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<H1> 3. Programming with <CODE>libbzip2</CODE> </H1>
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<P>

This chapter describes the programming interface to <CODE>libbzip2</CODE>.
</P><P>

For general background information, particularly about memory
use and performance aspects, you'd be well advised to read Chapter 2
as well.
</P><P>

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<H2> 3.1 Top-level structure </H2>
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<P>

<CODE>libbzip2</CODE> is a flexible library for compressing and decompressing
data in the <CODE>bzip2</CODE> data format.  Although packaged as a single
entity, it helps to regard the library as three separate parts: the low
level interface, and the high level interface, and some utility
functions.
</P><P>

The structure of <CODE>libbzip2</CODE>'s interfaces is similar to
that of Jean-loup Gailly's and Mark Adler's excellent <CODE>zlib</CODE> 
library.
</P><P>

All externally visible symbols have names beginning <CODE>BZ2_</CODE>.
This is new in version 1.0.  The intention is to minimise pollution
of the namespaces of library clients.
</P><P>

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<H3> 3.1.1 Low-level summary </H3>
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<P>

This interface provides services for compressing and decompressing
data in memory.  There's no provision for dealing with files, streams
or any other I/O mechanisms, just straight memory-to-memory work.
In fact, this part of the library can be compiled without inclusion
of <CODE>stdio.h</CODE>, which may be helpful for embedded applications.
</P><P>

The low-level part of the library has no global variables and
is therefore thread-safe.
</P><P>

Six routines make up the low level interface: 
<CODE>BZ2_bzCompressInit</CODE>, <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE>, and <BR> <CODE>BZ2_bzCompressEnd</CODE>
for compression,
and a corresponding trio <CODE>BZ2_bzDecompressInit</CODE>, <BR> <CODE>BZ2_bzDecompress</CODE>
and <CODE>BZ2_bzDecompressEnd</CODE> for decompression.  
The <CODE>*Init</CODE> functions allocate
memory for compression/decompression and do other
initialisations, whilst the <CODE>*End</CODE> functions close down operations
and release memory.
</P><P>

The real work is done by <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE> and <CODE>BZ2_bzDecompress</CODE>.  
These compress and decompress data from a user-supplied input buffer
to a user-supplied output buffer.  These buffers can be any size;
arbitrary quantities of data are handled by making repeated calls
to these functions.  This is a flexible mechanism allowing a 
consumer-pull style of activity, or producer-push, or a mixture of
both.
</P><P>

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<H3> 3.1.2 High-level summary </H3>
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<P>

This interface provides some handy wrappers around the low-level
interface to facilitate reading and writing <CODE>bzip2</CODE> format
files (<CODE>.bz2</CODE> files).  The routines provide hooks to facilitate
reading files in which the <CODE>bzip2</CODE> data stream is embedded 
within some larger-scale file structure, or where there are
multiple <CODE>bzip2</CODE> data streams concatenated end-to-end.
</P><P>

For reading files, <CODE>BZ2_bzReadOpen</CODE>, <CODE>BZ2_bzRead</CODE>,
<CODE>BZ2_bzReadClose</CODE> and <BR> <CODE>BZ2_bzReadGetUnused</CODE> are supplied.  For
writing files, <CODE>BZ2_bzWriteOpen</CODE>, <CODE>BZ2_bzWrite</CODE> and
<CODE>BZ2_bzWriteFinish</CODE> are available.
</P><P>

As with the low-level library, no global variables are used
so the library is per se thread-safe.  However, if I/O errors
occur whilst reading or writing the underlying compressed files,
you may have to consult <CODE>errno</CODE> to determine the cause of
the error.  In that case, you'd need a C library which correctly
supports <CODE>errno</CODE> in a multithreaded environment.
</P><P>

To make the library a little simpler and more portable,
<CODE>BZ2_bzReadOpen</CODE> and <CODE>BZ2_bzWriteOpen</CODE> require you to pass them file
handles (<CODE>FILE*</CODE>s) which have previously been opened for reading or
writing respectively.  That avoids portability problems associated with
file operations and file attributes, whilst not being much of an
imposition on the programmer.
</P><P>

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<H3> 3.1.3 Utility functions summary </H3>
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For very simple needs, <CODE>BZ2_bzBuffToBuffCompress</CODE> and
<CODE>BZ2_bzBuffToBuffDecompress</CODE> are provided.  These compress
data in memory from one buffer to another buffer in a single
function call.  You should assess whether these functions
fulfill your memory-to-memory compression/decompression
requirements before investing effort in understanding the more
general but more complex low-level interface.
<P>

Yoshioka Tsuneo (<CODE>QWF00133@niftyserve.or.jp</CODE> /
<CODE>tsuneo-y@is.aist-nara.ac.jp</CODE>) has contributed some functions to
give better <CODE>zlib</CODE> compatibility.  These functions are
<CODE>BZ2_bzopen</CODE>, <CODE>BZ2_bzread</CODE>, <CODE>BZ2_bzwrite</CODE>, <CODE>BZ2_bzflush</CODE>,
<CODE>BZ2_bzclose</CODE>,
<CODE>BZ2_bzerror</CODE> and <CODE>BZ2_bzlibVersion</CODE>.  You may find these functions
more convenient for simple file reading and writing, than those in the
high-level interface.  These functions are not (yet) officially part of
the library, and are minimally documented here.  If they break, you
get to keep all the pieces.  I hope to document them properly when time
permits.
</P><P>

Yoshioka also contributed modifications to allow the library to be
built as a Windows DLL.
</P><P>

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<H2> 3.2 Error handling </H2>
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<P>

The library is designed to recover cleanly in all situations, including
the worst-case situation of decompressing random data.  I'm not 
100% sure that it can always do this, so you might want to add
a signal handler to catch segmentation violations during decompression
if you are feeling especially paranoid.  I would be interested in
hearing more about the robustness of the library to corrupted
compressed data.
</P><P>

Version 1.0 is much more robust in this respect than
0.9.0 or 0.9.5.  Investigations with Checker (a tool for 
detecting problems with memory management, similar to Purify)
indicate that, at least for the few files I tested, all single-bit
errors in the decompressed data are caught properly, with no
segmentation faults, no reads of uninitialised data and no 
out of range reads or writes.  So it's certainly much improved,
although I wouldn't claim it to be totally bombproof.
</P><P>

The file <CODE>bzlib.h</CODE> contains all definitions needed to use
the library.  In particular, you should definitely not include
<CODE>bzlib_private.h</CODE>.
</P><P>

In <CODE>bzlib.h</CODE>, the various return values are defined.  The following
list is not intended as an exhaustive description of the circumstances 
in which a given value may be returned -- those descriptions are given
later.  Rather, it is intended to convey the rough meaning of each
return value.  The first five actions are normal and not intended to 
denote an error situation.
<DL COMPACT>
<DT><CODE>BZ_OK</CODE>
<DD>The requested action was completed successfully.
<DT><CODE>BZ_RUN_OK</CODE>
<DD><DT><CODE>BZ_FLUSH_OK</CODE>
<DD><DT><CODE>BZ_FINISH_OK</CODE>
<DD>In <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE>, the requested flush/finish/nothing-special action
was completed successfully.
<DT><CODE>BZ_STREAM_END</CODE>
<DD>Compression of data was completed, or the logical stream end was
detected during decompression.
</DL>
<P>

