GNU Emacs Installation Guide Copyright (c) 1992, 1994, 1996, 1997 Free software Foundation, Inc. Permission is granted to anyone to make or distribute verbatim copies of this document as received, in any medium, provided that the copyright notice and permission notice are preserved, and that the distributor grants the recipient permission for further redistribution as permitted by this notice. Permission is granted to distribute modified versions of this document, or of portions of it, under the above conditions, provided also that they carry prominent notices stating who last changed them, and that any new or changed statements about the activities of the Free Software Foundation are approved by the Foundation. ADDITIONAL DISTRIBUTION FILES * leim-M.N.tar.gz The Emacs Lisp code for input methods for various international character scripts is distributed in a separate tar file because it amounts to a significant fraction of the size of the distribution. This tar file is called leim-M.N.tar.gz, with the same version number as Emacs, and it unpacks into the directory emacs-M.N/leim. You should unpack leim-M.N.tar.gz into the same directory where you have previously unpacked the main Emacs distribution. It fills in the contents of one subdirectory, which is present in the main Emacs distribution only in dummy form. Once you have unpacked the Leim tar file into the Emacs source tree, building and installing Emacs automatically installs the input method support as well. If you have built Emacs without unpacking Leim first, just unpack Leim, build Emacs again, and install it again. * intlfonts-VERSION.tar.gz The intlfonts distribution contains X11 fonts that Emacs needs in order to display international characters. If you see a non-ASCII character appear as a hollow box, that means you don't have a font for it. You might find a font in the intlfonts distribution. If some characters don't look right, or appear improperly aligned, a font from the intlfonts distribution might look better. The fonts in the intlfonts distribution are also used by the ps-print package for printing international characters. The file lisp/ps-mule.el defines the .bdf font files required for printing each character set. The intlfonts distribution contains its own installation instructions, in the intlfonts/README file. BUILDING AND INSTALLATION: (This is for a Unix or Unix-like system. For MSDOS, see below; search for MSDOG. For Windows NT or Windows 95, see the file nt/INSTALL.) 1) Make sure your system has enough swapping space allocated to handle a program whose pure code is 900k bytes and whose data area is at least 400k and can reach 8Mb or more. If the swapping space is insufficient, you will get an error in the command `temacs -batch -l loadup dump', found in `./src/Makefile.in', or possibly when running the final dumped Emacs. Building Emacs requires about 70 Mb of disk space (including the Emacs sources). Once installed, Emacs occupies about 35 Mb in the file system where it is installed; this includes the executable files, Lisp libraries, miscellaneous data files, and on-line documentation. If the building and installation take place in different directories, then the installation procedure momentarily requires 70+35 Mb. 2) Consult `./etc/MACHINES' to see what configuration name you should give to the `configure' program. That file offers hints for getting around some possible installation problems. 3) You can build Emacs in the top-level Emacs source directory or in a separate directory. 3a) To build in the top-level Emacs source directory, go to that directory and run the program `configure' as follows: ./configure [CONFIGURATION-NAME] [--OPTION[=VALUE]] ... The CONFIGURATION-NAME argument should be a configuration name given in `./etc/MACHINES', with the system version number added at the end. You should try first omitting CONFIGURATION-NAME. This way, `configure' will try to guess your system type. If it cannot guess, or if something goes wrong in building or installing Emacs this way, try again specifying the proper CONFIGURATION-NAME explicitly. If you don't want X support, specify `--with-x=no'. If you omit this option, `configure' will try to figure out for itself whether your system has X, and arrange to use it if present. The `--x-includes=DIR' and `--x-libraries=DIR' options tell the build process where the compiler should look for the include files and object libraries used with the X Window System. Normally, `configure' is able to find them; these options are necessary if you have your X Window System files installed in unusual places. These options also accept a list of directories, separated with colons. To get more attractive menus, you can specify an X toolkit when you configure Emacs; use the option `--with-x-toolkit=TOOLKIT', where TOOLKIT is `athena' or `motif' (`yes' and `lucid' are synonyms for `athena'). On some systems, it does not work to use a toolkit with shared