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		    Building and Installing X11R6.6

			     April 4, 2001

Copyright (C) 1999,2000,2001 Compaq Computer Corporation
Copyright (C) 1999,2000,2001 Hewlett-Packard Company
Copyright (C) 1999,2000,2001 IBM Corporation
Copyright (C) 1999,2000,2001 Hummingbird Communications Ltd.
Copyright (C) 1999,2000,2001 Silicon Graphics, Inc.
Copyright (C) 1999,2000,2001 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
Copyright (C) 1998,1999,2000,2001 The Open Group

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a
copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Soft-
ware"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without
limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute,
and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the
Software is furnished to do so, provided that the above copyright
notice(s) and this permission notice appear in all copies of the Soft-
ware and that both the above copyright notice(s) and this permission
notice appear in supporting documentation.


Except as contained in this notice, the name of a copyright holder shall
not be used in advertising or otherwise to promote the sale, use or
other dealings in this Software without prior written authorization of
the copyright holder.

X Window System is a trademark of The Open Group.

1.  Introduction

This document is the installation notes that were provided with X.Org's
X11R6.6 release.  If you're building XFree86, it can be used as a rough
guide.	Be aware that most of the details are not targeted specifically
at the current XFree86 source tree.  XFree86-specific documentation can
be found in the xc/programs/Xserver/hw/xfree86/doc directory and on-line
at  Some of the documentation there is
out of date, so also be aware of that.	There is currently no up to date
document specifically targeted at building XFree86 from source.

2.  Easy Build Instructions

This quick summary is no substitute for reading the full build instruc-
tions later in this document.

Edit xc/config/cf/site.def for local preferences.  If you want to
install and use the installation from somewhere other than /usr, change
ProjectRoot. (Do not use DESTDIR.)

If you are cross compiling you will want to use DESTDIR to specify where
the installation should take place. Failure to do so will corrupt your
native installation of X.

If you want to build with gcc uncomment the HasGcc2 line.  If you have
gcc, but not cc, please read the full build instructions.

If some time has elapsed since the initial release of R6.6, check to see
if any public patches have been released. The source tar files may have
been updated -- check the patch-level line in the bug-report template.
If the source in the tar files has not been updated then get all the
patches and apply them, following the instructions at the top of each
patch. Ignore the rebuild steps in the patch application instructions.

Check the appropriate vendor-specific .cf file in xc/config/cf/ to make
sure that OSMajorVersion, OSMinorVersion, and OSTeenyVersion are set
correctly for your system. On most systems imake will figure these out
automatically; but you may override them in your xc/config/cf/site.def
if you want.

See if there is a BootstrapCFlags mentioned in the comments in the ven-
dor-specific .cf file. (Most systems don't have or need one. The Boot-
strapCFlags in is for SunOS 4.0.x, so if you're building on SunOS
4.1.x or SunOS 5/Solaris 2 then BootstrapCFlags doesn't apply.) If there
isn't one, cd to the xc directory and type (in csh):

     % make World >& world.log

If there is an applicable BootstrapCFlags, take its value and type:

     % make World BOOTSTRAPCFLAGS="value" >& world.log

Do not call the output file "make.log" when doing "make World".  After a
successful build, you can install with:

     % make install >& install.log

You can install manual pages with:

     % make >& man.log

While the system is building (or if things fail), read the rest of these
installation instructions.

3.  Building and Installing R6.6

Historically the MIT X Consortium, The X Consortium, Inc., and X.Org
sample implementation releases have always been source-code-only
releases, and this release is no different.

3.1.  Introduction

Every release of X has been progressively easier to configure, build,
and install than the preceding releases -- and we believe this release
is the easiest release to build yet. That notwithstanding, if things do
go amiss during the build we assume that you have the basic skills nec-
essary, and the willingness, to debug any errors that may occur in the
build process. When you install, if you're going to use xdm or replace
your system's old X, we assume you have a basic understanding of your
system's initialization process. For Remote Execution (RX, embedding) we
assume that you understand the fundamentals of HTTP, CGI, and HTML. If
these assumptions are not correct then you should consider finding some-
one who has proficiency in these areas to do the build and install for

After the release has been out for a while more up to date information
about any newly-discovered problems may be found in the Frequently Asked
Questions posting, which appears monthly on the Usenet newsgroup and xpert mailing list. The FAQ is also available via
anonymous FTP from in the file
trib/faqs/FAQ.Z, or possibly on one of X mirror sites.

3.2.  Preparing Your Build System

The source is distributed in four gzip compressed UNIX Tape ARchive
(tar) files. You will need about 230 Mb of disk space in order to unpack
and build the release. Installing requires an additional 30-50 Mb assum-
ing you have shared libraries (80-100 Mb without).

On non-UNIX systems you'll need a utility that can extract gzip com-
pressed tar files to extract the sources. There are several to chose
from, we do not make recommendations about which one you should use.