The following return values indicate an error of some kind.
<DL COMPACT>
<DT><CODE>BZ_CONFIG_ERROR</CODE>
<DD>Indicates that the library has been improperly compiled on your
platform -- a major configuration error.  Specifically, it means
that <CODE>sizeof(char)</CODE>, <CODE>sizeof(short)</CODE> and <CODE>sizeof(int)</CODE>
are not 1, 2 and 4 respectively, as they should be.  Note that the 
library should still work properly on 64-bit platforms which follow
the LP64 programming model -- that is, where <CODE>sizeof(long)</CODE>
and <CODE>sizeof(void*)</CODE> are 8.  Under LP64, <CODE>sizeof(int)</CODE> is
still 4, so <CODE>libbzip2</CODE>, which doesn't use the <CODE>long</CODE> type,
is OK.
<DT><CODE>BZ_SEQUENCE_ERROR</CODE>
<DD>When using the library, it is important to call the functions in the
correct sequence and with data structures (buffers etc) in the correct
states.  <CODE>libbzip2</CODE> checks as much as it can to ensure this is
happening, and returns <CODE>BZ_SEQUENCE_ERROR</CODE> if not.  Code which
complies precisely with the function semantics, as detailed below,
should never receive this value; such an event denotes buggy code
which you should investigate.
<DT><CODE>BZ_PARAM_ERROR</CODE>
<DD>Returned when a parameter to a function call is out of range 
or otherwise manifestly incorrect.  As with <CODE>BZ_SEQUENCE_ERROR</CODE>,
this denotes a bug in the client code.  The distinction between
<CODE>BZ_PARAM_ERROR</CODE> and <CODE>BZ_SEQUENCE_ERROR</CODE> is a bit hazy, but still worth
making.
<DT><CODE>BZ_MEM_ERROR</CODE>
<DD>Returned when a request to allocate memory failed.  Note that the
quantity of memory needed to decompress a stream cannot be determined
until the stream's header has been read.  So <CODE>BZ2_bzDecompress</CODE> and
<CODE>BZ2_bzRead</CODE> may return <CODE>BZ_MEM_ERROR</CODE> even though some of
the compressed data has been read.  The same is not true for
compression; once <CODE>BZ2_bzCompressInit</CODE> or <CODE>BZ2_bzWriteOpen</CODE> have
successfully completed, <CODE>BZ_MEM_ERROR</CODE> cannot occur.
<DT><CODE>BZ_DATA_ERROR</CODE>
<DD>Returned when a data integrity error is detected during decompression.
Most importantly, this means when stored and computed CRCs for the
data do not match.  This value is also returned upon detection of any
other anomaly in the compressed data.
<DT><CODE>BZ_DATA_ERROR_MAGIC</CODE>
<DD>As a special case of <CODE>BZ_DATA_ERROR</CODE>, it is sometimes useful to
know when the compressed stream does not start with the correct
magic bytes (<CODE>'B' 'Z' 'h'</CODE>).  
<DT><CODE>BZ_IO_ERROR</CODE>
<DD>Returned by <CODE>BZ2_bzRead</CODE> and <CODE>BZ2_bzWrite</CODE> when there is an error
reading or writing in the compressed file, and by <CODE>BZ2_bzReadOpen</CODE>
and <CODE>BZ2_bzWriteOpen</CODE> for attempts to use a file for which the
error indicator (viz, <CODE>ferror(f)</CODE>) is set.
On receipt of <CODE>BZ_IO_ERROR</CODE>, the caller should consult
<CODE>errno</CODE> and/or <CODE>perror</CODE> to acquire operating-system
specific information about the problem.
<DT><CODE>BZ_UNEXPECTED_EOF</CODE>
<DD>Returned by <CODE>BZ2_bzRead</CODE> when the compressed file finishes
before the logical end of stream is detected.
<DT><CODE>BZ_OUTBUFF_FULL</CODE>
<DD>Returned by <CODE>BZ2_bzBuffToBuffCompress</CODE> and
<CODE>BZ2_bzBuffToBuffDecompress</CODE> to indicate that the output data
will not fit into the output buffer provided.
</DL>
<P>

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<H2> 3.3 Low-level interface </H2>
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<H3> 3.3.1 <CODE>BZ2_bzCompressInit</CODE> </H3>
<!--docid::SEC19::-->
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>typedef 
   struct {
      char *next_in;
      unsigned int avail_in;
      unsigned int total_in_lo32;
      unsigned int total_in_hi32;

      char *next_out;
      unsigned int avail_out;
      unsigned int total_out_lo32;
      unsigned int total_out_hi32;

      void *state;

      void *(*bzalloc)(void *,int,int);
      void (*bzfree)(void *,void *);
      void *opaque;
   } 
   bz_stream;

int BZ2_bzCompressInit ( bz_stream *strm, 
                         int blockSize100k, 
                         int verbosity,
                         int workFactor );

</pre></td></tr></table><P>

Prepares for compression.  The <CODE>bz_stream</CODE> structure
holds all data pertaining to the compression activity.  
A <CODE>bz_stream</CODE> structure should be allocated and initialised
prior to the call.
The fields of <CODE>bz_stream</CODE>
comprise the entirety of the user-visible data.  <CODE>state</CODE>
is a pointer to the private data structures required for compression.
</P><P>

Custom memory allocators are supported, via fields <CODE>bzalloc</CODE>, 
<CODE>bzfree</CODE>,
and <CODE>opaque</CODE>.  The value 
<CODE>opaque</CODE> is passed to as the first argument to
all calls to <CODE>bzalloc</CODE> and <CODE>bzfree</CODE>, but is 
otherwise ignored by the library.
The call <CODE>bzalloc ( opaque, n, m )</CODE> is expected to return a 
pointer <CODE>p</CODE> to
<CODE>n * m</CODE> bytes of memory, and <CODE>bzfree ( opaque, p )</CODE> 
should free
that memory.
</P><P>

If you don't want to use a custom memory allocator, set <CODE>bzalloc</CODE>, 
<CODE>bzfree</CODE> and
<CODE>opaque</CODE> to <CODE>NULL</CODE>, 
and the library will then use the standard <CODE>malloc</CODE>/<CODE>free</CODE>
routines.
</P><P>

Before calling <CODE>BZ2_bzCompressInit</CODE>, fields <CODE>bzalloc</CODE>, 
<CODE>bzfree</CODE> and <CODE>opaque</CODE> should
be filled appropriately, as just described.  Upon return, the internal
state will have been allocated and initialised, and <CODE>total_in_lo32</CODE>, 
<CODE>total_in_hi32</CODE>, <CODE>total_out_lo32</CODE> and 
<CODE>total_out_hi32</CODE> will have been set to zero.  
These four fields are used by the library
to inform the caller of the total amount of data passed into and out of
the library, respectively.  You should not try to change them.
As of version 1.0, 64-bit counts are maintained, even on 32-bit
platforms, using the <CODE>_hi32</CODE> fields to store the upper 32 bits
of the count.  So, for example, the total amount of data in
is <CODE>(total_in_hi32 &#60;&#60; 32) + total_in_lo32</CODE>.
</P><P>

Parameter <CODE>blockSize100k</CODE> specifies the block size to be used for
compression.  It should be a value between 1 and 9 inclusive, and the
actual block size used is 100000 x this figure.  9 gives the best
compression but takes most memory.
</P><P>

Parameter <CODE>verbosity</CODE> should be set to a number between 0 and 4
inclusive.  0 is silent, and greater numbers give increasingly verbose
monitoring/debugging output.  If the library has been compiled with
<CODE>-DBZ_NO_STDIO</CODE>, no such output will appear for any verbosity
setting.
</P><P>

Parameter <CODE>workFactor</CODE> controls how the compression phase behaves
when presented with worst case, highly repetitive, input data.  If
compression runs into difficulties caused by repetitive data, the
library switches from the standard sorting algorithm to a fallback
algorithm.  The fallback is slower than the standard algorithm by
perhaps a factor of three, but always behaves reasonably, no matter how
bad the input.
</P><P>

Lower values of <CODE>workFactor</CODE> reduce the amount of effort the
standard algorithm will expend before resorting to the fallback.  You
should set this parameter carefully; too low, and many inputs will be
handled by the fallback algorithm and so compress rather slowly, too
high, and your average-to-worst case compression times can become very
large.  The default value of 30 gives reasonable behaviour over a wide
range of circumstances.
</P><P>

Allowable values range from 0 to 250 inclusive.  0 is a special case,
equivalent to using the default value of 30.
</P><P>

Note that the compressed output generated is the same regardless of
whether or not the fallback algorithm is used.
</P><P>

Be aware also that this parameter may disappear entirely in future
versions of the library.  In principle it should be possible to devise a
good way to automatically choose which algorithm to use.  Such a
mechanism would render the parameter obsolete.
</P><P>

