bless.8   [plain text]


.Dd November 4, 2004
.Os "Mac OS X"
.Dt BLESS 8
.Sh NAME
.Nm bless
.Nd set volume bootability and startup disk options
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Nm bless
.Fl -help
.Pp
.Nm bless
.Fl -folder Ar directory
.Op Fl -folder9 Ar directory
.Op Fl -file Ar file
.Op Fl -bootinfo Op Ar file
.Op Fl -bootefi Op Ar file
.Op Fl -bootBlockFile Ar file
.Op Fl -save9
.Op Fl -saveX
.Op Fl -use9
.Op Fl -label Ar name | Fl -labelfile Ar file
.Op Fl -setBoot
.Op Fl -openfolder Ar directory
.Op Fl -nextonly
.Op Fl -shortform
.Op Fl -legacy
.Op Fl -legacydrivehint Ar device
.Op Fl -options Ar string
.Op Fl -quiet | -verbose
.Pp
.Nm bless
.Fl -mount Ar directory
.Op Fl -file Ar file
.Op Fl -setBoot
.Op Fl -nextonly
.Op Fl -shortform
.Op Fl -legacy
.Op Fl -legacydrivehint Ar device
.Op Fl -options Ar string
.Op Fl -quiet | -verbose
.Pp
.Nm bless
.Fl -device Ar device
.Op Fl -label Ar name | Fl -labelfile Ar file
.Op Fl -startupfile Ar file
.Op Fl -setBoot
.Op Fl -nextonly
.Op Fl -shortform
.Op Fl -legacy
.Op Fl -legacydrivehint Ar device
.Op Fl -options Ar string
.Op Fl -quiet | -verbose
.Pp
.Nm bless
.Fl -netboot
.Fl -server Ar url
.Op Fl -nextonly
.Op Fl -options Ar string
.Op Fl -quiet | -verbose
.Pp
.Nm bless
.Fl -info Op Ar directory
.Op Fl -getBoot
.Op Fl -plist
.Op Fl -quiet | -verbose
.Op Fl -version
.Sh DESCRIPTION
.Nm bless
is used to modify the volume bootability characteristics of filesystems, as well
as select the active boot volume.
.Nm bless
has 5 modes of execution: Folder Mode, Mount Mode, Device Mode, NetBoot Mode,
and Info Mode.
.Pp
Folder Mode allows you to select a directory on a mounted
volume to act as the
.Do blessed Dc
directory, which causes the system firmware to look in that directory
for boot code. EFI-based systems also support a
.Do blessed Dc
system file, which is the primary mechanism of specifying the booter for
a volume for those systems. In Folder Mode, if you are operating on an HFS+
volume, the HFS+ Volume Header is updated to reflect these files/directories
given.
.Pp 
Mount Mode does not make permament modifications to the filesystem, but rather
set the system firmware to boot from the
specified volume, assuming it has been properly blessed. This is a subset of
the functionality of Folder Mode with the
.Fl -setBoot
option, but is convenient when you don't want to change or interrogate
the filesystem for its blessed status.
.Pp
Device Mode is similar to Mount Mode, but allows selection of unmounted
filesystems, for instance while in single user mode. It can also perform
certain offline modifications to the filesystem, but is not generally recommended.
.Pp
NetBoot Mode sets the system firmware to boot from the network, using a
URL syntax to specify the protocol and server.
.Nm
only sets the local system to go into NetBoot mode, and does not communicate
to the server what image should be used, if there are multiple images. Some
other mechanism, such as using Startup Disk, should be used to select that.
.Pp
Info Mode will print
out the currently\-blessed directory of a volume, or if no mountpoint is
specified, the active boot volume that the firmware is set to boot from.
.Pp
Additionally,
.Fl -help
can be used to display the command-line usage summary.
.Ss FILE/FOLDER MODE
Folder Mode has the following options:
.Bl -tag -width "xxopenfolderxdirectoryx" -compact
.It Fl -folder Ar directory
Set this directory to be the Mac OS X/Darwin blessed directory, containing a
.Pa BootX
secondary loader for New World machines.
.It Fl -folder9 Ar directory
Set this directory to be the Mac OS 9/Classic system folder. If both
.Fl -folder
and
.Fl -folder9
are given, preference can be given to boot into Mac OS 9
by also using the
.Fl -use9
flag. By default, Mac OS X will be the default OS if both
.Fl -folder
and
.Fl -folder9
are provided.
.It Fl -file Ar file
Set this file to be the Mac OS X/Darwin blessed boot file, containing a booter
for EFI-based systems. If this option is not provided, a default boot file
is used based on the blessed directory.
