as.1   [plain text]

.TH AS 1 "April 24, 2007" "Apple, Inc."
as \- Mac OS X Mach-O GNU-based assemblers
.B as
.I "option \&..."
] [ 
.I "file \&..."
.I as
command translates assembly code in the named files to object code.  If no files are specified, 
.I as
reads from 
.BR stdin .
All undefined symbols in the assembly are treated as
global.  The output of the assembly is left in the file
.B a.out
by default.
The program 
.B /usr/bin/as 
is actually a driver that executes assemblers for specific target
architectures.  If no target architecture is specified, it defaults to the 
architecture of the host it is running on.
.BI  \-o " name"
Name the output file
.I name
instead of
.BR a.out .
.BI \-arch " arch_type"
Specifies the target architecture,
.IR arch_type ,
of the assembler to be executed.  The target assemblers for each
architecture are in
.BI /usr/libexec/gcc/darwin/ arch_type /as
.BI /usr/local/libexec/gcc/darwin/ arch_type /as .
There is only one assembler for an architecture family.  If the
specified target architecture is a machine-specific implementation,
the assembler for that architecture family is executed (e.g., 
.B /usr/libexec/gcc/darwin/ppc/as 
.BR "\-arch ppc604e" ).
.IR arch (3)
for the currently known
.IR arch_type s.
.B \-arch_multiple
Precede any displayed messages with a line stating
the program name (\fBas\fR)
and the architecture (from the
.BI \-arch " arch_type"
flag), to distinguish which architecture the error messages refer to.
When the
.IR cc (1)
driver program 
is run with multiple
.B \-arch 
flags, it invokes
.I as
with the 
.B \-arch_multiple
.BI \-force_cpusubtype_ALL
By default, the assembler will produce the CPU subtype ALL for the object file
it is assembling if it finds no implementation-specific instructions.  Also
by default, the assembler will allow implementation-specific instructions and
will combine the CPU subtype for those specific implementations.  The combining
of specific implementations is architecture-dependent; if some combination of
instructions is not allowed, an error is generated.  With the optional
.B \-force_cpusubtype_ALL
flag, all instructions are allowed and the object file's CPU subtype will be
the ALL subtype.
If the target architecture specified is a machine-specific implementation
.BR "\-arch ppc603" ,
.BR "\-arch i486" ), 
the assembler will flag as errors
instructions that are not supported on that architecture, and it will produce an object
file with the CPU subtype for that specific implementation (even if no 
implementation-specific instructions are used).
.B \-force_cpusubtype_ALL
flag is the default for all x86 and x86_64 architectures.
.B \-dynamic
Enables dynamic linking features.
This is the default.
.B \-static
Causes the assembler to treat as an error any features for dynamic 
linking.  Also causes the .text directive to not include the pure_instructions
section attribute.
.B \-\|\-
.B stdin 
for the assembly source input.
.B \-n
Instructs the assembler not to assume that the assembly file starts 
with a 
.B \.text 
directive.  Use this option
when an output file is not to contain a (_\|_TEXT,_\|_text) section or this
section is not to be first one in the output file.
.B \-f
Fast; no need for the assembler preprocessor (``app'').  The assembler
preprocessor can also be turned off by starting the assembly file with
"#NO_APP\\n".  This is intended for use by compilers which produce assembly
code in a strict "clean" format that specifies exactly where whitespace
can go.  The assembler preprocessor needs to be run on hand-written assembly 
files and/or files that have been preprocessed by the C preprocessor 
.B cpp.
This is typically needed when assembler files are assembled through the use of
.IR cc (1)
command, which automatically runs the C preprocessor on assembly
source files.  The assembler preprocessor strips out excess
spaces, turns single-quoted characters into a decimal constants, and turns
# <number> <filename> <level> 
into .line <number>;.file <filename>  pairs.
When the assembler preprocessor has been turned off by a "#NO_APP\\n" at the
start of a file, it can be turned back on and off again with pairs of "#APP\\n" and
"#NO_APP\\n" at the beginnings of lines.  This is used by the compiler to wrap
assembly statements produced from 
.B asm() 
.B \-g
Produce debugging information for the symbolic debugger
.IR gdb (1)
so that the assembly source can be debugged symbolically.  The debugger depends on correct use of the C preprocessor's #include directive 
or the assembler's .include directive:  Any include file
that produces instructions in the (_\|_TEXT,_\|_text) section must be included 
while a .text directive is in 
effect.  In other words, there must be a .text directive before the include,
and the .text directive must still be in effect at the end of the include file.
Otherwise, the debugger will get confused when in that assembly file.
.B \-v
Display the version of the assembler (both the Mac OS X version and the GNU version
it is based on).
.B \-V
Print the path and the command line of the assembler the assembler driver is
.BI \-I dir
Add the directory
.I dir
to the list of directories to search for files included with the .include
directive.  The default place to search is the current directory.
.B \-W 
Suppress warnings.
.B \-L
Save non-global defined labels beginning with an 'L'; these labels are normally
discarded to save space in the resultant symbol table.  The compiler generates
such temporary labels.
.SH "Assembler options for the PowerPC processors"
.B \-static_branch_prediction_Y_bit
Treat a single trailing '+' or '-' after a conditional PowerPC branch
instruction as a static branch prediction that sets the Y-bit in the
opcode.  Pairs of trailing "++" or "--" always set the AT-bits. This is
the default for Mac OS X.
.B \-static_branch_prediction_AT_bits
Treat a single trailing '+' or '-' after a conditional PowerPC branch
instruction as a static branch prediction that sets the AT-bits in the
opcode. Pairs of trailing "++" or "--" always set the AT-bits but with
this option a warning is issued if this syntax is used.  With this flag
the assembler behaves like the IBM tools.
.B \-no_ppc601
Treat any PowerPC 601 instructions as an error.
a.out	output file
The Mac OS X Assembler Reference in the Xcode documentation viewer: Perform a title search for "assembler" in Apple > Developer Tools Reference Library.
The assembler source in the cctools module of the Darwin sources.
cc(1), ld(1), nm(1), otool(1), arch(3), Mach-O(5)