Possible return values:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">      <CODE>BZ_CONFIG_ERROR</CODE>
         if the library has been mis-compiled
      <CODE>BZ_PARAM_ERROR</CODE> 
         if <CODE>strm</CODE> is <CODE>NULL</CODE> 
         or <CODE>blockSize</CODE> &#60; 1 or <CODE>blockSize</CODE> &#62; 9
         or <CODE>verbosity</CODE> &#60; 0 or <CODE>verbosity</CODE> &#62; 4
         or <CODE>workFactor</CODE> &#60; 0 or <CODE>workFactor</CODE> &#62; 250
      <CODE>BZ_MEM_ERROR</CODE> 
         if not enough memory is available
      <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE> 
         otherwise
</pre></td></tr></table>Allowable next actions:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">      <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE> 
         if <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE> is returned
      no specific action needed in case of error
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>

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<H3> 3.3.2 <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE> </H3>
<!--docid::SEC20::-->
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>   int BZ2_bzCompress ( bz_stream *strm, int action );
</pre></td></tr></table>Provides more input and/or output buffer space for the library.  The
caller maintains input and output buffers, and calls <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE> to
transfer data between them.
<P>

Before each call to <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE>, <CODE>next_in</CODE> should point at
the data to be compressed, and <CODE>avail_in</CODE> should indicate how many
bytes the library may read.  <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE> updates <CODE>next_in</CODE>,
<CODE>avail_in</CODE> and <CODE>total_in</CODE> to reflect the number of bytes it
has read.
</P><P>

Similarly, <CODE>next_out</CODE> should point to a buffer in which the
compressed data is to be placed, with <CODE>avail_out</CODE> indicating how
much output space is available.  <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE> updates
<CODE>next_out</CODE>, <CODE>avail_out</CODE> and <CODE>total_out</CODE> to reflect the
number of bytes output.
</P><P>

You may provide and remove as little or as much data as you like on each
call of <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE>.  In the limit, it is acceptable to supply and
remove data one byte at a time, although this would be terribly
inefficient.  You should always ensure that at least one byte of output
space is available at each call.
</P><P>

A second purpose of <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE> is to request a change of mode of the
compressed stream.  
</P><P>

Conceptually, a compressed stream can be in one of four states: IDLE,
RUNNING, FLUSHING and FINISHING.  Before initialisation
(<CODE>BZ2_bzCompressInit</CODE>) and after termination (<CODE>BZ2_bzCompressEnd</CODE>), a
stream is regarded as IDLE.
</P><P>

Upon initialisation (<CODE>BZ2_bzCompressInit</CODE>), the stream is placed in the
RUNNING state.  Subsequent calls to <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE> should pass
<CODE>BZ_RUN</CODE> as the requested action; other actions are illegal and
will result in <CODE>BZ_SEQUENCE_ERROR</CODE>.
</P><P>

At some point, the calling program will have provided all the input data
it wants to.  It will then want to finish up -- in effect, asking the
library to process any data it might have buffered internally.  In this
state, <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE> will no longer attempt to read data from
<CODE>next_in</CODE>, but it will want to write data to <CODE>next_out</CODE>.
Because the output buffer supplied by the user can be arbitrarily small,
the finishing-up operation cannot necessarily be done with a single call
of <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE>.
</P><P>

Instead, the calling program passes <CODE>BZ_FINISH</CODE> as an action to
<CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE>.  This changes the stream's state to FINISHING.  Any
remaining input (ie, <CODE>next_in[0 .. avail_in-1]</CODE>) is compressed and
transferred to the output buffer.  To do this, <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE> must be
called repeatedly until all the output has been consumed.  At that
point, <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE> returns <CODE>BZ_STREAM_END</CODE>, and the stream's
state is set back to IDLE.  <CODE>BZ2_bzCompressEnd</CODE> should then be
called.
</P><P>

Just to make sure the calling program does not cheat, the library makes
a note of <CODE>avail_in</CODE> at the time of the first call to
<CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE> which has <CODE>BZ_FINISH</CODE> as an action (ie, at the
time the program has announced its intention to not supply any more
input).  By comparing this value with that of <CODE>avail_in</CODE> over
subsequent calls to <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE>, the library can detect any
attempts to slip in more data to compress.  Any calls for which this is
detected will return <CODE>BZ_SEQUENCE_ERROR</CODE>.  This indicates a
programming mistake which should be corrected.
</P><P>

Instead of asking to finish, the calling program may ask
<CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE> to take all the remaining input, compress it and
terminate the current (Burrows-Wheeler) compression block.  This could
be useful for error control purposes.  The mechanism is analogous to
that for finishing: call <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE> with an action of
<CODE>BZ_FLUSH</CODE>, remove output data, and persist with the
<CODE>BZ_FLUSH</CODE> action until the value <CODE>BZ_RUN</CODE> is returned.  As
with finishing, <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE> detects any attempt to provide more
input data once the flush has begun.
</P><P>

Once the flush is complete, the stream returns to the normal RUNNING
state.
</P><P>

This all sounds pretty complex, but isn't really.  Here's a table
which shows which actions are allowable in each state, what action
will be taken, what the next state is, and what the non-error return
values are.  Note that you can't explicitly ask what state the
stream is in, but nor do you need to -- it can be inferred from the
values returned by <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE>.
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">IDLE/<CODE>any</CODE>           
      Illegal.  IDLE state only exists after <CODE>BZ2_bzCompressEnd</CODE> or
      before <CODE>BZ2_bzCompressInit</CODE>.
      Return value = <CODE>BZ_SEQUENCE_ERROR</CODE>

RUNNING/<CODE>BZ_RUN</CODE>     
      Compress from <CODE>next_in</CODE> to <CODE>next_out</CODE> as much as possible.
      Next state = RUNNING
      Return value = <CODE>BZ_RUN_OK</CODE>

RUNNING/<CODE>BZ_FLUSH</CODE>   
      Remember current value of <CODE>next_in</CODE>.  Compress from <CODE>next_in</CODE>
      to <CODE>next_out</CODE> as much as possible, but do not accept any more input.  
      Next state = FLUSHING
      Return value = <CODE>BZ_FLUSH_OK</CODE>

RUNNING/<CODE>BZ_FINISH</CODE>  
      Remember current value of <CODE>next_in</CODE>.  Compress from <CODE>next_in</CODE>
      to <CODE>next_out</CODE> as much as possible, but do not accept any more input.
      Next state = FINISHING
      Return value = <CODE>BZ_FINISH_OK</CODE>

FLUSHING/<CODE>BZ_FLUSH</CODE>  
      Compress from <CODE>next_in</CODE> to <CODE>next_out</CODE> as much as possible, 
      but do not accept any more input.  
      If all the existing input has been used up and all compressed
      output has been removed
         Next state = RUNNING; Return value = <CODE>BZ_RUN_OK</CODE>
      else
         Next state = FLUSHING; Return value = <CODE>BZ_FLUSH_OK</CODE>

FLUSHING/other     
      Illegal.
      Return value = <CODE>BZ_SEQUENCE_ERROR</CODE>

FINISHING/<CODE>BZ_FINISH</CODE>  
      Compress from <CODE>next_in</CODE> to <CODE>next_out</CODE> as much as possible,
      but to not accept any more input.  
      If all the existing input has been used up and all compressed
      output has been removed
         Next state = IDLE; Return value = <CODE>BZ_STREAM_END</CODE>
      else
         Next state = FINISHING; Return value = <CODE>BZ_FINISHING</CODE>

FINISHING/other
      Illegal.
      Return value = <CODE>BZ_SEQUENCE_ERROR</CODE>
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>

That still looks complicated?  Well, fair enough.  The usual sequence
of calls for compressing a load of data is:
<UL>
<LI>Get started with <CODE>BZ2_bzCompressInit</CODE>.
<LI>Shovel data in and shlurp out its compressed form using zero or more
calls of <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE> with action = <CODE>BZ_RUN</CODE>.
<LI>Finish up.
Repeatedly call <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE> with action = <CODE>BZ_FINISH</CODE>, 
copying out the compressed output, until <CODE>BZ_STREAM_END</CODE> is returned.
<LI>Close up and go home.  Call <CODE>BZ2_bzCompressEnd</CODE>.
</UL>
If the data you want to compress fits into your input buffer all
at once, you can skip the calls of <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress ( ..., BZ_RUN )</CODE> and 
just do the <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress ( ..., BZ_FINISH )</CODE> calls.
<P>

All required memory is allocated by <CODE>BZ2_bzCompressInit</CODE>.  The
compression library can accept any data at all (obviously).  So you
shouldn't get any error return values from the <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE> calls.
If you do, they will be <CODE>BZ_SEQUENCE_ERROR</CODE>, and indicate a bug in
your programming.
</P><P>