Release 6.6 sources are distributed among the tar files as follows:

     xorg-1.tar     contains everything in xc/ that isn't in the other tar files
     xorg-2.tar     contains xc/fonts
     xorg-3.tar     contains xc/doc/specs, xc/util
     xorg-4.tar     contains xc/doc/hardcopy

If you define BuildFonts to NO in your site.def file, then you only need
to unpack xorg-1.tar to build. If you build fonts, then you will also
need xorg-2.tar to build. If you already have the fonts from prior
releases you can use those instead of downloading them again. We presume
that you know how to copy or move them from your old source tree to the
R6.6 source tree.

3.3.  Unpacking the Distribution

Create a directory to hold the sources and cd into it:

     % mkdir sourcedir
     % cd sourcedir

Then for each tar file xorg-*.tar.gz, execute this:

     % gunzip -c ftp-dir/xorg-N.tar.gz | tar xf -

or if you have GNU's tar (FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, or Linux too)

     % tar xzf ftp-dir/xorg-N.tar.gz

3.4.  Applying Patches

If some time has elapsed since the initial release of R6.6, check to see
if any public patches have been released. The source tar files may have
been updated -- check the patch-level line in the bug-report template.
If the source in the tar files has not been updated then get all the
patches and apply them, following the instructions at the top of each
patch. Ignore the rebuild steps in the patch application instructions.

See the section "Public Patches" later in this document.

Then continue here.

3.5.  Configuration Parameters (Imake Variables)

This release, like all the releases before it, uses imake, a utility for
creating system-specific Makefiles from system-independent Imakefiles.
Almost every directory in the release contains an Imakefile. System-spe-
cific configuration information is located in xc/config/cf/, which is
used by the imake program every time a Makefile is generated in the
source tree.

Most of the configuration work prior to building the release is to set
parameters (imake variables) so that imake will generate correct Make-
files. If you're building on one of the supported systems almost no con-
figuration work should be necessary.

You should define your configuration parameters in xc/con-
fig/cf/site.def. We provide an empty site.def file and a site.sample
file. The site.sample file is a suggested site.def file -- use it at
your own risk.

Any public patches we release will never patch site.def, so you can be
assured that applying a public-patch will not corrupt your site.def
file. On rare occasion you may need to make the change in your vendor-
specific .cf file; but you should avoid doing that if at all possible
because any patch we might release could conceivably patch your vendor-
specific .cf file and your change may be lost or garbled. You can over-
ride most of the things in your vendor-specific .cf file in your
site.def file.	(If you can't, it's a bug -- please file a bug-report.)

On the systems we use here, imake will automatically determine the OSMa-
jorVersion, OSMinorVersion, and OSTeenyVersion for your system. If your
system isn't one of the systems we build on here, or you want to build
for a different version of your operating system, then you can override
them in the appropriate entry in your site.def file.

The site.def file has two parts, one protected with "#ifdef BeforeVen-
dorCF" and one with "#ifdef AfterVendorCF".  The file is actually pro-
cessed twice, once before the .cf file and once after. About the only
thing you need to set in the "before" section is HasGcc2; just about
everything else can be set in the "after" section.

The site.sample also has commented out support to include another file,
host.def. This scheme may be useful if you want to set most parameters
site-wide, but some parameters vary from machine to machine.  If you use
a symbolic link tree, you can share site.def across all machines, and
give each machine its own copy of host.def.

The config parameters are listed in xc/config/cf/README, but here are
some of the new or more common parameters that you may wish to set in
your xc/config/cf/site.def.

     The destination where X will be installed. This variable needs to
     be set before you build, as some programs that read files at run-
     time have the installation directory compiled in to them.

     Set to NO if your system doesn't have /var or you don't want cer-
     tain files to be installed in VarDirectory.

     The location of site editable configuration and run-time files.
     Many sites prefer to install their X binaries on read-only media --
     either a disk slice (partition) that's mounted read-only for added
     security, an NFS volume mounted read-only for security and/or
     improved VM paging characteristics, or from a live filesystem on a
     CD-ROM. In order to simplify things like installing app-default
     files for locally built software, and allowing editing of miscella-
     neous configuration and policy files, and to allow xdm to create
     its master Xauthority file, some directories under $Project-
     Root/lib/X11 are actually installed in /var/X11, and $Project-
     Root/lib/X11 contains symlinks to the directories in /var/X11.

     Set to YES to build with gcc version 2.x instead of your system's
     default compiler.

     Set to YES to build the X Input Extension. This extension requires
     device-dependent support in the X server, which exists only in Xhp
     and XF86_* in the sample implementation.

     This is a directory where programs will be found even if PATH is
     not set in the environment. It is independent of ProjectRoot and
     defaults to /usr/bin. It is used, for example, when connecting from
     a remote system via rsh. The rstart program installs its server in
     this directory.

     Some systems require the X server to run as root to access the
     devices it needs. If you are on such a system and will not be using
     xdm, you may set this variable to YES to install the X server
     setuid to root; however the X.Org Group strongly recommends that
     you not install your server suid-root, but that you use xdm
     instead. Talk to your system manager before setting this variable
     to YES.

