.\" Copyright (c) 1985, 1990, 1993 .\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. .\" .\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without .\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions .\" are met: .\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. .\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the .\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. .\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software .\" must display the following acknowledgement: .\" This product includes software developed by the University of .\" California, Berkeley and its contributors. .\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors .\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software .\" without specific prior written permission. .\" .\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND .\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE .\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE .\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE .\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL .\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS .\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) .\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT .\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY .\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF .\" SUCH DAMAGE. .\" .\" From: @(#)whois.1 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/6/93 .\" $FreeBSD: src/usr.bin/whois/whois.1,v 1.32 2004/06/14 17:30:46 bms Exp $ .\" .Dd June 14, 2004 .Dt WHOIS 1 .Os .Sh NAME .Nm whois .Nd "Internet domain name and network number directory service" .Sh SYNOPSIS .Nm .Op Fl aAbdgiIlmQrR6 .Op Fl c Ar country-code | Fl h Ar host .Op Fl p Ar port .Ar name ... .Sh DESCRIPTION The .Nm utility looks up records in the databases maintained by several Network Information Centers .Pq Tn NICs . .Pp The options are as follows: .Bl -tag -width indent .It Fl 6 Use the IPv6 Resource Center .Pq Tn 6bone database. It contains network names and addresses for the IPv6 network. .It Fl A Use the Asia/Pacific Network Information Center .Pq Tn APNIC database. It contains network numbers used in East Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific islands. .It Fl a Use the American Registry for Internet Numbers .Pq Tn ARIN database. It contains network numbers used in those parts of the world covered neither by .Tn APNIC nor by .Tn RIPE . .Pp (Hint: All point of contact handles in the .Tn ARIN whois database end with .Qq Li -ARIN . ) .Pp .It Fl b Use the Network Abuse Clearinghouse database. It contains addresses to which network abuse should be reported, indexed by domain name. .It Fl c Ar country-code This is the equivalent of using the .Fl h option with an argument of .Qq Ar country-code Ns Li .whois-servers.net . .It Fl d Use the US Department of Defense database. It contains points of contact for subdomains of .Pa .MIL . .It Fl g Use the US non-military federal government database, which contains points of contact for subdomains of .Pa .GOV . .It Fl h Ar host Use the specified host instead of the default variant. Either a host name or an IP address may be specified. .Pp By default .Nm constructs the name of a whois server to use from the top-level domain .Pq Tn TLD of the supplied (single) argument, and appending .Qq Li .whois-servers.net . This effectively allows a suitable whois server to be selected automatically for a large number of .Tn TLDs . .Pp In the event that an IP address is specified, the whois server will default to the American Registry for Internet Numbers .Pq Tn ARIN . If a query to .Tn ARIN references .Tn APNIC , LACNIC , or .Tn RIPE , that server will be queried also, provided that the .Fl Q option is not specified. .Pp If the query is not a domain name or IP address, .Nm will fall back to .Pa whois.crsnic.net . .It Fl I Use the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority .Pq Tn IANA database. It contains network information for top-level domains. .It Fl i Use the Network Solutions Registry for Internet Numbers .Pq Pa whois.networksolutions.com database. It contains network numbers and domain contact information for most of .Pa .COM , .NET , .ORG and .Pa .EDU domains. .Pp .Sy NOTE ! The registration of these domains is now done by a number of independent and competing registrars. This database holds no information on domains registered by organizations other than Network Solutions, Inc. Also, note that the .Tn InterNIC database .Pq Pa whois.internic.net is no longer handled by Network Solutions, Inc. For details, see .Pa http://www.internic.net/ . .Pp (Hint: Contact information, identified by the term .Em handle , can be looked up by prefixing .Qq Li "handle " to the .Tn NIC handle in the query.) .It Fl l Use the Latin American and Caribbean IP address Regional Registry .Pq Tn LACNIC database. It contains network numbers used in much of Latin America and the Caribbean. .It Fl m Use the Route Arbiter Database .Pq Tn RADB database. It contains route policy specifications for a large number of operators' networks. .It Fl p Ar port Connect to the whois server on .Ar port . If this option is not specified, .Nm defaults to port 43. .It Fl Q Do a quick lookup. This means that .Nm will not attempt to lookup the name in the authoritative whois server (if one is listed). This option has no effect when combined with any other options. .It Fl R Use the Russia Network Information Center .Pq Tn RIPN database. It contains network numbers and domain contact information for subdomains of .Pa .RU . This option is deprecated; use the .Fl c option with an argument of .Qq Li RU instead. .It Fl r Use the R\(aaeseaux IP Europ\(aaeens .Pq Tn RIPE database. It contains network numbers and domain contact information for Europe. .El .Pp The operands specified to .Nm are treated independently and may be used as queries on different whois servers. .Sh EXAMPLES Most types of data, such as domain names and .Tn IP addresses, can be used as arguments to .Nm without any options, and .Nm will choose the correct whois server to query. Some exceptions, where .Nm will not be able to handle data correctly, are detailed below. .Pp To obtain contact information about an administrator located in the Russian .Tn TLD domain .Qq Li RU , use the .Fl c option as shown in the following example, where .Ar CONTACT-ID is substituted with the actual contact identifier. .Pp .Dl "whois -c RU CONTACT-ID" .Pp (Note: This example is specific to the .Tn TLD .Qq Li RU , but other .Tn TLDs can be queried by using a similar syntax.) .Pp The following example demonstrates how to obtain information about an .Tn IPv6 address or hostname using the .Fl 6 option, which directs the query to .Tn 6bone . .Pp .Dl "whois -6 IPv6-IP-Address" .Pp The following example demonstrates how to query a whois server using a non-standard port, where .Dq Li query-data is the query to be sent to .Dq Li whois.example.com on port .Dq Li rwhois (written numerically as 4321). .Pp .Dl "whois -h whois.example.com -p rwhois query-data" .Sh SEE ALSO .Rs .%A Ken Harrenstien .%A Vic White .%T NICNAME/WHOIS .%D 1 March 1982 .%O RFC 812 .Re .Sh HISTORY The .Nm command appeared in .Bx 4.3 .