libraries. The `--with-gcc' option specifies that the build process should compile Emacs using GCC. If you don't want to use GCC, specify `--with-gcc=no'. If you omit this option, `configure' will search for GCC in your path, and use it if present. If you want the Emacs mail reader RMAIL to read mail from a POP server, you must specify `--with-pop'. This provides support for the POP3 protocol; older versions are not supported. For Kerberos-authenticated POP add `--with-kerberos', for Hesiod support add `--with-hesiod'. These options enable Emacs to use POP; whether Emacs uses POP is controlled by individual users--see the Rmail chapter of the Emacs manual. The `--prefix=PREFIXDIR' option specifies where the installation process should put emacs and its data files. This defaults to `/usr/local'. - Emacs (and the other utilities users run) go in PREFIXDIR/bin (unless the `--exec-prefix' option says otherwise). - The architecture-independent files go in PREFIXDIR/share/emacs/VERSION (where VERSION is the version number of Emacs, like `19.27'). - The architecture-dependent files go in PREFIXDIR/libexec/emacs/VERSION/CONFIGURATION (where CONFIGURATION is the configuration name, like mips-dec-ultrix4.2), unless the `--exec-prefix' option says otherwise. The `--exec-prefix=EXECDIR' option allows you to specify a separate portion of the directory tree for installing architecture-specific files, like executables and utility programs. If specified, - Emacs (and the other utilities users run) go in EXECDIR/bin, and - The architecture-dependent files go in EXECDIR/libexec/emacs/VERSION/CONFIGURATION. EXECDIR/bin should be a directory that is normally in users' PATHs. For example, the command ./configure mips-dec-ultrix --with-x11 configures Emacs to build for a DECstation running Ultrix, with support for the X11 window system. `configure' doesn't do any compilation or installation itself. It just creates the files that influence those things: `./Makefile', `lib-src/Makefile', `oldXMenu/Makefile', `lwlib/Makefile', `src/Makefile', and `./src/config.h'. For details on exactly what it does, see the section called `CONFIGURATION BY HAND', below. When it is done, `configure' prints a description of what it did and creates a shell script `config.status' which, when run, recreates the same configuration. If `configure' exits with an error after disturbing the status quo, it removes `config.status'. `configure' also creates a file `config.cache' that saves the results of its tests to make reconfiguring faster, and a file `config.log' containing compiler output (useful mainly for debugging `configure'). You can give `configure' the option `--cache-file=FILE' to use the results of the tests in FILE instead of `config.cache'. Set FILE to `/dev/null' to disable caching, for debugging `configure'. The work of `configure' can be done by editing various files in the distribution, but using `configure' is easier. See the section called "CONFIGURATION BY HAND" below if you want to do the configuration yourself. 3b) To build in a separate directory, go to that directory and run the program `configure' as follows: SOURCE-DIR/configure CONFIGURATION-NAME [--OPTION[=VALUE]] ... SOURCE-DIR refers to the top-level Emacs source directory which is where Emacs's configure script is located. `configure' looks for the Emacs source code in the directory that `configure' is in. To build in a separate directory, you must use a version of `make' that supports the `VPATH' variable, such as GNU `make'. 3c) Some people try to build in a separate directory by filling it full of symlinks to the files in the real source directory. If you do that, `make all' does work, but `make install' fails: it copies the symbolic links rather than the actual files. As far as is known, there is no particular reason to use a directory full of links rather than use the standard GNU facilities to build in a separate directory (see 3b above). 4) Look at `./lisp/paths.el'; if some of those values are not right for your system, set up the file `./lisp/site-init.el' with Emacs Lisp code to override them; it is not a good idea to edit paths.el itself. YOU MUST USE THE LISP FUNCTION `setq' TO ASSIGN VALUES, rather than `defvar', as used by `./lisp/paths.el'. For example, (setq news-inews-program "/usr/bin/inews") is how you would override the default value of the variable news-inews-program (which is "/usr/local/inews"). Before you override a variable this way, *look at the value* that the variable gets by default! Make sure you know what kind of value the variable should have. If you don't pay attention to what you are doing, you'll make a mistake. 