work
by storing the new binding in the proper place in the global map.

   Meta characters work differently; Emacs translates each Meta
character into a pair of characters starting with @key{ESC}.  When you
type the character @kbd{M-a} in a key sequence, Emacs replaces it with
@kbd{@key{ESC} a}.  A meta key comes in as a single input event, but
becomes two events for purposes of key bindings.  The reason for this is
historical, and we might change it someday.

@cindex function key
  Most modern keyboards have function keys as well as character keys.
Function keys send input events just as character keys do, and keymaps
can have bindings for them.

  On many terminals, typing a function key actually sends the computer a
sequence of characters; the precise details of the sequence depends on
which function key and on the model of terminal you are using.  (Often
the sequence starts with @kbd{@key{ESC} [}.)  If Emacs understands your
terminal type properly, it recognizes the character sequences forming
function keys wherever they occur in a key sequence (not just at the
beginning).  Thus, for most purposes, you can pretend the function keys
reach Emacs directly and ignore their encoding as character sequences.

@cindex mouse
  Mouse buttons also produce input events.  These events come with other
data---the window and position where you pressed or released the button,
and a time stamp.  But only the choice of button matters for key
bindings; the other data matters only if a command looks at it.
(Commands designed for mouse invocation usually do look at the other

  A keymap records definitions for single events.  Interpreting a key
sequence of multiple events involves a chain of keymaps.  The first
keymap gives a definition for the first event; this definition is
another keymap, which is used to look up the second event in the
sequence, and so on.

  Key sequences can mix function keys and characters.  For example,
@kbd{C-x @key{SELECT}} is meaningful.  If you make @key{SELECT} a prefix
key, then @kbd{@key{SELECT} C-n} makes sense.  You can even mix mouse
events with keyboard events, but we recommend against it, because such
sequences are inconvenient to type in.

  As a user, you can redefine any key; but it might be best to stick to
key sequences that consist of @kbd{C-c} followed by a letter.  These
keys are ``reserved for users,'' so they won't conflict with any
properly designed Emacs extension.  The function keys @key{F5} through
@key{F9} are also reserved for users.  If you redefine some other key,
your definition may be overridden by certain extensions or major modes
which redefine the same key.

@node Prefix Keymaps
@subsection Prefix Keymaps

  A prefix key such as @kbd{C-x} or @key{ESC} has its own keymap,
which holds the definition for the event that immediately follows
that prefix.

  The definition of a prefix key is usually the keymap to use for
looking up the following event.  The definition can also be a Lisp
symbol whose function definition is the following keymap; the effect is
the same, but it provides a command name for the prefix key that can be
used as a description of what the prefix key is for.  Thus, the binding
of @kbd{C-x} is the symbol @code{Ctl-X-Prefix}, whose function
definition is the keymap for @kbd{C-x} commands.  The definitions of
@kbd{C-c}, @kbd{C-x}, @kbd{C-h} and @key{ESC} as prefix keys appear in
the global map, so these prefix keys are always available.

  Aside from ordinary prefix keys, there is a fictitious ``prefix key''
which represents the menu bar; see @ref{Menu Bar,,,elisp, The Emacs Lisp
Reference Manual}, for special information about menu bar key bindings.
Mouse button events that invoke pop-up menus are also prefix keys; see
@ref{Menu Keymaps,,,elisp, The Emacs Lisp Reference Manual}, for more

  Some prefix keymaps are stored in variables with names:

@itemize @bullet
@vindex ctl-x-map
@code{ctl-x-map} is the variable name for the map used for characters that
follow @kbd{C-x}.
@vindex help-map
@code{help-map} is for characters that follow @kbd{C-h}.
@vindex esc-map
@code{esc-map} is for characters that follow @key{ESC}.  Thus, all Meta
characters are actually defined by this map.
@vindex ctl-x-4-map
@code{ctl-x-4-map} is for characters that follow @kbd{C-x 4}.
@vindex mode-specific-map
@code{mode-specific-map} is for characters that follow @kbd{C-c}.
@end itemize

@node Local Keymaps
@subsection Local Keymaps

@cindex local keymap
  So far we have explained the ins and outs of the global map.  Major
modes customize Emacs by providing their own key bindings in @dfn{local
keymaps}.  For example, C mode overrides @key{TAB} to make it indent the
current line for C code.  Portions of text in the buffer can specify
their own keymaps to substitute for the keymap of the buffer's major

@cindex minor mode keymap
  Minor modes can also have local keymaps.  Whenever a minor mode is
in effect, the definitions in its keymap override both the major
mode's local keymap and the global keymap.