Trivial other possible return values:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">      <CODE>BZ_PARAM_ERROR</CODE>   
         if <CODE>strm</CODE> is <CODE>NULL</CODE>, or <CODE>strm-&#62;s</CODE> is <CODE>NULL</CODE>
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>

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<H3> 3.3.3 <CODE>BZ2_bzCompressEnd</CODE> </H3>
<!--docid::SEC21::-->
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>int BZ2_bzCompressEnd ( bz_stream *strm );
</pre></td></tr></table>Releases all memory associated with a compression stream.
<P>

Possible return values:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">   <CODE>BZ_PARAM_ERROR</CODE>    if <CODE>strm</CODE> is <CODE>NULL</CODE> or <CODE>strm-&#62;s</CODE> is <CODE>NULL</CODE>
   <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE>    otherwise
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>

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<H3> 3.3.4 <CODE>BZ2_bzDecompressInit</CODE> </H3>
<!--docid::SEC22::-->
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>int BZ2_bzDecompressInit ( bz_stream *strm, int verbosity, int small );
</pre></td></tr></table>Prepares for decompression.  As with <CODE>BZ2_bzCompressInit</CODE>, a
<CODE>bz_stream</CODE> record should be allocated and initialised before the
call.  Fields <CODE>bzalloc</CODE>, <CODE>bzfree</CODE> and <CODE>opaque</CODE> should be
set if a custom memory allocator is required, or made <CODE>NULL</CODE> for
the normal <CODE>malloc</CODE>/<CODE>free</CODE> routines.  Upon return, the internal
state will have been initialised, and <CODE>total_in</CODE> and
<CODE>total_out</CODE> will be zero.
<P>

For the meaning of parameter <CODE>verbosity</CODE>, see <CODE>BZ2_bzCompressInit</CODE>.
</P><P>

If <CODE>small</CODE> is nonzero, the library will use an alternative
decompression algorithm which uses less memory but at the cost of
decompressing more slowly (roughly speaking, half the speed, but the
maximum memory requirement drops to around 2300k).  See Chapter 2 for
more information on memory management.
</P><P>

Note that the amount of memory needed to decompress
a stream cannot be determined until the stream's header has been read,
so even if <CODE>BZ2_bzDecompressInit</CODE> succeeds, a subsequent
<CODE>BZ2_bzDecompress</CODE> could fail with <CODE>BZ_MEM_ERROR</CODE>.
</P><P>

Possible return values:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">      <CODE>BZ_CONFIG_ERROR</CODE>
         if the library has been mis-compiled
      <CODE>BZ_PARAM_ERROR</CODE>
         if <CODE>(small != 0 &#38;&#38; small != 1)</CODE>
         or <CODE>(verbosity &#60; 0 || verbosity &#62; 4)</CODE>
      <CODE>BZ_MEM_ERROR</CODE>
         if insufficient memory is available
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>

Allowable next actions:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">      <CODE>BZ2_bzDecompress</CODE>
         if <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE> was returned
      no specific action required in case of error
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>

 
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<H3> 3.3.5 <CODE>BZ2_bzDecompress</CODE> </H3>
<!--docid::SEC23::-->
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>int BZ2_bzDecompress ( bz_stream *strm );
</pre></td></tr></table>Provides more input and/out output buffer space for the library.  The
caller maintains input and output buffers, and uses <CODE>BZ2_bzDecompress</CODE>
to transfer data between them.
<P>

Before each call to <CODE>BZ2_bzDecompress</CODE>, <CODE>next_in</CODE> 
should point at the compressed data,
and <CODE>avail_in</CODE> should indicate how many bytes the library
may read.  <CODE>BZ2_bzDecompress</CODE> updates <CODE>next_in</CODE>, <CODE>avail_in</CODE> 
and <CODE>total_in</CODE>
to reflect the number of bytes it has read.
</P><P>

Similarly, <CODE>next_out</CODE> should point to a buffer in which the uncompressed
output is to be placed, with <CODE>avail_out</CODE> indicating how much output space
is available.  <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE> updates <CODE>next_out</CODE>,
<CODE>avail_out</CODE> and <CODE>total_out</CODE> to reflect
the number of bytes output.
</P><P>

You may provide and remove as little or as much data as you like on
each call of <CODE>BZ2_bzDecompress</CODE>.  
In the limit, it is acceptable to
supply and remove data one byte at a time, although this would be
terribly inefficient.  You should always ensure that at least one
byte of output space is available at each call.
</P><P>

Use of <CODE>BZ2_bzDecompress</CODE> is simpler than <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE>.
</P><P>

You should provide input and remove output as described above, and
repeatedly call <CODE>BZ2_bzDecompress</CODE> until <CODE>BZ_STREAM_END</CODE> is
returned.  Appearance of <CODE>BZ_STREAM_END</CODE> denotes that
<CODE>BZ2_bzDecompress</CODE> has detected the logical end of the compressed
stream.  <CODE>BZ2_bzDecompress</CODE> will not produce <CODE>BZ_STREAM_END</CODE> until
all output data has been placed into the output buffer, so once
<CODE>BZ_STREAM_END</CODE> appears, you are guaranteed to have available all
the decompressed output, and <CODE>BZ2_bzDecompressEnd</CODE> can safely be
called.
</P><P>

If case of an error return value, you should call <CODE>BZ2_bzDecompressEnd</CODE>
to clean up and release memory.
</P><P>

Possible return values:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">      <CODE>BZ_PARAM_ERROR</CODE>
         if <CODE>strm</CODE> is <CODE>NULL</CODE> or <CODE>strm-&#62;s</CODE> is <CODE>NULL</CODE>
         or <CODE>strm-&#62;avail_out &#60; 1</CODE>
      <CODE>BZ_DATA_ERROR</CODE>
         if a data integrity error is detected in the compressed stream
      <CODE>BZ_DATA_ERROR_MAGIC</CODE>
         if the compressed stream doesn't begin with the right magic bytes
      <CODE>BZ_MEM_ERROR</CODE>
         if there wasn't enough memory available
      <CODE>BZ_STREAM_END</CODE>
         if the logical end of the data stream was detected and all
         output in has been consumed, eg <CODE>s-&#62;avail_out &#62; 0</CODE>
      <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE>
         otherwise
</pre></td></tr></table>Allowable next actions:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">      <CODE>BZ2_bzDecompress</CODE>
         if <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE> was returned
      <CODE>BZ2_bzDecompressEnd</CODE>
         otherwise
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>

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<H3> 3.3.6 <CODE>BZ2_bzDecompressEnd</CODE> </H3>
<!--docid::SEC24::-->
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>int BZ2_bzDecompressEnd ( bz_stream *strm );
</pre></td></tr></table>Releases all memory associated with a decompression stream.
<P>

Possible return values:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">      <CODE>BZ_PARAM_ERROR</CODE>
         if <CODE>strm</CODE> is <CODE>NULL</CODE> or <CODE>strm-&#62;s</CODE> is <CODE>NULL</CODE>
      <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE>
         otherwise
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>

Allowable next actions:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">      None.
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>

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<H2> 3.4 High-level interface </H2>
<!--docid::SEC25::-->
<P>

This interface provides functions for reading and writing 
<CODE>bzip2</CODE> format files.  First, some general points.
</P><P>