5) Put into `./lisp/site-init.el' or `./lisp/site-load.el' any Emacs Lisp code you want Emacs to load before it is dumped out. Use site-load.el for additional libraries if you arrange for their documentation strings to be in the etc/DOC file (see src/Makefile.in if you wish to figure out how to do that). For all else, use site-init.el. Do not load byte-compiled code which was build with a non-nil value of `byte-compile-dynamic'. If you set load-path to a different value in site-init.el or site-load.el, Emacs will use *precisely* that value when it starts up again. If you do this, you are on your own! Note that, on some systems, the code you place in site-init.el must not use expand-file-name or any other function which may look something up in the system's password and user information database. See `./etc/PROBLEMS' for more details on which systems this affects. The `site-*.el' files are nonexistent in the distribution. You do not need to create them if you have nothing to put in them. 6) Refer to the file `./etc/TERMS' for information on fields you may wish to add to various termcap entries. The files `./etc/termcap.ucb' and `./etc/termcap.dat' may already contain appropriately-modified entries. 7) Run `make' in the top directory of the Emacs distribution to finish building Emacs in the standard way. The final executable file is named `src/emacs'. You can execute this file "in place" without copying it, if you wish; then it automatically uses the sibling directories ../lisp, ../lib-src, ../info. Or you can "install" the executable and the other Emacs into their installed locations, with `make install'. By default, Emacs's files are installed in the following directories: `/usr/local/bin' holds the executable programs users normally run - `emacs', `etags', `ctags', `b2m', `emacsclient', and `rcs-checkin'. `/usr/local/share/emacs/VERSION/lisp' holds the Emacs Lisp library; `VERSION' stands for the number of the Emacs version you are installing, like `18.59' or `19.27'. Since the Lisp library changes from one version of Emacs to another, including the version number in the path allows you to have several versions of Emacs installed at the same time; in particular, you don't have to make Emacs unavailable while installing a new version. `/usr/local/share/emacs/VERSION/site-lisp' holds the local Emacs Lisp files installed for Emacs version VERSION only. `/usr/local/share/emacs/site-lisp' holds the local Emacs Lisp files installed for all Emacs versions. When Emacs is installed, it searches for its Lisp files in `/usr/local/share/emacs/VERSION/site-lisp', then in `/usr/local/share/emacs/site-lisp', and finally in `/usr/local/share/emacs/VERSION/lisp'. `/usr/local/share/emacs/VERSION/etc' holds the Emacs tutorial, the DOC file, the `yow' database, and other architecture-independent files Emacs might need while running. VERSION is as specified for `.../lisp'. `/usr/local/libexec/emacs/VERSION/CONFIGURATION-NAME' contains executable programs used by Emacs that users are not expected to run themselves. `VERSION' is the number of the Emacs version you are installing, and `CONFIGURATION-NAME' is the argument you gave to the `configure' program to identify the architecture and operating system of your machine, like `mips-dec-ultrix' or `sparc-sun-sunos'. Since these files are specific to the version of Emacs, operating system, and architecture in use, including the configuration name in the path allows you to have several versions of Emacs for any mix of machines and operating systems installed at the same time; this is useful for sites at which different kinds of machines share the file system Emacs is installed on. `/usr/local/info' holds the on-line documentation for Emacs, known as "info files". Many other GNU programs are documented using info files as well, so this directory stands apart from the other, Emacs-specific directories. `/usr/local/man/man1' holds the man pages for the programs installed in `/usr/local/bin'. If these directories are not what you want, you can specify where to install Emacs's libraries and data files or where Emacs should search for its Lisp files by giving values for `make' variables as part of the command. See the section below called `MAKE VARIABLES' for more information on this. 8) Check the file `dir' in your site's info directory (usually /usr/local/info) to make sure that it has a menu entry for the Emacs info files. 9) If your system uses lock files to interlock access to mailer inbox files, then you might need to make the movemail program setuid or setgid to enable it to write the lock files. We believe this is safe. 10) You are done! You can remove executables and object files from the build directory by typing `make clean'. To also remove the files that `configure' created (so you can compile Emacs for a different configuration), type `make distclean'. MAKE VARIABLES You can change where the build process installs Emacs and its data files by specifying values for `make' variables as part of the `make' command line. For example, if you type make install bindir=/usr/local/gnubin the `bindir=/usr/local/gnubin' argument indicates that the Emacs executable files should go in `/usr/local/gnubin', not `/usr/local/bin'. Here