@vindex c-mode-map
@vindex lisp-mode-map
  The local keymaps for Lisp mode and several other major modes always
exist even when not in use.  These are kept in variables named
@code{lisp-mode-map} and so on.  For major modes less often used, the
local keymap is normally constructed only when the mode is used for the
first time in a session.  This is to save space.  If you wish to change
one of these keymaps, you must use the major mode's @dfn{mode
hook}---see below.

  All minor mode keymaps are created in advance.  There is no way to
defer their creation until the first time the minor mode is enabled.

  A local keymap can locally redefine a key as a prefix key by defining
it as a prefix keymap.  If the key is also defined globally as a prefix,
then its local and global definitions (both keymaps) effectively
combine: both of them are used to look up the event that follows the
prefix key.  Thus, if the mode's local keymap defines @kbd{C-c} as
another keymap, and that keymap defines @kbd{C-z} as a command, this
provides a local meaning for @kbd{C-c C-z}.  This does not affect other
sequences that start with @kbd{C-c}; if those sequences don't have their
own local bindings, their global bindings remain in effect.

  Another way to think of this is that Emacs handles a multi-event key
sequence by looking in several keymaps, one by one, for a binding of the
whole key sequence.  First it checks the minor mode keymaps for minor
modes that are enabled, then it checks the major mode's keymap, and then
it checks the global keymap.  This is not precisely how key lookup
works, but it's good enough for understanding ordinary circumstances.

@cindex rebinding major mode keys
  To change the local bindings of a major mode, you must change the
mode's local keymap.  Normally you must wait until the first time the
mode is used, because most major modes don't create their keymaps until
then.  If you want to specify something in your @file{~/.emacs} file to
change a major mode's bindings, you must use the mode's mode hook to
delay the change until the mode is first used.

  For example, the command @code{texinfo-mode} to select Texinfo mode
runs the hook @code{texinfo-mode-hook}.  Here's how you can use the hook
to add local bindings (not very useful, we admit) for @kbd{C-c n} and
@kbd{C-c p} in Texinfo mode:

(add-hook 'texinfo-mode-hook
          '(lambda ()
             (define-key texinfo-mode-map
             (define-key texinfo-mode-map
@end example


@node Minibuffer Maps
@subsection Minibuffer Keymaps

@cindex minibuffer keymaps
@vindex minibuffer-local-map
@vindex minibuffer-local-ns-map
@vindex minibuffer-local-completion-map
@vindex minibuffer-local-must-match-map
  The minibuffer has its own set of local keymaps; they contain various
completion and exit commands.

@itemize @bullet
@code{minibuffer-local-map} is used for ordinary input (no completion).
@code{minibuffer-local-ns-map} is similar, except that @key{SPC} exits
just like @key{RET}.  This is used mainly for Mocklisp compatibility.
@code{minibuffer-local-completion-map} is for permissive completion.
@code{minibuffer-local-must-match-map} is for strict completion and
for cautious completion.
@end itemize

@node Rebinding
@subsection Changing Key Bindings Interactively
@cindex key rebinding, this session
@cindex rebinding keys, this session

  The way to redefine an Emacs key is to change its entry in a keymap.
You can change the global keymap, in which case the change is effective in
all major modes (except those that have their own overriding local
definitions for the same key).  Or you can change the current buffer's
local map, which affects all buffers using the same major mode.

@findex global-set-key
@findex local-set-key
@findex global-unset-key
@findex local-unset-key
@table @kbd
@item M-x global-set-key @key{RET} @var{key} @var{cmd} @key{RET}
Define @var{key} globally to run @var{cmd}.
@item M-x local-set-key @key{RET} @var{key} @var{cmd} @key{RET}
Define @var{key} locally (in the major mode now in effect) to run
@item M-x global-unset-key @key{RET} @var{key}
Make @var{key} undefined in the global map.
@item M-x local-unset-key @key{RET} @var{key}
Make @var{key} undefined locally (in the major mode now in effect).
@end table

  For example, suppose you like to execute commands in a subshell within
an Emacs buffer, instead of suspending Emacs and executing commands in
your login shell.  Normally, @kbd{C-z} is bound to the function
@code{suspend-emacs} (when not using the X Window System), but you can
change @kbd{C-z} to invoke an interactive subshell within Emacs, by
binding it to @code{shell} as follows:

M-x global-set-key @key{RET} C-z shell @key{RET}
@end example

@code{global-set-key} reads the command name after the key.   After you
press the key, a message like this appears so that you can confirm that
you are binding the key you want:

Set key C-z to command: 
@end example

  You can redefine function keys and mouse events in the same way; just
type the function key or click the mouse when it's time to specify the
key to rebind.

