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Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors .\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software .\" without specific prior written permission. .\" .\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND .\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE .\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE .\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE .\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL .\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS .\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) .\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT .\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY .\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF .\" SUCH DAMAGE. .\" .\" @(#)tunefs.8 8.3 (Berkeley) 5/3/95 .\" .Dd May 3, 1995 .Dt TUNEFS 8 .Os BSD 4.2 .Sh NAME .Nm tunefs .Nd tune up an existing file system .Sh SYNOPSIS .Nm tunefs .Op Fl AN .Op Fl a Ar maxcontig .Op Fl d Ar rotdelay .Op Fl e Ar maxbpg .Op Fl m Ar minfree .Bk -words .Op Fl o Ar optimize_preference .Ek .Op Fl t Ar trackskew .Op Ar special | Ar filesys .Sh DESCRIPTION The .Nm tunefs utility is designed to change the dynamic parameters of a file system which affect the layout policies. The .Nm utility cannot be run on an active file system. To change an active file system, it must be downgraded to read-only or unmounted. .Pp The .Fl N flag displays all the settable options (after any changes from the tuning options) but does not cause any of them to be changed. .Pp The .Fl A flag causes the values to be updated in all the alternate superblocks instead of just the standard superblock. If this option is not used, then use of a backup superblock by .Xr fsck 8 will lose anything changed by .Nm tunefs . The .Fl A flag is ignored when the .Fl N flag is specified. .Pp The parameters which are to be changed are indicated by the flags given below: .Bl -tag -width Ds .It Fl a Ar maxcontig This specifies the maximum number of contiguous blocks that will be laid out before forcing a rotational delay (see .Fl d below). The default value is one, since most device drivers require an interrupt per disk transfer. Device drivers that can chain several buffers together in a single transfer should set this to the maximum chain length. .It Fl d Ar rotdelay This specifies the expected time (in milliseconds) to service a transfer completion interrupt and initiate a new transfer on the same disk. It is used to decide how much rotational spacing to place between successive blocks in a file. .It Fl e Ar maxbpg This indicates the maximum number of blocks any single file can allocate out of a cylinder group before it is forced to begin allocating blocks from another cylinder group. Typically this value is set to about one quarter of the total blocks in a cylinder group. The intent is to prevent any single file from using up all the blocks in a single cylinder group, thus degrading access times for all files subsequently allocated in that cylinder group. The effect of this limit is to cause big files to do long seeks more frequently than if they were allowed to allocate all the blocks in a cylinder group before seeking elsewhere. For file systems with exclusively large files, this parameter should be set higher. .It Fl f Ar avgfilesize Specify the expected average file size. .It Fl m Ar minfree Specify the percentage of space held back from normal users; the minimum free space threshold. The default value used is 10%. This value can be set to zero, however up to a factor of three in throughput will be lost over the performance obtained at a 10% threshold. If the value is raised above the current usage level, users will be unable to allocate files until enough files have been deleted to get under the higher threshold. .It Fl o Cm space | time The file system can either try to minimize the time spent allocating blocks, or it can attempt to minimize the space fragmentation on the disk. Optimization for space has much higher overhead for file writes. If the value of minfree (see above) is less than 10%, then the file system should optimize for space to avoid running out of full sized blocks. For values of minfree greater than or equal to 10%, fragmentation is unlikely to be problematical, and the file system can be optimized for time. .It Fl s Ar avgfpdir Specify the expected number of files per directory. .It Fl t Ar trackskew This specifies the skew in sectors from one track to the next in a cylinder. The default value is zero, indicating that each track in a cylinder begins at the same rotational position. .El .Pp At least one of the above flags is required. .Sh SEE ALSO .Xr fs 5 , .Xr dumpfs 8 , .Xr fsck 8 , .Xr newfs 8 .Rs .%A M. McKusick .%A W. Joy .%A S. Leffler .%A R. Fabry .%T "A Fast File System for UNIX" .%J "ACM Transactions on Computer Systems 2" .%N 3 .%P pp 181-197 .%D August 1984 .%O "(reprinted in the BSD System Manager's Manual, SMM:5)" .Re .Sh BUGS This program should work on mounted and active file systems. .Pp You can tune a file system, but you can't tune a fish. .Sh HISTORY The .Nm command appeared in .Bx 4.2 .