.It Fl -bootinfo Op Ar file
Create a
.Pa BootX
file in the Mac OS X/Darwin system folder using
.Ar file
as a source. If
.Ar file
is not provided, a default is used (see FILES), using a path relative
to the mountpoint you are blessing. This attempts to ensure that a
.Pa BootX
is used that is compatible with the OS on the target volume.
.It Fl -bootefi Op Ar file
Create a
.Pa boot.efi
file in the Mac OS X/Darwin system folder using
.Ar file
as a source. If
.Ar file
is not provided, a default is used (see FILES), using a path relative
to the mountpoint you are blessing. This attempts to ensure that a
.Pa boot.efi
is used that is compatible with the OS on the target volume. If
.Fl -file
is also provided, the new file will be created at that path instead.
.It Fl -bootBlockFile Ar file
Set the boot blocks on the volume using the contents of
.Ar file
\&. This is required for volumes that will boot Mac OS 9.
.It Fl -save9
Used if no
.Fl -folder9
flag was given, but if the pre\-existing Mac OS 9 blessed system folder
should be preserved.
.It Fl -saveX
Used if no
.Fl -folder
flag was given, but if the pre\-existing Mac OS X/Darwin blessed directory
should be preserved.
.It Fl -use9
Used if both
.Fl -folder
and
.Fl -folder9
were given, but Mac OS 9 should be the default for the volume.
.It Fl -label Ar name
Render a text label used in the firmware-based OS picker
.It Fl -labelfile Ar file
Use a pre-rendered label used for the firmware-based OS picker
.It Fl -openfolder Ar directory
Specify a folder to be opened in the Finder when the volume is mounted by
the system.
.It Fl -setBoot
Set the system to boot off the specified partition. This is implemented in
a platform-specific manner. On Open Firmware-based systems, the
.Em boot-device
variable is modified. On EFI-based systems, the 
.Em efi-boot-device
variable is changed.
.It Fl -nextonly
Only change the boot device selection for the next boot. This is only supported
on EFI-based systems.
.It Fl -shortform
Use an abbreviated device path form. This option can allow for booting from
new devices, at the expense of boot time performance. This is only supported
on EFI-based systems.
.It Fl -legacy
If
.Fl -setBoot
is given, set the firmware to boot a legacy BIOS-based operating system
from the specified disk. The active flag of an MBR-partitioned disk is not
modified, which can be done with
.Xr fdisk 8
\&. This is only supported
on EFI-based systems.
.It Fl legacydrivehint Ar device
Instruct the firmware to treat the specified whole disk as the primary,
master IDE drive. This is only supported
on EFI-based systems.
.It Fl -options
Set load options associated with the new boot option. This is only supported
on EFI-based systems, and in general should be avoided. Instead, use
.Xr nvram 8
to set
.Qo boot-args Qc
, which will work with both Open Firmware- and EFI-based systems.
.It Fl -quiet
Do not print any output
.It Fl -verbose
Print verbose output
.El
.Ss  MOUNT MODE
Mount Mode has the following options:
.Bl -tag -width "xxopenfolderxdirectoryx" -compact
.It Fl -mount Ar directory
Use the volume mounted at
.Ar directory
to change the active boot volume, in conjunction with
.Fl -setBoot
\&. The volume must already be properly blessed.
.It Fl -file Ar file
Instead of allowing the firmware to discover the booter based on the blessed
directory or file, pass an explicit path to the firmware to boot from. This
can be used to run EFI applications or EFI booters for alternate OSes, but
should not be normally used. This is only supported on EFI-based systems.
.It Fl -setBoot
Same as for Folder Mode.
.It Fl -nextonly
Same as for Folder Mode.
.It Fl -shortform
Same as for Folder Mode.
.It Fl -options
Same as for Folder Mode.
.It Fl -legacy
Same as for Folder Mode.
.It Fl -legacydrivehint Ar device
Same as for Folder Mode.
.It Fl -quiet
Do not print any output
.It Fl -verbose
Print verbose output
.El
.Ss DEVICE MODE
Device Mode has the following options:
.Bl -tag -width "xxopenfolderxdirectoryx" -compact
.It Fl -device Ar device
Use the block device
.Ar device
to change the active boot volume. No volumes should be mounted from
.Ar device
\&, and the filesystem should already be properly blessed.
.It Fl -label Ar name
Set the firmware-based OS picker label for the unmounted filesystem, using
.Ar name
\&, which should be in UTF-8 encoding.
.It Fl -labelfile Ar file
Use a pre-rendered label used with the firmware-based OS picker.
.It Fl -setBoot
Set the system to boot off the specified partition, as with Folder and Mount
Modes.