  You can rebind a key that contains more than one event in the same
way.  Emacs keeps reading the key to rebind until it is a complete key
(that is, not a prefix key).  Thus, if you type @kbd{C-f} for
@var{key}, that's the end; the minibuffer is entered immediately to
read @var{cmd}.  But if you type @kbd{C-x}, another character is read;
if that is @kbd{4}, another character is read, and so on.  For

M-x global-set-key @key{RET} C-x 4 $ spell-other-window @key{RET}
@end example

redefines @kbd{C-x 4 $} to run the (fictitious) command

  The two-character keys consisting of @kbd{C-c} followed by a letter
are reserved for user customizations.  Lisp programs are not supposed to
define these keys, so the bindings you make for them will be available
in all major modes and will never get in the way of anything.

  You can remove the global definition of a key with
@code{global-unset-key}.  This makes the key @dfn{undefined}; if you
type it, Emacs will just beep.  Similarly, @code{local-unset-key} makes
a key undefined in the current major mode keymap, which makes the global
definition (or lack of one) come back into effect in that major mode.

  If you have redefined (or undefined) a key and you subsequently wish
to retract the change, undefining the key will not do the job---you need
to redefine the key with its standard definition.  To find the name of
the standard definition of a key, go to a Fundamental mode buffer and
use @kbd{C-h c}.  The documentation of keys in this manual also lists
their command names.

  If you want to prevent yourself from invoking a command by mistake, it
is better to disable the command than to undefine the key.  A disabled
command is less work to invoke when you really want to.

@node Init Rebinding
@subsection Rebinding Keys in Your Init File

@findex define-key
@findex substitute-key-definition
  If you have a set of key bindings that you like to use all the time,
you can specify them in your @file{.emacs} file by using their Lisp

  The simplest method for doing this works for ASCII characters and
Meta-modified ASCII characters only.  This method uses a string to
represent the key sequence you want to rebind.  For example, here's how
to bind @kbd{C-z} to @code{shell}:

(global-set-key "\C-z" 'shell)
@end example

This example uses a string constant containing one character, @kbd{C-z}.
The single-quote before the command name, @code{shell}, marks it as a
constant symbol rather than a variable.  If you omit the quote, Emacs
would try to evaluate @code{shell} immediately as a variable.  This
probably causes an error; it certainly isn't what you want.

  Here is another example that binds a key sequence two characters long:

(global-set-key "\C-xl" 'make-symbolic-link)
@end example

  When the key sequence includes function keys or mouse button events,
or non-ASCII characters such as @code{C-=} or @code{H-a}, you must use
the more general method of rebinding, which uses a vector to specify the
key sequence.

  The way to write a vector in Emacs Lisp is with square brackets around
the vector elements.  Use spaces to separate the elements.  If an
element is a symbol, simply write the symbol's name---no other
delimiters or punctuation are needed.  If a vector element is a
character, write it as a Lisp character constant: @samp{?} followed by
the character as it would appear in a string.

  Here are examples of using vectors to rebind @kbd{C-=} (a control
character outside of ASCII), @kbd{H-a} (a Hyper character; ASCII doesn't
have Hyper at all), @key{F7} (a function key), and @kbd{C-Mouse-1} (a
keyboard-modified mouse button):

(global-set-key [?\C-=] 'make-symbolic-link)
(global-set-key [?\H-a] 'make-symbolic-link)
(global-set-key [f7] 'make-symbolic-link)
(global-set-key [C-mouse-1] 'make-symbolic-link)
@end example

  You can use a vector for the simple cases too.  Here's how to rewrite
the first two examples, above, to use vectors:

(global-set-key [?\C-z] 'shell)

(global-set-key [?\C-x ?l] 'make-symbolic-link)
@end example

@node Function Keys
@subsection Rebinding Function Keys

  Key sequences can contain function keys as well as ordinary
characters.  Just as Lisp characters (actually integers) represent
keyboard characters, Lisp symbols represent function keys.  If the
function key has a word as its label, then that word is also the name of
the corresponding Lisp symbol.  Here are the conventional Lisp names for
common function keys:

@table @asis
@item @code{left}, @code{up}, @code{right}, @code{down}
Cursor arrow keys.

@item @code{begin}, @code{end}, @code{home}, @code{next}, @code{prior}
Other cursor repositioning keys.

@item @code{select}, @code{print}, @code{execute}, @code{backtab}
@itemx @code{insert}, @code{undo}, @code{redo}, @code{clearline}
@itemx @code{insertline}, @code{deleteline}, @code{insertchar}, @code{deletechar},
Miscellaneous function keys.

@item @code{f1}, @code{f2}, @dots{} @code{f35}
Numbered function keys (across the top of the keyboard).

@item @code{kp-add}, @code{kp-subtract}, @code{kp-multiply}, @code{kp-divide}
@itemx @code{kp-backtab}, @code{kp-space}, @code{kp-tab}, @code{kp-enter}
@itemx @code{kp-separator}, @code{kp-decimal}, @code{kp-equal}
Keypad keys (to the right of the regular keyboard), with names or punctuation.