is a complete list of the variables you may want to set. `bindir' indicates where to put executable programs that users can run. This defaults to /usr/local/bin. `datadir' indicates where to put the architecture-independent read-only data files that Emacs refers to while it runs; it defaults to /usr/local/share. We create the following subdirectories under `datadir': - `emacs/VERSION/lisp', containing the Emacs Lisp library, and - `emacs/VERSION/etc', containing the Emacs tutorial, the DOC file, and the `yow' database. `VERSION' is the number of the Emacs version you are installing, like `18.59' or `19.0'. Since these files vary from one version of Emacs to another, including the version number in the path allows you to have several versions of Emacs installed at the same time; this means that you don't have to make Emacs unavailable while installing a new version. `libexecdir' indicates where to put architecture-specific data files that Emacs refers to as it runs; it defaults to `/usr/local/libexec'. We create the following subdirectories under `libexecdir': - `emacs/VERSION/CONFIGURATION-NAME', containing executable programs used by Emacs that users are not expected to run themselves. `VERSION' is the number of the Emacs version you are installing, and `CONFIGURATION-NAME' is the argument you gave to the `configure' program to identify the architecture and operating system of your machine, like `mips-dec-ultrix' or `sparc-sun-sunos'. Since these files are specific to the version of Emacs, operating system, and architecture in use, including the configuration name in the path allows you to have several versions of Emacs for any mix of machines and operating systems installed at the same time; this is useful for sites at which different kinds of machines share the file system Emacs is installed on. `infodir' indicates where to put the info files distributed with Emacs; it defaults to `/usr/local/info'. `mandir' indicates where to put the man pages for Emacs and its utilities (like `etags'); it defaults to `/usr/local/man/man1'. `manext' gives the extension the man pages should be installed with. It should contain a period, followed by the appropriate digit. It defaults to `.1'. For example given the default values for `mandir' and `manext', the Emacs man page would be installed as `/usr/local/man/man1/emacs.1'. `prefix' doesn't give a path for any specific part of Emacs; instead, its value is used to determine the defaults for all the architecture-independent path variables - `datadir', `sharedstatedir', `infodir', and `mandir'. Its default value is `/usr/local'; the other variables add on `lib' or `man' to it by default. For example, suppose your site generally places GNU software under `/usr/users/software/gnusoft' instead of `/usr/local'. By including `prefix=/usr/users/software/gnusoft' in the arguments to `make', you can instruct the build process to place all of the Emacs data files in the appropriate directories under that path. `exec_prefix' serves the same purpose as `prefix', but instead determines the default values for the architecture-dependent path variables - `bindir' and `libexecdir'. The above variables serve analogous purposes in the makefiles for all GNU software; this variable is specific to Emacs. `archlibdir' indicates where Emacs installs and expects the executable files and other architecture-dependent data it uses while running. Its default value, based on `libexecdir' (which see), is `/usr/local/libexec/emacs/VERSION/CONFIGURATION-NAME' (where VERSION and CONFIGURATION-NAME are as described above). Remember that you must specify any variable values you need each time you run `make' in the top directory. If you run `make' once to build emacs, test it, and then run `make' again to install the files, you must provide the same variable settings each time. To make the settings persist, you can edit them into the `Makefile' in the top directory, but be aware that running the `configure' program erases `Makefile' and rebuilds it from `Makefile.in'. The path for finding Lisp files is specified in src/paths.h, a file which is generated by running configure. To change the path, you can edit the definition of PATH_LOADSEARCH in that file before you run `make'. The top-level Makefile stores the variable settings it used in the Makefiles for the subdirectories, so you don't have to specify them when running make in the subdirectories. CONFIGURATION BY HAND Instead of running the `configure' program, you have to perform the following steps. 1) Copy `./src/config.in' to `./src/config.h'. 2) Consult `./etc/MACHINES' to see what configuration name you should use for your system. Look at the code of the `configure' script to see which operating system and architecture description files from `src/s' and `src/m' should be used for that configuration name. Edit `src/config.h', and change the two `#include' directives to include the appropriate system and architecture description files. 