<UL>
<LI>All of the functions take an <CODE>int*</CODE> first argument,
  <CODE>bzerror</CODE>.
  After each call, <CODE>bzerror</CODE> should be consulted first to determine
  the outcome of the call.  If <CODE>bzerror</CODE> is <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE>, 
  the call completed
  successfully, and only then should the return value of the function
  (if any) be consulted.  If <CODE>bzerror</CODE> is <CODE>BZ_IO_ERROR</CODE>, 
  there was an error
  reading/writing the underlying compressed file, and you should
  then consult <CODE>errno</CODE>/<CODE>perror</CODE> to determine the 
  cause of the difficulty.
  <CODE>bzerror</CODE> may also be set to various other values; precise details are
  given on a per-function basis below.
<LI>If <CODE>bzerror</CODE> indicates an error
  (ie, anything except <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE> and <CODE>BZ_STREAM_END</CODE>),
  you should immediately call <CODE>BZ2_bzReadClose</CODE> (or <CODE>BZ2_bzWriteClose</CODE>,
  depending on whether you are attempting to read or to write)
  to free up all resources associated
  with the stream.  Once an error has been indicated, behaviour of all calls
  except <CODE>BZ2_bzReadClose</CODE> (<CODE>BZ2_bzWriteClose</CODE>) is undefined.  
  The implication is that (1) <CODE>bzerror</CODE> should
  be checked after each call, and (2) if <CODE>bzerror</CODE> indicates an error, 
  <CODE>BZ2_bzReadClose</CODE> (<CODE>BZ2_bzWriteClose</CODE>) should then be called to clean up.
<LI>The <CODE>FILE*</CODE> arguments passed to
   <CODE>BZ2_bzReadOpen</CODE>/<CODE>BZ2_bzWriteOpen</CODE>  
  should be set to binary mode.
  Most Unix systems will do this by default, but other platforms,
  including Windows and Mac, will not.  If you omit this, you may
  encounter problems when moving code to new platforms.
<LI>Memory allocation requests are handled by
  <CODE>malloc</CODE>/<CODE>free</CODE>.  
  At present
  there is no facility for user-defined memory allocators in the file I/O
  functions (could easily be added, though).
</UL>
<P>

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<H3> 3.4.1 <CODE>BZ2_bzReadOpen</CODE> </H3>
<!--docid::SEC26::-->
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>   typedef void BZFILE;

   BZFILE *BZ2_bzReadOpen ( int *bzerror, FILE *f, 
                            int small, int verbosity,
                            void *unused, int nUnused );
</pre></td></tr></table>Prepare to read compressed data from file handle <CODE>f</CODE>.  <CODE>f</CODE>
should refer to a file which has been opened for reading, and for which
the error indicator (<CODE>ferror(f)</CODE>)is not set.  If <CODE>small</CODE> is 1,
the library will try to decompress using less memory, at the expense of
speed.
<P>

For reasons explained below, <CODE>BZ2_bzRead</CODE> will decompress the
<CODE>nUnused</CODE> bytes starting at <CODE>unused</CODE>, before starting to read
from the file <CODE>f</CODE>.  At most <CODE>BZ_MAX_UNUSED</CODE> bytes may be
supplied like this.  If this facility is not required, you should pass
<CODE>NULL</CODE> and <CODE>0</CODE> for <CODE>unused</CODE> and n<CODE>Unused</CODE>
respectively.
</P><P>

For the meaning of parameters <CODE>small</CODE> and <CODE>verbosity</CODE>,
see <CODE>BZ2_bzDecompressInit</CODE>.
</P><P>

The amount of memory needed to decompress a file cannot be determined
until the file's header has been read.  So it is possible that
<CODE>BZ2_bzReadOpen</CODE> returns <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE> but a subsequent call of
<CODE>BZ2_bzRead</CODE> will return <CODE>BZ_MEM_ERROR</CODE>.
</P><P>

Possible assignments to <CODE>bzerror</CODE>:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">      <CODE>BZ_CONFIG_ERROR</CODE>
         if the library has been mis-compiled
      <CODE>BZ_PARAM_ERROR</CODE>
         if <CODE>f</CODE> is <CODE>NULL</CODE> 
         or <CODE>small</CODE> is neither <CODE>0</CODE> nor <CODE>1</CODE>                 
         or <CODE>(unused == NULL &#38;&#38; nUnused != 0)</CODE>
         or <CODE>(unused != NULL &#38;&#38; !(0 &#60;= nUnused &#60;= BZ_MAX_UNUSED))</CODE>
      <CODE>BZ_IO_ERROR</CODE>    
         if <CODE>ferror(f)</CODE> is nonzero
      <CODE>BZ_MEM_ERROR</CODE>   
         if insufficient memory is available
      <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE>
         otherwise.
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>

Possible return values:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">      Pointer to an abstract <CODE>BZFILE</CODE>        
         if <CODE>bzerror</CODE> is <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE>   
      <CODE>NULL</CODE>
         otherwise
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>

Allowable next actions:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">      <CODE>BZ2_bzRead</CODE>
         if <CODE>bzerror</CODE> is <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE>   
      <CODE>BZ2_bzClose</CODE> 
         otherwise
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>

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<H3> 3.4.2 <CODE>BZ2_bzRead</CODE> </H3>
<!--docid::SEC27::-->
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>   int BZ2_bzRead ( int *bzerror, BZFILE *b, void *buf, int len );
</pre></td></tr></table>Reads up to <CODE>len</CODE> (uncompressed) bytes from the compressed file 
<CODE>b</CODE> into
the buffer <CODE>buf</CODE>.  If the read was successful, 
<CODE>bzerror</CODE> is set to <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE>
and the number of bytes read is returned.  If the logical end-of-stream
was detected, <CODE>bzerror</CODE> will be set to <CODE>BZ_STREAM_END</CODE>, 
and the number
of bytes read is returned.  All other <CODE>bzerror</CODE> values denote an error.
<P>

<CODE>BZ2_bzRead</CODE> will supply <CODE>len</CODE> bytes,
unless the logical stream end is detected
or an error occurs.  Because of this, it is possible to detect the 
stream end by observing when the number of bytes returned is 
less than the number
requested.  Nevertheless, this is regarded as inadvisable; you should
instead check <CODE>bzerror</CODE> after every call and watch out for
<CODE>BZ_STREAM_END</CODE>.
</P><P>

Internally, <CODE>BZ2_bzRead</CODE> copies data from the compressed file in chunks
of size <CODE>BZ_MAX_UNUSED</CODE> bytes
before decompressing it.  If the file contains more bytes than strictly
needed to reach the logical end-of-stream, <CODE>BZ2_bzRead</CODE> will almost certainly
read some of the trailing data before signalling <CODE>BZ_SEQUENCE_END</CODE>.
To collect the read but unused data once <CODE>BZ_SEQUENCE_END</CODE> has 
appeared, call <CODE>BZ2_bzReadGetUnused</CODE> immediately before <CODE>BZ2_bzReadClose</CODE>.
</P><P>

Possible assignments to <CODE>bzerror</CODE>:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">      <CODE>BZ_PARAM_ERROR</CODE>
         if <CODE>b</CODE> is <CODE>NULL</CODE> or <CODE>buf</CODE> is <CODE>NULL</CODE> or <CODE>len &#60; 0</CODE>
      <CODE>BZ_SEQUENCE_ERROR</CODE> 
         if <CODE>b</CODE> was opened with <CODE>BZ2_bzWriteOpen</CODE>
      <CODE>BZ_IO_ERROR</CODE> 
         if there is an error reading from the compressed file
      <CODE>BZ_UNEXPECTED_EOF</CODE> 
         if the compressed file ended before the logical end-of-stream was detected
      <CODE>BZ_DATA_ERROR</CODE> 
         if a data integrity error was detected in the compressed stream
      <CODE>BZ_DATA_ERROR_MAGIC</CODE>
         if the stream does not begin with the requisite header bytes (ie, is not 
         a <CODE>bzip2</CODE> data file).  This is really a special case of <CODE>BZ_DATA_ERROR</CODE>.
      <CODE>BZ_MEM_ERROR</CODE> 
         if insufficient memory was available
      <CODE>BZ_STREAM_END</CODE> 
         if the logical end of stream was detected.
      <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE>
         otherwise.
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>

Possible return values:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">      number of bytes read
         if <CODE>bzerror</CODE> is <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE> or <CODE>BZ_STREAM_END</CODE>
      undefined
         otherwise
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>

Allowable next actions:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">      collect data from <CODE>buf</CODE>, then <CODE>BZ2_bzRead</CODE> or <CODE>BZ2_bzReadClose</CODE>
         if <CODE>bzerror</CODE> is <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE> 
      collect data from <CODE>buf</CODE>, then <CODE>BZ2_bzReadClose</CODE> or <CODE>BZ2_bzReadGetUnused</CODE> 
         if <CODE>bzerror</CODE> is <CODE>BZ_SEQUENCE_END</CODE>   
      <CODE>BZ2_bzReadClose</CODE> 
         otherwise
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>