@item @code{kp-0}, @code{kp-1}, @dots{} @code{kp-9}
Keypad keys with digits.

@item @code{kp-f1}, @code{kp-f2}, @code{kp-f3}, @code{kp-f4}
Keypad PF keys.
@end table

  These names are conventional, but some systems (especially when using
X windows) may use different names.  To make certain what symbol is used
for a given function key on your terminal, type @kbd{C-h c} followed by
that key.

  A key sequence which contains function key symbols (or anything but
ASCII characters) must be a vector rather than a string.  The vector
syntax uses spaces between the elements, and square brackets around the
whole vector.  Thus, to bind function key @samp{f1} to the command
@code{rmail}, write the following:

(global-set-key [f1] 'rmail)
@end example

To bind the right-arrow key to the command @code{forward-char}, you can
use this expression:

(global-set-key [right] 'forward-char)
@end example

This uses the Lisp syntax for a vector containing the symbol
@code{right}.  (This binding is present in Emacs by default.)

  @xref{Init Rebinding}, for more information about using vectors for

  You can mix function keys and characters in a key sequence.  This
example binds @kbd{C-x @key{NEXT}} to the command @code{forward-page}.

(global-set-key [?\C-x next] 'forward-page)
@end example

where @code{?\C-x} is the Lisp character constant for the character
@kbd{C-x}.  The vector element @code{next} is a symbol and therefore
does not take a question mark.

  You can use the modifier keys @key{CTRL}, @key{META}, @key{HYPER},
@key{SUPER}, @key{ALT} and @key{SHIFT} with function keys.  To represent
these modifiers, add the strings @samp{C-}, @samp{M-}, @samp{H-},
@samp{s-}, @samp{A-} and @samp{S-} at the front of the symbol name.
Thus, here is how to make @kbd{Hyper-Meta-@key{RIGHT}} move forward a

(global-set-key [H-M-right] 'forward-word)
@end example

@node Named ASCII Chars
@subsection Named ASCII Control Characters

  @key{TAB}, @key{RET}, @key{BS}, @key{LFD}, @key{ESC} and @key{DEL}
started out as names for certain ASCII control characters, used so often
that they have special keys of their own.  Later, users found it
convenient to distinguish in Emacs between these keys and the ``same''
control characters typed with the @key{CTRL} key.

  Emacs distinguishes these two kinds of input, when used with the X
Window System.  It treats the ``special'' keys as function keys named
@code{tab}, @code{return}, @code{backspace}, @code{linefeed},
@code{escape}, and @code{delete}.  These function keys translate
automatically into the corresponding ASCII characters @emph{if} they
have no bindings of their own.  As a result, neither users nor Lisp
programs need to pay attention to the distinction unless they care to.

  If you do not want to distinguish between (for example) @key{TAB} and
@kbd{C-i}, make just one binding, for the ASCII character @key{TAB}
(octal code 011).  If you do want to distinguish, make one binding for
this ASCII character, and another for the ``function key'' @code{tab}.

  With an ordinary ASCII terminal, there is no way to distinguish
between @key{TAB} and @kbd{C-i} (and likewise for other such pairs),
because the terminal sends the same character in both cases.

@node Non-ASCII Rebinding
@subsection Non-ASCII Characters on the Keyboard

If your keyboard has keys that send non-ASCII characters, such as
accented letters, rebinding these keys is a bit tricky.  There are
two solutions you can use.  One is to specify a keyboard coding system,
using @code{set-keyboard-coding-system} (@pxref{Specify Coding}).
Then you can bind these keys in the usual way, but writing

(global-set-key [?@var{char}] 'some-function)
@end example

and typing the key you want to bind to insert @var{char}.

If you don't specify the keyboard coding system, that approach won't
work.  Instead, you need to find out the actual code that the terminal
sends.  The easiest way to do this in Emacs is to create an empty buffer
with @kbd{C-x b temp @key{RET}}, make it unibyte with @kbd{M-x
toggle-enable-multibyte-characters @key{RET}}, then type the key to
insert the character into this buffer.

Move point before the character, then type @kbd{C-b C-x =}.  This
displays a message in the minibuffer, showing the character code in
three ways, octal, decimal and hexadecimal, all within a set of
parentheses.  Use the second of the three numbers, the decimal one,
inside the vector to bind:

(global-set-key [@var{decimal-code}] 'some-function)
@end example

@node Mouse Buttons
@subsection Rebinding Mouse Buttons
@cindex mouse button events
@cindex rebinding mouse buttons
@cindex click events
@cindex drag events
@cindex down events
@cindex button down events

  Emacs uses Lisp symbols to designate mouse buttons, too.  The ordinary
mouse events in Emacs are @dfn{click} events; these happen when you
press a button and release it without moving the mouse.  You can also
get @dfn{drag} events, when you move the mouse while holding the button
down.  Drag events happen when you finally let go of the button.