.It Fl -startupfile Ar file
Add the
.Ar file
as the HFS+ StartupFile, and update other information on disk as appropriate
for the startup file type.
.It Fl -nextonly
Same as for Folder Mode.
.It Fl -shortform
Same as for Folder Mode.
.It Fl -options
Same as for Folder Mode.
.It Fl -legacy
Same as for Folder Mode.
.It Fl -legacydrivehint Ar device
Same as for Folder Mode.
.It Fl -quiet
Do not print any output
.It Fl -verbose
Print verbose output
.El
.Ss NETBOOT MODE
NetBoot Mode has the following options:
.Bl -tag -width "xxopenfolderxdirectoryx" -compact
.It Fl -netboot
Instead of setting the active boot selection to a disk-based volume, set the system
to NetBoot.
.It Fl -server Ar protocol://[interface@]server
A URL specification of how to boot the system. Currently, the only
.Em protocol
supported is BSDP ("bsdp"), Apple's Boot Service Discovery Protocol. The
.Em interface
is optional, and the
.Em server
is the IPv4 address of the server in dotted-quad notation. If there is not
a specific server you'd like to use, pass "255.255.255.255" to have the
firmware broadcast for the first available server. Examples of this notation
would be "bsdp://255.255.255.255" and "bsdp://en1@17.203.12.203".
.It Fl -nextonly
Same as for Folder Mode.
.It Fl -options
Same as for Folder Mode.
.It Fl -quiet
Do not print any output
.It Fl -verbose
Print verbose output
.El
.Ss INFO MODE
Info Mode has the following options:
.Bl -tag -width "xxopenfolderxdirectoryx" -compact
.It Fl -info Op Ar directory
Print out the blessed system folder for the volume mounted at
.Ar directory
\&. If
.Ar directory
is not specified, print information for the currently selected boot volume
(which may not necessarily be
.So
/
.Sc
\&.
.It Fl -getBoot
Print out the logical boot volume, based on what is currently selected. This
option will take into account the fact that the firmware may be pointing to an
auxiliary booter partition, and will print out the corresponding root partition
for those cases. If the system is configured to NetBoot, a URL matching the
format of the
.Fl -server
specification for NetBoot mode will be printed.
.It Fl -plist
Output all information in Property List (.plist) format, suitable
for parsing by CoreFoundation. This is most useful when
.Nm bless
is executed from another program and its standard output must be parsed.
.It Fl -quiet
Do not print any output
.It Fl -verbose
Print verbose output
.It Fl -version
Print bless version and exit immediately
.El
.Sh FILES
.Bl -tag -width /usr/standalone/ppc/bootx.bootinfo -compact
.It Pa /usr/standalone/ppc/bootx.bootinfo
Secondary loader with XML headers, used with the
.Fl -bootinfo
flag. Used for booting New World PPC-based Macintoshes. If the argument to
.Fl -bootinfo
is ommitted, this file will be used as the default input.
.It Pa /usr/standalone/i386/boot.efi
Booter for EFI-based systems, used with the
.Fl -bootefi
flag. If the argument to
.Fl -bootefi
is ommitted, this file will be used as the default input.
.It Pa /System/Library/CoreServices
Typical blessed folder for Mac OS X and Darwin
.El
.Sh EXAMPLES
.Ss FOLDER MODE
To bless a volume with only Mac OS 9:
.Bd -ragged -offset indent
.Nm bless
.Fl -folder9
.Qo /Volumes/Mac OS 9/System Folder Qc
.Fl -bootBlockFile
.Qo /usr/share/misc/bootblockdata Qc
.Ed
.Pp
To bless a volume with only Mac OS X or Darwin, and create the BootX and
boot.efi files as needed:
.Bd -ragged -offset indent
.Nm bless
.Fl -folder
.Qo /Volumes/Mac OS X/System/Library/CoreServices Qc
.Fl -bootinfo
.Fl -bootefi
.Ed
.Ss MOUNT MODE
To set a volume containing either Mac OS 9 and Mac OS X to be
the active volume:
.Bd -ragged -offset indent
.Nm bless
.Fl -mount
.Qo /Volumes/Mac OS Qc
.Fl -setBoot
.Ed
.Ss NETBOOT MODE
To set the system to NetBoot and broadcast for an available server:
.Bd -ragged -offset indent
.Nm bless
.Fl -netboot
.Fl -server
.Ar bsdp://255.255.255.255
.Ed
.Ss INFO MODE
To gather information about the currently selected volume (as
determined by the firmware), suitable for piping to a program capable
of parsing Property Lists:
.Bd -ragged -offset indent
.Nm bless
.Fl -info
.Fl -plist
.Ed
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr mount 8 ,
.Xr newfs 8 ,
.Xr nvram 8