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<H3> 3.4.3 <CODE>BZ2_bzReadGetUnused</CODE> </H3>
<!--docid::SEC28::-->
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>   void BZ2_bzReadGetUnused ( int* bzerror, BZFILE *b, 
                              void** unused, int* nUnused );
</pre></td></tr></table>Returns data which was read from the compressed file but was not needed
to get to the logical end-of-stream.  <CODE>*unused</CODE> is set to the address
of the data, and <CODE>*nUnused</CODE> to the number of bytes.  <CODE>*nUnused</CODE> will
be set to a value between <CODE>0</CODE> and <CODE>BZ_MAX_UNUSED</CODE> inclusive.
<P>

This function may only be called once <CODE>BZ2_bzRead</CODE> has signalled 
<CODE>BZ_STREAM_END</CODE> but before <CODE>BZ2_bzReadClose</CODE>.
</P><P>

Possible assignments to <CODE>bzerror</CODE>:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">      <CODE>BZ_PARAM_ERROR</CODE> 
         if <CODE>b</CODE> is <CODE>NULL</CODE> 
         or <CODE>unused</CODE> is <CODE>NULL</CODE> or <CODE>nUnused</CODE> is <CODE>NULL</CODE>
      <CODE>BZ_SEQUENCE_ERROR</CODE> 
         if <CODE>BZ_STREAM_END</CODE> has not been signalled
         or if <CODE>b</CODE> was opened with <CODE>BZ2_bzWriteOpen</CODE>
     <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE>
         otherwise
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>

Allowable next actions:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">      <CODE>BZ2_bzReadClose</CODE>
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>

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<H3> 3.4.4 <CODE>BZ2_bzReadClose</CODE> </H3>
<!--docid::SEC29::-->
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>   void BZ2_bzReadClose ( int *bzerror, BZFILE *b );
</pre></td></tr></table>Releases all memory pertaining to the compressed file <CODE>b</CODE>.  
<CODE>BZ2_bzReadClose</CODE> does not call <CODE>fclose</CODE> on the underlying file
handle, so you should do that yourself if appropriate.
<CODE>BZ2_bzReadClose</CODE> should be called to clean up after all error
situations.
<P>

Possible assignments to <CODE>bzerror</CODE>:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">      <CODE>BZ_SEQUENCE_ERROR</CODE> 
         if <CODE>b</CODE> was opened with <CODE>BZ2_bzOpenWrite</CODE> 
      <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE> 
         otherwise
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>

Allowable next actions:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">      none
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>

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<H3> 3.4.5 <CODE>BZ2_bzWriteOpen</CODE> </H3>
<!--docid::SEC30::-->
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>   BZFILE *BZ2_bzWriteOpen ( int *bzerror, FILE *f, 
                             int blockSize100k, int verbosity,
                             int workFactor );
</pre></td></tr></table>Prepare to write compressed data to file handle <CODE>f</CODE>.  
<CODE>f</CODE> should refer to
a file which has been opened for writing, and for which the error
indicator (<CODE>ferror(f)</CODE>)is not set.  
<P>

For the meaning of parameters <CODE>blockSize100k</CODE>,
<CODE>verbosity</CODE> and <CODE>workFactor</CODE>, see
<BR> <CODE>BZ2_bzCompressInit</CODE>.
</P><P>

All required memory is allocated at this stage, so if the call
completes successfully, <CODE>BZ_MEM_ERROR</CODE> cannot be signalled by a
subsequent call to <CODE>BZ2_bzWrite</CODE>.
</P><P>

Possible assignments to <CODE>bzerror</CODE>:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">      <CODE>BZ_CONFIG_ERROR</CODE>
         if the library has been mis-compiled
      <CODE>BZ_PARAM_ERROR</CODE> 
         if <CODE>f</CODE> is <CODE>NULL</CODE> 
         or <CODE>blockSize100k &#60; 1</CODE> or <CODE>blockSize100k &#62; 9</CODE>
      <CODE>BZ_IO_ERROR</CODE> 
         if <CODE>ferror(f)</CODE> is nonzero
      <CODE>BZ_MEM_ERROR</CODE> 
         if insufficient memory is available
      <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE> 
         otherwise
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>

Possible return values:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">      Pointer to an abstract <CODE>BZFILE</CODE>  
         if <CODE>bzerror</CODE> is <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE>   
      <CODE>NULL</CODE> 
         otherwise
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>

Allowable next actions:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">      <CODE>BZ2_bzWrite</CODE> 
         if <CODE>bzerror</CODE> is <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE> 
         (you could go directly to <CODE>BZ2_bzWriteClose</CODE>, but this would be pretty pointless)
      <CODE>BZ2_bzWriteClose</CODE> 
         otherwise
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>

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<H3> 3.4.6 <CODE>BZ2_bzWrite</CODE> </H3>
<!--docid::SEC31::-->
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>   void BZ2_bzWrite ( int *bzerror, BZFILE *b, void *buf, int len );
</pre></td></tr></table>Absorbs <CODE>len</CODE> bytes from the buffer <CODE>buf</CODE>, eventually to be
compressed and written to the file.
<P>

Possible assignments to <CODE>bzerror</CODE>:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">      <CODE>BZ_PARAM_ERROR</CODE> 
         if <CODE>b</CODE> is <CODE>NULL</CODE> or <CODE>buf</CODE> is <CODE>NULL</CODE> or <CODE>len &#60; 0</CODE>
      <CODE>BZ_SEQUENCE_ERROR</CODE> 
         if b was opened with <CODE>BZ2_bzReadOpen</CODE>
      <CODE>BZ_IO_ERROR</CODE> 
         if there is an error writing the compressed file.
      <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE> 
         otherwise
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>

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<H3> 3.4.7 <CODE>BZ2_bzWriteClose</CODE> </H3>
<!--docid::SEC32::-->
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>   void BZ2_bzWriteClose ( int *bzerror, BZFILE* f,
                           int abandon,
                           unsigned int* nbytes_in,
                           unsigned int* nbytes_out );

   void BZ2_bzWriteClose64 ( int *bzerror, BZFILE* f,
                             int abandon,
                             unsigned int* nbytes_in_lo32,
                             unsigned int* nbytes_in_hi32,
                             unsigned int* nbytes_out_lo32,
                             unsigned int* nbytes_out_hi32 );
</pre></td></tr></table><P>

Compresses and flushes to the compressed file all data so far supplied
by <CODE>BZ2_bzWrite</CODE>.  The logical end-of-stream markers are also written, so
subsequent calls to <CODE>BZ2_bzWrite</CODE> are illegal.  All memory associated 
with the compressed file <CODE>b</CODE> is released.  
<CODE>fflush</CODE> is called on the
compressed file, but it is not <CODE>fclose</CODE>'d.
</P><P>

If <CODE>BZ2_bzWriteClose</CODE> is called to clean up after an error, the only
action is to release the memory.  The library records the error codes
issued by previous calls, so this situation will be detected
automatically.  There is no attempt to complete the compression
operation, nor to <CODE>fflush</CODE> the compressed file.  You can force this
behaviour to happen even in the case of no error, by passing a nonzero
value to <CODE>abandon</CODE>.
</P><P>

If <CODE>nbytes_in</CODE> is non-null, <CODE>*nbytes_in</CODE> will be set to be the
total volume of uncompressed data handled.  Similarly, <CODE>nbytes_out</CODE>
will be set to the total volume of compressed data written.  For 
compatibility with older versions of the library, <CODE>BZ2_bzWriteClose</CODE>
only yields the lower 32 bits of these counts.  Use
<CODE>BZ2_bzWriteClose64</CODE> if you want the full 64 bit counts.  These
two functions are otherwise absolutely identical.
</P><P>

Possible assignments to <CODE>bzerror</CODE>:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">      <CODE>BZ_SEQUENCE_ERROR</CODE> 
         if <CODE>b</CODE> was opened with <CODE>BZ2_bzReadOpen</CODE>
      <CODE>BZ_IO_ERROR</CODE> 
         if there is an error writing the compressed file
      <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE> 
         otherwise
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>

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<H3> 3.4.8 Handling embedded compressed data streams </H3>
<!--docid::SEC33::-->
<P>