  The symbols for basic click events are @code{mouse-1} for the leftmost
button, @code{mouse-2} for the next, and so on.  Here is how you can
redefine the second mouse button to split the current window:

(global-set-key [mouse-2] 'split-window-vertically)
@end example

  The symbols for drag events are similar, but have the prefix
@samp{drag-} before the word @samp{mouse}.  For example, dragging the
first button generates a @code{drag-mouse-1} event.

  You can also define bindings for events that occur when a mouse button
is pressed down.  These events start with @samp{down-} instead of
@samp{drag-}.  Such events are generated only if they have key bindings.
When you get a button-down event, a corresponding click or drag event
will always follow.

@cindex double clicks
@cindex triple clicks
  If you wish, you can distinguish single, double, and triple clicks.  A
double click means clicking a mouse button twice in approximately the
same place.  The first click generates an ordinary click event.  The
second click, if it comes soon enough, generates a double-click event
instead.  The event type for a double-click event starts with
@samp{double-}: for example, @code{double-mouse-3}.

  This means that you can give a special meaning to the second click at
the same place, but it must act on the assumption that the ordinary
single click definition has run when the first click was received.

  This constrains what you can do with double clicks, but user interface
designers say that this constraint ought to be followed in any case.  A
double click should do something similar to the single click, only
``more so.''  The command for the double-click event should perform the
extra work for the double click.

  If a double-click event has no binding, it changes to the
corresponding single-click event.  Thus, if you don't define a
particular double click specially, it executes the single-click command

  Emacs also supports triple-click events whose names start with
@samp{triple-}.  Emacs does not distinguish quadruple clicks as event
types; clicks beyond the third generate additional triple-click events.
However, the full number of clicks is recorded in the event list, so you
can distinguish if you really want to.  We don't recommend distinct
meanings for more than three clicks, but sometimes it is useful for
subsequent clicks to cycle through the same set of three meanings, so
that four clicks are equivalent to one click, five are equivalent to
two, and six are equivalent to three.

  Emacs also records multiple presses in drag and button-down events.
For example, when you press a button twice, then move the mouse while
holding the button, Emacs gets a @samp{double-drag-} event.  And at the
moment when you press it down for the second time, Emacs gets a
@samp{double-down-} event (which is ignored, like all button-down
events, if it has no binding).

@vindex double-click-time
  The variable @code{double-click-time} specifies how long may elapse
between clicks that are recognized as a pair.  Its value is measured
in milliseconds.  If the value is @code{nil}, double clicks are not
detected at all.  If the value is @code{t}, then there is no time

  The symbols for mouse events also indicate the status of the modifier
keys, with the usual prefixes @samp{C-}, @samp{M-}, @samp{H-},
@samp{s-}, @samp{A-} and @samp{S-}.  These always precede @samp{double-}
or @samp{triple-}, which always precede @samp{drag-} or @samp{down-}.

  A frame includes areas that don't show text from the buffer, such as
the mode line and the scroll bar.  You can tell whether a mouse button
comes from a special area of the screen by means of dummy ``prefix
keys.''  For example, if you click the mouse in the mode line, you get
the prefix key @code{mode-line} before the ordinary mouse-button symbol.
Thus, here is how to define the command for clicking the first button in
a mode line to run @code{scroll-up}:

(global-set-key [mode-line mouse-1] 'scroll-up)
@end example

  Here is the complete list of these dummy prefix keys and their

@table @code
@item mode-line
The mouse was in the mode line of a window.
@item vertical-line
The mouse was in the vertical line separating side-by-side windows.  (If
you use scroll bars, they appear in place of these vertical lines.)
@item vertical-scroll-bar
The mouse was in a vertical scroll bar.  (This is the only kind of
scroll bar Emacs currently supports.)
@item horizontal-scroll-bar
The mouse was in a horizontal scroll bar.  Horizontal scroll bars do
horizontal scrolling, and people don't use them often.
@end ignore
@end table

  You can put more than one mouse button in a key sequence, but it isn't
usual to do so.

@node Disabling
@subsection Disabling Commands
@cindex disabled command

  Disabling a command marks the command as requiring confirmation before it
can be executed.  The purpose of disabling a command is to prevent
beginning users from executing it by accident and being confused.

