.\" $OpenBSD: ar.5,v 1.2 1996/06/26 05:31:17 deraadt Exp $ .\" $NetBSD: ar.5,v 1.2 1995/03/25 06:39:38 glass Exp $ .\" .\" Copyright (c) 1990, 1991, 1993 .\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. .\" .\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without .\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions .\" are met: .\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. .\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the .\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. .\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software .\" must display the following acknowledgement: .\" This product includes software developed by the University of .\" California, Berkeley and its contributors. .\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors .\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software .\" without specific prior written permission. .\" .\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND .\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE .\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE .\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE .\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL .\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS .\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) .\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT .\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY .\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF .\" SUCH DAMAGE. .\" .\" @(#)ar.5.5 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/9/93 .\" .Dd June 9, 1993 .Dt AR 5 .Os .Sh NAME .Nm ar .Nd archive (library) file format .Sh SYNOPSIS .Fd #include <ar.h> .Sh DESCRIPTION The archive command .Nm ar combines several files into one. Archives are mainly used as libraries of object files intended to be loaded using the link-editor .Xr ld 1 . .Pp A file created with .Nm ar begins with the ``magic'' string "!<arch>\en". The rest of the archive is made up of objects, each of which is composed of a header for a file, a possible file name, and the file contents. The header is portable between machine architectures, and, if the file contents are printable, the archive is itself printable. .Pp The header is made up of six variable length .Tn ASCII fields, followed by a two character trailer. The fields are the object name (16 characters), the file last modification time (12 characters), the user and group id's (each 6 characters), the file mode (8 characters) and the file size (10 characters). All numeric fields are in decimal, except for the file mode which is in octal. .Pp The modification time is the file .Fa st_mtime field, i.e., .Dv CUT seconds since the epoch. The user and group id's are the file .Fa st_uid and .Fa st_gid fields. The file mode is the file .Fa st_mode field. The file size is the file .Fa st_size field. The two-byte trailer is the string "\`\en". .Pp Only the name field has any provision for overflow. If any file name is more than 16 characters in length or contains an embedded space, the string "#1/" followed by the .Tn ASCII length of the name is written in the name field. The file size (stored in the archive header) is incremented by the length of the name. The name is then written immediately following the archive header. .Pp Any unused characters in any of these fields are written as space characters. If any fields are their particular maximum number of characters in length, there will be no separation between the fields. .Pp Objects in the archive are always an even number of bytes long; files which are an odd number of bytes long are padded with a newline (``\en'') character, although the size in the header does not reflect this. .Sh SEE ALSO .Xr ar 1 , .Xr stat 2 .Sh HISTORY There have been at least four .Nm ar formats. The first was denoted by the leading ``magic'' number 0177555 (stored as type int). These archives were almost certainly created on a 16-bit machine, and contain headers made up of five fields. The fields are the object name (8 characters), the file last modification time (type long), the user id (type char), the file mode (type char) and the file size (type unsigned int). Files were padded to an even number of bytes. .Pp The second was denoted by the leading ``magic'' number 0177545 (stored as type int). These archives may have been created on either 16 or 32-bit machines, and contain headers made up of six fields. The fields are the object name (14 characters), the file last modification time (type long), the user and group id's (each type char), the file mode (type int) and the file size (type long). Files were padded to an even number of bytes. For more information on converting from this format see .Xr arcv 8 . .Pp The current archive format (without support for long character names and names with embedded spaces) was introduced in .Bx 4.0 . The headers were the same as the current format, with the exception that names longer than 16 characters were truncated, and names with embedded spaces (and often trailing spaces) were not supported. It has been extended for these reasons, as described above. This format first appeared in 4.4BSD. .Sh COMPATIBILITY No archive format is currently specified by any standard. .At V has historically distributed archives in a different format from all of the above.