The high-level library facilitates use of
<CODE>bzip2</CODE> data streams which form some part of a surrounding, larger
data stream.
<UL>
<LI>For writing, the library takes an open file handle, writes
compressed data to it, <CODE>fflush</CODE>es it but does not <CODE>fclose</CODE> it.
The calling application can write its own data before and after the
compressed data stream, using that same file handle.
<LI>Reading is more complex, and the facilities are not as general
as they could be since generality is hard to reconcile with efficiency.
<CODE>BZ2_bzRead</CODE> reads from the compressed file in blocks of size
<CODE>BZ_MAX_UNUSED</CODE> bytes, and in doing so probably will overshoot
the logical end of compressed stream.
To recover this data once decompression has
ended, call <CODE>BZ2_bzReadGetUnused</CODE> after the last call of <CODE>BZ2_bzRead</CODE>
(the one returning <CODE>BZ_STREAM_END</CODE>) but before calling
<CODE>BZ2_bzReadClose</CODE>.
</UL>
<P>

This mechanism makes it easy to decompress multiple <CODE>bzip2</CODE>
streams placed end-to-end.  As the end of one stream, when <CODE>BZ2_bzRead</CODE>
returns <CODE>BZ_STREAM_END</CODE>, call <CODE>BZ2_bzReadGetUnused</CODE> to collect the
unused data (copy it into your own buffer somewhere).  
That data forms the start of the next compressed stream.
To start uncompressing that next stream, call <CODE>BZ2_bzReadOpen</CODE> again,
feeding in the unused data via the <CODE>unused</CODE>/<CODE>nUnused</CODE>
parameters.
Keep doing this until <CODE>BZ_STREAM_END</CODE> return coincides with the
physical end of file (<CODE>feof(f)</CODE>).  In this situation
<CODE>BZ2_bzReadGetUnused</CODE>
will of course return no data.
</P><P>

This should give some feel for how the high-level interface can be used.
If you require extra flexibility, you'll have to bite the bullet and get
to grips with the low-level interface.
</P><P>

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<H3> 3.4.9 Standard file-reading/writing code </H3>
<!--docid::SEC34::-->
Here's how you'd write data to a compressed file:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>FILE*   f;
BZFILE* b;
int     nBuf;
char    buf[ /* whatever size you like */ ];
int     bzerror;
int     nWritten;

f = fopen ( "myfile.bz2", "w" );
if (!f) {
   /* handle error */
}
b = BZ2_bzWriteOpen ( &#38;bzerror, f, 9 );
if (bzerror != BZ_OK) {
   BZ2_bzWriteClose ( b );
   /* handle error */
}

while ( /* condition */ ) {
   /* get data to write into buf, and set nBuf appropriately */
   nWritten = BZ2_bzWrite ( &#38;bzerror, b, buf, nBuf );
   if (bzerror == BZ_IO_ERROR) { 
      BZ2_bzWriteClose ( &#38;bzerror, b );
      /* handle error */
   }
}

BZ2_bzWriteClose ( &#38;bzerror, b );
if (bzerror == BZ_IO_ERROR) {
   /* handle error */
}
</pre></td></tr></table>And to read from a compressed file:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>FILE*   f;
BZFILE* b;
int     nBuf;
char    buf[ /* whatever size you like */ ];
int     bzerror;
int     nWritten;

f = fopen ( "myfile.bz2", "r" );
if (!f) {
   /* handle error */
}
b = BZ2_bzReadOpen ( &#38;bzerror, f, 0, NULL, 0 );
if (bzerror != BZ_OK) {
   BZ2_bzReadClose ( &#38;bzerror, b );
   /* handle error */
}

bzerror = BZ_OK;
while (bzerror == BZ_OK &#38;&#38; /* arbitrary other conditions */) {
   nBuf = BZ2_bzRead ( &#38;bzerror, b, buf, /* size of buf */ );
   if (bzerror == BZ_OK) {
      /* do something with buf[0 .. nBuf-1] */
   }
}
if (bzerror != BZ_STREAM_END) {
   BZ2_bzReadClose ( &#38;bzerror, b );
   /* handle error */
} else {
   BZ2_bzReadClose ( &#38;bzerror );
}
</pre></td></tr></table><P>

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<H2> 3.5 Utility functions </H2>
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<H3> 3.5.1 <CODE>BZ2_bzBuffToBuffCompress</CODE> </H3>
<!--docid::SEC36::-->
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>   int BZ2_bzBuffToBuffCompress( char*         dest,
                                 unsigned int* destLen,
                                 char*         source,
                                 unsigned int  sourceLen,
                                 int           blockSize100k,
                                 int           verbosity,
                                 int           workFactor );
</pre></td></tr></table>Attempts to compress the data in <CODE>source[0 .. sourceLen-1]</CODE>
into the destination buffer, <CODE>dest[0 .. *destLen-1]</CODE>.
If the destination buffer is big enough, <CODE>*destLen</CODE> is
set to the size of the compressed data, and <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE> is
returned.  If the compressed data won't fit, <CODE>*destLen</CODE>
is unchanged, and <CODE>BZ_OUTBUFF_FULL</CODE> is returned.
<P>

Compression in this manner is a one-shot event, done with a single call
to this function.  The resulting compressed data is a complete
<CODE>bzip2</CODE> format data stream.  There is no mechanism for making
additional calls to provide extra input data.  If you want that kind of
mechanism, use the low-level interface.
</P><P>

For the meaning of parameters <CODE>blockSize100k</CODE>, <CODE>verbosity</CODE>
and <CODE>workFactor</CODE>, <BR> see <CODE>BZ2_bzCompressInit</CODE>.
</P><P>

To guarantee that the compressed data will fit in its buffer, allocate
an output buffer of size 1% larger than the uncompressed data, plus
six hundred extra bytes.
</P><P>

<CODE>BZ2_bzBuffToBuffDecompress</CODE> will not write data at or
beyond <CODE>dest[*destLen]</CODE>, even in case of buffer overflow.
</P><P>

Possible return values:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">      <CODE>BZ_CONFIG_ERROR</CODE>
         if the library has been mis-compiled
      <CODE>BZ_PARAM_ERROR</CODE> 
         if <CODE>dest</CODE> is <CODE>NULL</CODE> or <CODE>destLen</CODE> is <CODE>NULL</CODE>
         or <CODE>blockSize100k &#60; 1</CODE> or <CODE>blockSize100k &#62; 9</CODE>
         or <CODE>verbosity &#60; 0</CODE> or <CODE>verbosity &#62; 4</CODE> 
         or <CODE>workFactor &#60; 0</CODE> or <CODE>workFactor &#62; 250</CODE>
      <CODE>BZ_MEM_ERROR</CODE>
         if insufficient memory is available 
      <CODE>BZ_OUTBUFF_FULL</CODE>
         if the size of the compressed data exceeds <CODE>*destLen</CODE>
      <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE> 
         otherwise
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>

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<H3> 3.5.2 <CODE>BZ2_bzBuffToBuffDecompress</CODE> </H3>
<!--docid::SEC37::-->
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>   int BZ2_bzBuffToBuffDecompress ( char*         dest,
                                    unsigned int* destLen,
                                    char*         source,
                                    unsigned int  sourceLen,
                                    int           small,
                                    int           verbosity );
</pre></td></tr></table>Attempts to decompress the data in <CODE>source[0 .. sourceLen-1]</CODE>
into the destination buffer, <CODE>dest[0 .. *destLen-1]</CODE>.
If the destination buffer is big enough, <CODE>*destLen</CODE> is
set to the size of the uncompressed data, and <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE> is
returned.  If the compressed data won't fit, <CODE>*destLen</CODE>
is unchanged, and <CODE>BZ_OUTBUFF_FULL</CODE> is returned.
<P>

<CODE>source</CODE> is assumed to hold a complete <CODE>bzip2</CODE> format
data stream.  <BR> <CODE>BZ2_bzBuffToBuffDecompress</CODE> tries to decompress
the entirety of the stream into the output buffer.
</P><P>

For the meaning of parameters <CODE>small</CODE> and <CODE>verbosity</CODE>,
see <CODE>BZ2_bzDecompressInit</CODE>.
</P><P>

Because the compression ratio of the compressed data cannot be known in
advance, there is no easy way to guarantee that the output buffer will
be big enough.  You may of course make arrangements in your code to
record the size of the uncompressed data, but such a mechanism is beyond
the scope of this library.
</P><P>

<CODE>BZ2_bzBuffToBuffDecompress</CODE> will not write data at or
beyond <CODE>dest[*destLen]</CODE>, even in case of buffer overflow.
</P><P>