  An attempt to invoke a disabled command interactively in Emacs
displays a window containing the command's name, its documentation, and
some instructions on what to do immediately; then Emacs asks for input
saying whether to execute the command as requested, enable it and
execute it, or cancel.  If you decide to enable the command, you are
asked whether to do this permanently or just for the current session.
Enabling permanently works by automatically editing your @file{.emacs}

  The direct mechanism for disabling a command is to put a
non-@code{nil} @code{disabled} property on the Lisp symbol for the
command.  Here is the Lisp program to do this:

(put 'delete-region 'disabled t)
@end example

  If the value of the @code{disabled} property is a string, that string
is included in the message printed when the command is used:

(put 'delete-region 'disabled
     "It's better to use `kill-region' instead.\n")
@end example

@findex disable-command
@findex enable-command
  You can make a command disabled either by editing the @file{.emacs}
file directly or with the command @kbd{M-x disable-command}, which edits
the @file{.emacs} file for you.  Likewise, @kbd{M-x enable-command}
edits @file{.emacs} to enable a command permanently.  @xref{Init File}.

  Whether a command is disabled is independent of what key is used to
invoke it; disabling also applies if the command is invoked using
@kbd{M-x}.  Disabling a command has no effect on calling it as a
function from Lisp programs.

@node Keyboard Translations
@section Keyboard Translations

  Some keyboards do not make it convenient to send all the special
characters that Emacs uses.  The most common problem case is the
@key{DEL} character.  Some keyboards provide no convenient way to type
this very important character---usually because they were designed to
expect the character @kbd{C-h} to be used for deletion.  On these
keyboards, if you press the key normally used for deletion, Emacs handles
the @kbd{C-h} as a prefix character and offers you a list of help
options, which is not what you want.

@cindex keyboard translations
@findex keyboard-translate
  You can work around this problem within Emacs by setting up keyboard
translations to turn @kbd{C-h} into @key{DEL} and @key{DEL} into
@kbd{C-h}, as follows:

;; @r{Translate @kbd{C-h} to @key{DEL}.}
(keyboard-translate ?\C-h ?\C-?)

@need 3000
;; @r{Translate @key{DEL} to @kbd{C-h}.}
(keyboard-translate ?\C-? ?\C-h)
@end example

  Keyboard translations are not the same as key bindings in keymaps
(@pxref{Keymaps}).  Emacs contains numerous keymaps that apply in
different situations, but there is only one set of keyboard
translations, and it applies to every character that Emacs reads from
the terminal.  Keyboard translations take place at the lowest level of
input processing; the keys that are looked up in keymaps contain the
characters that result from keyboard translation.

  Under X, the keyboard key named @key{DELETE} is a function key and is
distinct from the ASCII character named @key{DEL}.  @xref{Named ASCII
Chars}.  Keyboard translations affect only ASCII character input, not
function keys; thus, the above example used under X does not affect the
@key{DELETE} key.  However, the translation above isn't necessary under
X, because Emacs can also distinguish between the @key{BACKSPACE} key
and @kbd{C-h}; and it normally treats @key{BACKSPACE} as @key{DEL}.

  For full information about how to use keyboard translations, see
@ref{Translating Input,,,elisp, The Emacs Lisp Reference Manual}.

@node Syntax
@section The Syntax Table
@cindex syntax table

  All the Emacs commands which parse words or balance parentheses are
controlled by the @dfn{syntax table}.  The syntax table says which
characters are opening delimiters, which are parts of words, which are
string quotes, and so on.  Each major mode has its own syntax table
(though sometimes related major modes use the same one) which it
installs in each buffer that uses that major mode.  The syntax table
installed in the current buffer is the one that all commands use, so we
call it ``the'' syntax table.  A syntax table is a Lisp object, a
char-table, whose elements are numbers.

@kindex C-h s
@findex describe-syntax
  To display a description of the contents of the current syntax table,
type @kbd{C-h s} (@code{describe-syntax}).  The description of each
character includes both the string you would have to give to
@code{modify-syntax-entry} to set up that character's current syntax,
and some English to explain that string if necessary.

  For full information on the syntax table, see @ref{Syntax Tables,,
Syntax Tables, elisp, The Emacs Lisp Reference Manual}.

@node Init File
@section The Init File, @file{~/.emacs}
@cindex init file
@cindex Emacs initialization file
@cindex key rebinding, permanent
@cindex rebinding keys, permanently
@cindex startup (init file)

  When Emacs is started, it normally loads a Lisp program from the file
@file{.emacs} or @file{.emacs.el} in your home directory.  We call this
file your @dfn{init file} because it specifies how to initialize Emacs
for you.  You can use the command line switch @samp{-q} to prevent
loading your init file, and @samp{-u} (or @samp{--user}) to specify a
different user's init file (@pxref{Entering Emacs}).

  There can also be a @dfn{default init file}, which is the library
named @file{default.el}, found via the standard search path for
libraries.  The Emacs distribution contains no such library; your site
may create one for local customizations.  If this library exists, it is
loaded whenever you start Emacs (except when you specify @samp{-q}).
But your init file, if any, is loaded first; if it sets
@code{inhibit-default-init} non-@code{nil}, then @file{default} is not

  Your site may also have a @dfn{site startup file}; this is named
@file{site-start.el}, if it exists.  Emacs loads this library before it
loads your init file.  To inhibit loading of this library, use the
option @samp{-no-site-file}.