2) Edit `./src/config.h' to set the right options for your system. If you need to override any of the definitions in the s/*.h and m/*.h files for your system and machine, do so by editing config.h, not by changing the s/*.h and m/*.h files. Occasionally you may need to redefine parameters used in `./lib-src/movemail.c'. 3) Create src/Makefile and lib-src/Makefile from the corresponding `Makefile.in' files. First copy `Makefile.in' to `Makefile.c', then edit in appropriate substitutions for the @...@ constructs, and then copy the shell commands near the end of `configure' that run cpp to construct `Makefile'. 4) Create `Makefile' files in various other directories from the corresponding `Makefile.in' files. This isn't so hard, just a matter of substitution. The `configure' script is built from `configure.in' by the `autoconf' program. You need version 2.0 or newer of `autoconf' to rebuild `configure'. BUILDING GNU EMACS BY HAND Once Emacs is configured, running `make' in the top directory performs the following steps. 1) Run `make src/paths.h' in the top directory. This produces `./src/paths.h' from the template file `./src/paths.in', changing the paths to the values specified in `./Makefile'. 2) Go to directory `./lib-src' and run `make'. This creates executables named `ctags' and `etags' and `wakeup' and `make-docfile' and `digest-doc' and `test-distrib'. And others. 3) Go to directory `./src' and Run `make'. This refers to files in the `./lisp' and `./lib-src' subdirectories using names `../lisp' and `../lib-src'. This creates a file `./src/emacs' which is the runnable Emacs, which has another name that contains a version number. Each time you do this, that version number increments in the last place. It also creates a file in `./etc' whose name is `DOC' followed by the current Emacs version. This file contains documentation strings for all the functions in Emacs. Each time you run make to make a new emacs, a new DOC file with a new name is made. You must keep the DOC file for an Emacs version as long as you keep using that Emacs version. INSTALLATION BY HAND The steps below are done by running `make install' in the main directory of the Emacs distribution. 1) Copy `./lisp' and its subdirectories, `./etc', and the executables in `./lib-src' to their final destinations, as selected in `./src/paths.h'. Strictly speaking, not all of the executables in `./lib-src' need be copied. - The programs `cvtmail', `emacsserver', `fakemail', `hexl', `movemail', `profile', `rcs2log', `timer', `vcdiff', `wakeup', and `yow' are used by Emacs; they do need to be copied. - The programs `etags', `ctags', `emacsclient', `b2m', and `rcs-checkin' are intended to be run by users; they are handled below. - The programs `make-docfile' and `test-distrib' were used in building Emacs, and are not needed any more. - The programs `digest-doc' and `sorted-doc' convert a `DOC' file into a file for users to read. There is no important reason to move them. 2) Copy the files in `./info' to the place specified in `./lisp/site-init.el' or `./lisp/paths.el'. Note that if the destination directory already contains a file named `dir', you probably don't want to replace it with the `dir' file in the Emacs distribution. Instead, you should make sure that the existing `dir' file contains an appropriate menu entry for the Emacs info. 3) Copy `./src/emacs' to `/usr/local/bin', or to some other directory in users' search paths. `./src/emacs' has an alternate name `./src/emacs-EMACSVERSION'; you may wish to make a symbolic link named `/usr/local/bin/emacs' pointing to that alternate name, as an easy way of installing different versions. You can delete `./src/temacs'. 4) Copy the programs `b2m', `emacsclient', `ctags', `etags', and `rcs-checkin' from `./lib-src' to `/usr/local/bin'. These programs are intended for users to run. 5) Copy the man pages in `./etc' for emacs, ctags, and etags into the appropriate man directories. 6) The files in the `./src' subdirectory, except for `emacs', are not used by Emacs once it is built. However, it is very desirable to keep the source on line for debugging. PROBLEMS See the file PROBLEMS in etc subdirectory for a list of various problems sometimes encountered, and what to do about them. Installation on MSDOG (a.k.a. MSDOS) To install on MSDOG, you need to have the GNU C compiler for MSDOG (also known as djgpp), GNU Make, rm, mv, and sed. See the remarks in config.bat for more information about locations and versions. The file etc/FAQ includes pointers to Internet sites where you can find the necessary utilities; search for "MS-DOS". The configuration step (see below) will test for these utilities and will refuse to continue if any of them isn't found. If you are building the MSDOG version of Emacs on an MSDOG-like system which supports long file names (e.g. Windows 95), you need to make sure that long file names are handled consistently both when