Possible return values:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=display><pre style="font-family: serif">      <CODE>BZ_CONFIG_ERROR</CODE>
         if the library has been mis-compiled
      <CODE>BZ_PARAM_ERROR</CODE> 
         if <CODE>dest</CODE> is <CODE>NULL</CODE> or <CODE>destLen</CODE> is <CODE>NULL</CODE>
         or <CODE>small != 0 &#38;&#38; small != 1</CODE>
         or <CODE>verbosity &#60; 0</CODE> or <CODE>verbosity &#62; 4</CODE> 
      <CODE>BZ_MEM_ERROR</CODE>
         if insufficient memory is available 
      <CODE>BZ_OUTBUFF_FULL</CODE>
         if the size of the compressed data exceeds <CODE>*destLen</CODE>
      <CODE>BZ_DATA_ERROR</CODE>
         if a data integrity error was detected in the compressed data
      <CODE>BZ_DATA_ERROR_MAGIC</CODE>
         if the compressed data doesn't begin with the right magic bytes
      <CODE>BZ_UNEXPECTED_EOF</CODE>
         if the compressed data ends unexpectedly
      <CODE>BZ_OK</CODE> 
         otherwise
</pre></td></tr></table></P><P>

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<H2> 3.6 <CODE>zlib</CODE> compatibility functions </H2>
<!--docid::SEC38::-->
Yoshioka Tsuneo has contributed some functions to
give better <CODE>zlib</CODE> compatibility.  These functions are
<CODE>BZ2_bzopen</CODE>, <CODE>BZ2_bzread</CODE>, <CODE>BZ2_bzwrite</CODE>, <CODE>BZ2_bzflush</CODE>,
<CODE>BZ2_bzclose</CODE>,
<CODE>BZ2_bzerror</CODE> and <CODE>BZ2_bzlibVersion</CODE>.
These functions are not (yet) officially part of
the library.  If they break, you get to keep all the pieces.
Nevertheless, I think they work ok.
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>typedef void BZFILE;

const char * BZ2_bzlibVersion ( void );
</pre></td></tr></table>Returns a string indicating the library version.
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>BZFILE * BZ2_bzopen  ( const char *path, const char *mode );
BZFILE * BZ2_bzdopen ( int        fd,    const char *mode );
</pre></td></tr></table>Opens a <CODE>.bz2</CODE> file for reading or writing, using either its name
or a pre-existing file descriptor. 
Analogous to <CODE>fopen</CODE> and <CODE>fdopen</CODE>.
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>int BZ2_bzread  ( BZFILE* b, void* buf, int len );
int BZ2_bzwrite ( BZFILE* b, void* buf, int len );
</pre></td></tr></table>Reads/writes data from/to a previously opened <CODE>BZFILE</CODE>.
Analogous to <CODE>fread</CODE> and <CODE>fwrite</CODE>.
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>int  BZ2_bzflush ( BZFILE* b );
void BZ2_bzclose ( BZFILE* b );
</pre></td></tr></table>Flushes/closes a <CODE>BZFILE</CODE>.  <CODE>BZ2_bzflush</CODE> doesn't actually do
anything.  Analogous to <CODE>fflush</CODE> and <CODE>fclose</CODE>.
<P>

<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>const char * BZ2_bzerror ( BZFILE *b, int *errnum )
</pre></td></tr></table>Returns a string describing the more recent error status of
<CODE>b</CODE>, and also sets <CODE>*errnum</CODE> to its numerical value.
</P><P>

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<H2> 3.7 Using the library in a <CODE>stdio</CODE>-free environment </H2>
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<P>

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<H3> 3.7.1 Getting rid of <CODE>stdio</CODE> </H3>
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<P>

In a deeply embedded application, you might want to use just
the memory-to-memory functions.  You can do this conveniently
by compiling the library with preprocessor symbol <CODE>BZ_NO_STDIO</CODE>
defined.  Doing this gives you a library containing only the following
eight functions:
</P><P>

<CODE>BZ2_bzCompressInit</CODE>, <CODE>BZ2_bzCompress</CODE>, <CODE>BZ2_bzCompressEnd</CODE> <BR>
<CODE>BZ2_bzDecompressInit</CODE>, <CODE>BZ2_bzDecompress</CODE>, <CODE>BZ2_bzDecompressEnd</CODE> <BR>
<CODE>BZ2_bzBuffToBuffCompress</CODE>, <CODE>BZ2_bzBuffToBuffDecompress</CODE>
</P><P>

When compiled like this, all functions will ignore <CODE>verbosity</CODE>
settings.
</P><P>

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<H3> 3.7.2 Critical error handling </H3>
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<CODE>libbzip2</CODE> contains a number of internal assertion checks which
should, needless to say, never be activated.  Nevertheless, if an
assertion should fail, behaviour depends on whether or not the library
was compiled with <CODE>BZ_NO_STDIO</CODE> set.
<P>

For a normal compile, an assertion failure yields the message
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>   bzip2/libbzip2: internal error number N.
   This is a bug in bzip2/libbzip2, 1.0.2, 30-Dec-2001.
   Please report it to me at: jseward@acm.org.  If this happened
   when you were using some program which uses libbzip2 as a
   component, you should also report this bug to the author(s)
   of that program.  Please make an effort to report this bug;
   timely and accurate bug reports eventually lead to higher
   quality software.  Thanks.  Julian Seward, 30 December 2001.
</pre></td></tr></table>where <CODE>N</CODE> is some error code number.  If <CODE>N == 1007</CODE>, it also
prints some extra text advising the reader that unreliable memory is
often associated with internal error 1007.  (This is a
frequently-observed-phenomenon with versions 1.0.0/1.0.1).
</P><P>

<CODE>exit(3)</CODE> is then called.
</P><P>

For a <CODE>stdio</CODE>-free library, assertion failures result
in a call to a function declared as:
<TABLE><tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td class=example><pre>   extern void bz_internal_error ( int errcode );
</pre></td></tr></table>The relevant code is passed as a parameter.  You should supply
such a function.
</P><P>

In either case, once an assertion failure has occurred, any 
<CODE>bz_stream</CODE> records involved can be regarded as invalid.
You should not attempt to resume normal operation with them.
</P><P>

You may, of course, change critical error handling to suit
your needs.  As I said above, critical errors indicate bugs
in the library and should not occur.  All "normal" error
situations are indicated via error return codes from functions,
and can be recovered from.
</P><P>

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<H2> 3.8 Making a Windows DLL </H2>
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Everything related to Windows has been contributed by Yoshioka Tsuneo
<BR> (<CODE>QWF00133@niftyserve.or.jp</CODE> /
<CODE>tsuneo-y@is.aist-nara.ac.jp</CODE>), so you should send your queries to
him (but perhaps Cc: me, <CODE>jseward@acm.org</CODE>).
<P>

My vague understanding of what to do is: using Visual C++ 5.0,
open the project file <CODE>libbz2.dsp</CODE>, and build.  That's all.
</P><P>

If you can't
open the project file for some reason, make a new one, naming these files:
<CODE>blocksort.c</CODE>, <CODE>bzlib.c</CODE>, <CODE>compress.c</CODE>, 
<CODE>crctable.c</CODE>, <CODE>decompress.c</CODE>, <CODE>huffman.c</CODE>, <BR>
<CODE>randtable.c</CODE> and <CODE>libbz2.def</CODE>.  You will also need
to name the header files <CODE>bzlib.h</CODE> and <CODE>bzlib_private.h</CODE>.
</P><P>

If you don't use VC++, you may need to define the proprocessor symbol
<CODE>_WIN32</CODE>. 
</P><P>

Finally, <CODE>dlltest.c</CODE> is a sample program using the DLL.  It has a
project file, <CODE>dlltest.dsp</CODE>.
</P><P>

If you just want a makefile for Visual C, have a look at
<CODE>makefile.msc</CODE>.
</P><P>

Be aware that if you compile <CODE>bzip2</CODE> itself on Win32, you must set
<CODE>BZ_UNIX</CODE> to 0 and <CODE>BZ_LCCWIN32</CODE> to 1, in the file
<CODE>bzip2.c</CODE>, before compiling.  Otherwise the resulting binary won't
work correctly.
</P><P>

I haven't tried any of this stuff myself, but it all looks plausible.
</P><P>

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