  If you have a large amount of code in your @file{.emacs} file, you
should rename it to @file{~/.emacs.el}, and byte-compile it.  @xref{Byte
Compilation,, Byte Compilation, elisp, the Emacs Lisp Reference Manual},
for more information about compiling Emacs Lisp programs.

  If you are going to write actual Emacs Lisp programs that go beyond
minor customization, you should read the @cite{Emacs Lisp Reference Manual}.
@xref{Top, Emacs Lisp, Emacs Lisp, elisp, the Emacs Lisp Reference
@end ifinfo

* Init Syntax::	        Syntax of constants in Emacs Lisp.
* Init Examples::       How to do some things with an init file.
* Terminal Init::       Each terminal type can have an init file.
* Find Init::	        How Emacs finds the init file.
@end menu

@node Init Syntax
@subsection Init File Syntax

  The @file{.emacs} file contains one or more Lisp function call
expressions.  Each of these consists of a function name followed by
arguments, all surrounded by parentheses.  For example, @code{(setq
fill-column 60)} calls the function @code{setq} to set the variable
@code{fill-column} (@pxref{Filling}) to 60.

  The second argument to @code{setq} is an expression for the new value of
the variable.  This can be a constant, a variable, or a function call
expression.  In @file{.emacs}, constants are used most of the time.  They can be:

@table @asis
@item Numbers:
Numbers are written in decimal, with an optional initial minus sign.

@item Strings:
@cindex Lisp string syntax
@cindex string syntax
Lisp string syntax is the same as C string syntax with a few extra
features.  Use a double-quote character to begin and end a string constant.

In a string, you can include newlines and special characters literally.
But often it is cleaner to use backslash sequences for them: @samp{\n}
for newline, @samp{\b} for backspace, @samp{\r} for carriage return,
@samp{\t} for tab, @samp{\f} for formfeed (control-L), @samp{\e} for
escape, @samp{\\} for a backslash, @samp{\"} for a double-quote, or
@samp{\@var{ooo}} for the character whose octal code is @var{ooo}.
Backslash and double-quote are the only characters for which backslash
sequences are mandatory.

@samp{\C-} can be used as a prefix for a control character, as in
@samp{\C-s} for ASCII control-S, and @samp{\M-} can be used as a prefix for
a Meta character, as in @samp{\M-a} for @kbd{Meta-A} or @samp{\M-\C-a} for

@item Characters:
Lisp character constant syntax consists of a @samp{?} followed by
either a character or an escape sequence starting with @samp{\}.
Examples: @code{?x}, @code{?\n}, @code{?\"}, @code{?\)}.  Note that
strings and characters are not interchangeable in Lisp; some contexts
require one and some contexts require the other.

@item True:
@code{t} stands for `true'.

@item False:
@code{nil} stands for `false'.

@item Other Lisp objects:
Write a single-quote (') followed by the Lisp object you want.
@end table

@node Init Examples
@subsection Init File Examples

  Here are some examples of doing certain commonly desired things with
Lisp expressions:

@itemize @bullet
Make @key{TAB} in C mode just insert a tab if point is in the middle of a

(setq c-tab-always-indent nil)
@end example

Here we have a variable whose value is normally @code{t} for `true'
and the alternative is @code{nil} for `false'.

Make searches case sensitive by default (in all buffers that do not
override this).

(setq-default case-fold-search nil)
@end example

This sets the default value, which is effective in all buffers that do
not have local values for the variable.  Setting @code{case-fold-search}
with @code{setq} affects only the current buffer's local value, which
is not what you probably want to do in an init file.

@vindex user-mail-address
Specify your own email address, if Emacs can't figure it out correctly.

(setq user-mail-address "")
@end example

Various Emacs packages that need your own email address use the value of

Make Text mode the default mode for new buffers.

(setq default-major-mode 'text-mode)
@end example

Note that @code{text-mode} is used because it is the command for
entering Text mode.  The single-quote before it makes the symbol a
constant; otherwise, @code{text-mode} would be treated as a variable

@need 1500
Set up defaults for the Latin-1 character set
which supports most of the languages of Western Europe.

(set-language-environment "Latin-1")
@end example

@need 1500
Turn on Auto Fill mode automatically in Text mode and related modes.

(add-hook 'text-mode-hook
  '(lambda () (auto-fill-mode 1)))
@end example

This shows how to add a hook function to a normal hook variable
(@pxref{Hooks}).  The function we supply is a list starting with
@code{lambda}, with a single-quote in front of it to make it a list
constant rather than an expression.