you unpack the distribution and compile it. If you intend to compile with DJGPP v2.0 or later, and long file names support is enabled (LFN=y in the environment), you need to unpack Emacs distribution in a way that doesn't truncate the original long filenames to the DOS 8.3 namespace; the easiest way to do this is to use djtar program which comes with DJGPP, since it will note the LFN setting and behave accordingly. DJGPP v1 doesn't support long filenames, so you must unpack Emacs with a program that truncates the filenames to 8.3 naming as it extracts files; again, using djtar after setting LFN=n is the recommended way. You can build Emacs with LFN=n even if you use DJGPP v2, if some of your tools don't support long file names: just ensure that LFN is set to `n' during both unpacking and compiling. (By the time you read this, you have already unpacked the Emacs distribution, but if the explanations above imply that you should have done it differently, it's safer to delete the directory tree created by the unpacking program and unpack Emacs again, than to risk running into problems during the build process.) It is important to understand that the runtime support of long file names by the Emacs binary is NOT affected by the LFN setting during compilation; Emacs compiled with DJGPP v2.0 or later will always support long file names on Windows 95 no matter what was the setting of LFN at compile time. However, if you compiled with LFN disabled and want to enable LFN support after Emacs was already built, you need to make sure that the support files in the lisp, etc and info directories are called by their original long names as found in the distribution. You can do this either by renaming the files manually, or by extracting them from the original distribution archive with djtar after you set LFN=y in the environment. To unpack Emacs with djtar, type this command: djtar -x emacs.tgz (This assumes that the Emacs distribution is called `emacs.tgz' on your system.) If you need to type international characters, you will need to unpack the Leim distribution (see the description near the beginning of this file). You unpack it from the same directory where you unpacked Emacs. To unpack Leim with djtar, assuming the Leim distribution is called `leim.tgz', type this command: djtar -x leim.tgz If you want to print international characters, install the intlfonts distribution. For this, create a directory called `fonts' under the Emacs top-level directory (usually called `emacs-XX.YY') created by unpacking emacs.tgz, chdir into the directory emacs-XX.YY/fonts, and type this: djtar -x intlfonts.tgz When unpacking is done, a directory called `emacs-XX.YY' will be created, where XX.YY is the Emacs version. To build and install Emacs, chdir to that directory and type these commands: config msdos make install To install the international fonts, chdir to the intlfonts-X.Y directory created when you unpacked the intlfonts distribution (X.Y is the version number of the fonts' distribution), and type the following command: make bdf INSTALLDIR=.. After Make finishes, you may remove the directory intlfonts-X.Y; the fonts are installed into the fonts/bdf subdirectory of the top-level Emacs directory, and that is where Emacs will look for them by default. Building Emacs creates executable files in the src and lib-src directories. Installing Emacs on MSDOS moves these executables to a sibling directory called bin. For example, if you build in directory /emacs, installing moves the executables from /emacs/src and /emacs/lib-src to the directory /emacs/bin, so you can then delete the subdirectories /emacs/src and /emacs/lib-src if you wish. The only subdirectories you need to keep are bin, lisp, etc and info. (If you installed Leim, keep the leim subdirectory, and if you installed intlfonts, keep the fonts directory and all its sibdirectories as well.) The bin subdirectory should be added to your PATH. The msdos subdirectory includes a PIF and an icon file for Emacs which you might find useful if you run Emacs under MS Windows. Emacs on MSDOS finds the lisp, etc and info directories by looking in ../lisp, ../etc and ../info, starting from the directory where the Emacs executable was run from. You can override this by setting the environment variables EMACSDATA (for the location of `etc' directory), EMACSLOADPATH (for the location of `lisp' directory) and INFOPATH (for the location of the `info' directory). MSDOG is a not a multitasking operating system, so Emacs features such as asynchronous subprocesses that depend on multitasking will not work. Synchronous subprocesses do work. Version 2.0 of djgpp has two bugs that affect Emacs. We've included corrected versions of two files from djgpp in the msdos subdirectory: is_exec.c and sigaction.c. To work around the bugs, compile these files and link them into temacs. Djgpp version 2.01 have these bugs fixed, so upgrade if you can before building Emacs.