It's beyond the scope of this manual to explain Lisp functions, but for
this example it is enough to know that the effect is to execute
@code{(auto-fill-mode 1)} when Text mode is entered.  You can replace
that with any other expression that you like, or with several
expressions in a row.

Emacs comes with a function named @code{turn-on-auto-fill} whose
definition is @code{(lambda () (auto-fill-mode 1))}.  Thus, a simpler
way to write the above example is as follows:

(add-hook 'text-mode-hook 'turn-on-auto-fill)
@end example

Load the installed Lisp library named @file{foo} (actually a file
@file{foo.elc} or @file{foo.el} in a standard Emacs directory).

(load "foo")
@end example

When the argument to @code{load} is a relative file name, not starting
with @samp{/} or @samp{~}, @code{load} searches the directories in
@code{load-path} (@pxref{Lisp Libraries}).

Load the compiled Lisp file @file{foo.elc} from your home directory.

(load "~/foo.elc")
@end example

Here an absolute file name is used, so no searching is done.

Rebind the key @kbd{C-x l} to run the function @code{make-symbolic-link}.

(global-set-key "\C-xl" 'make-symbolic-link)
@end example


(define-key global-map "\C-xl" 'make-symbolic-link)
@end example

Note once again the single-quote used to refer to the symbol
@code{make-symbolic-link} instead of its value as a variable.

Do the same thing for Lisp mode only.

(define-key lisp-mode-map "\C-xl" 'make-symbolic-link)
@end example

Redefine all keys which now run @code{next-line} in Fundamental mode
so that they run @code{forward-line} instead.

(substitute-key-definition 'next-line 'forward-line
@end example

Make @kbd{C-x C-v} undefined.

(global-unset-key "\C-x\C-v")
@end example

One reason to undefine a key is so that you can make it a prefix.
Simply defining @kbd{C-x C-v @var{anything}} will make @kbd{C-x C-v} a
prefix, but @kbd{C-x C-v} must first be freed of its usual non-prefix

Make @samp{$} have the syntax of punctuation in Text mode.
Note the use of a character constant for @samp{$}.

(modify-syntax-entry ?\$ "." text-mode-syntax-table)
@end example

Enable the use of the command @code{narrow-to-region} without confirmation.

(put 'narrow-to-region 'disabled nil)
@end example
@end itemize

@node Terminal Init
@subsection Terminal-specific Initialization

  Each terminal type can have a Lisp library to be loaded into Emacs when
it is run on that type of terminal.  For a terminal type named
@var{termtype}, the library is called @file{term/@var{termtype}} and it is
found by searching the directories @code{load-path} as usual and trying the
suffixes @samp{.elc} and @samp{.el}.  Normally it appears in the
subdirectory @file{term} of the directory where most Emacs libraries are

  The usual purpose of the terminal-specific library is to map the
escape sequences used by the terminal's function keys onto more
meaningful names, using @code{function-key-map}.  See the file
@file{term/lk201.el} for an example of how this is done.  Many function
keys are mapped automatically according to the information in the
Termcap data base; the terminal-specific library needs to map only the
function keys that Termcap does not specify.

  When the terminal type contains a hyphen, only the part of the name
before the first hyphen is significant in choosing the library name.
Thus, terminal types @samp{aaa-48} and @samp{aaa-30-rv} both use
the library @file{term/aaa}.  The code in the library can use
@code{(getenv "TERM")} to find the full terminal type name.@refill

@vindex term-file-prefix
  The library's name is constructed by concatenating the value of the
variable @code{term-file-prefix} and the terminal type.  Your @file{.emacs}
file can prevent the loading of the terminal-specific library by setting
@code{term-file-prefix} to @code{nil}.

@vindex term-setup-hook
  Emacs runs the hook @code{term-setup-hook} at the end of
initialization, after both your @file{.emacs} file and any
terminal-specific library have been read in.  Add hook functions to this
hook if you wish to override part of any of the terminal-specific
libraries and to define initializations for terminals that do not have a
library.  @xref{Hooks}.

@node Find Init
@subsection How Emacs Finds Your Init File

  Normally Emacs uses the environment variable @code{HOME} to find
@file{.emacs}; that's what @samp{~} means in a file name.  But if you
have done @code{su}, Emacs tries to find your own @file{.emacs}, not
that of the user you are currently pretending to be.  The idea is
that you should get your own editor customizations even if you are
running as the super user.

  More precisely, Emacs first determines which user's init file to use.
It gets the user name from the environment variables @code{LOGNAME} and
@code{USER}; if neither of those exists, it uses effective user-ID.
If that user name matches the real user-ID, then Emacs uses @code{HOME};
otherwise, it looks up the home directory corresponding to that user
name in the system's data base of users.
@c  LocalWords:  backtab