     By default set to NO, which suppresses installing xdm config files
     over existing ones. Leave it set to NO if your site has customized
     the files in $ProjectRoot/lib/X11/xdm, as many sites do.  If you
     don't install the new files, merge any changes present in the new

     Causes Xlib and Xt to work around some bugs in older versions of
     Motif.  Set to YES only if you will be linking with Motif version
     1.1.1, 1.1.2, or 1.1.3.

     Setting this variable to YES allows illegal XtGetValues requests
     with NULL ArgVal to usually succeed, as R5 did. Some applications
     erroneously rely on this behavior. Support for this will be removed
     in a future release.

The following vendor-specific .cf files are in the release but have not
been tested recently and hence probably need changes to work:,,,,,,,,,, is known to require additional patches.

The file xc/lib/Xdmcp/Wraphelp.c, for XDM-AUTHORIZATION-1, is not
included in this release. See

3.6.  System Build Notes

This section contains hints on building X with specific compilers and
operating systems.

If the build isn't finding things right, make sure you are using a com-
piler for your operating system. For example, a pre-compiled gcc for a
different OS (e.g. as a cross-compiler) will not have right symbols
defined, so imake will not work correctly.

3.6.1.	gcc

X will not compile on some systems with gcc version 2.5, 2.5.1, or 2.5.2
because of an incorrect declaration of memmove() in a gcc fixed include

If you are using a gcc version prior to 2.7 on Solaris x86, you need to
specify BOOTSTRAPCFLAGS="-Dsun" in the "make World" command.

If you're building on a system that has an unbundled compiler, e.g.
Solaris 2.x, and you do not have the cc compiler, you need to contrive
to have cc in your path in order to bootstrap imake.  One way to do this
is to create a symlink cc that points to gcc.

     % cd /usr/local/bin; ln -s path-to-gcc cc

Once imake has been built all the Makefiles created with it will explic-
itly use gcc and you can remove the symlink. Another way around this is
to edit xc/config/imake/Makefile.ini to specify gcc instead of cc.

3.6.2.	Other GNU tools

Use of the GNU BinUtils assembler, as, and linker, ld, is not supported
-- period! If you have them installed on your system you must rename or
remove them for the duration of the R6.6 build.  (You can restore them

The system-supplied make works just fine for building R6.6 and that's
what we suggest you use. If you've replaced your system's make with GNU
make then we recommend that you restore the system make for the duration
of your R6.6 build. After R6.6 is done building you can revert to GNU
make. GNU make on most systems (except Linux, where it is the default
make) is not a supported build configuration. GNU make may work for you,
and if it does, great; but if it doesn't we do not consider it a bug in
R6.6. If, after this admonition, you still use GNU make and your build
fails, reread the above, and retry the build with the system's make
before you file a bug-report.

3.6.3.	IBM AIX 4.x

On AIX 4.x, the file lib/font/Type1/objects.c must be compiled without
optimization (-O) or the X server and fontserver will exit when Type 1
fonts are used.

3.6.4.	SunOS 4.0.x

SunOS 4.0 and earlier need BOOTSTRAPCFLAGS=-DNOSTDHDRS because it does
not have unistd.h and stdlib.h. Do not supply a BOOTSTRAPCFLAGS when
building any SunOS 4.1 or 5.x (Solaris 2) version.

3.6.5.	Linux

On Linux systems imake has preliminary support to automatically deter-
mine which Linux distribution you're using. At this time it only auto-
matically detects S.u.S.E. Linux. On other Linux systems you should set
the LinuxDistribution parameter in your xc/config/cf/site.def -- see the
xc/config/cf/ file for the list of valid values. On Linux sys-
tems imake will also automatically determine which version of libc and
binutils your system has. You may override these in your xc/con-
fig/cf/site.def file.

Many distributions of Linux have poor or no support for ANSI/POSIX/ISO C
locale support. If your Linux distribution is one of these you should
make certain that the imake variable LinuxLocaleDefines is set to
-DX_LOCALE so that compose processing and other internationalization
features will work correctly. To help decide if you should use
-DX_LOCALE, look in /usr/share/locale -- if it's empty, you should prob-
ably use the -DX_LOCALE define.

3.6.6.	Microsoft Windows NT

All of the base libraries are supported, including multi-threading in
Xlib and Xt, but some of the more complicated applications, specifically
xterm and xdm, are not supported.

There are also some other rough edges in the implementation, such as
lack of support for non-socket file descriptors as Xt alternate inputs
and not using the registry for configurable parameters like the system
filenames and search paths.

The Xnest server has been made to run on NT; although it still requires
a real X server for output still. A real X server can not be built from
these sources -- in order to display X applications on a MS-Windows host
you will have to acquire a real X Server.

You have several choices for imake's RmTreeCmd. Look at the possible
definitions in the xc/config/cf/ file, choose one that's right
for you, and add it to your xc/config/cf/site.def file.

3.7.  The Build

For all the supported UNIX and UNIX-like systems you can simply type (in

     % make World >& world.log

You can call the output file something other than "world.log"; but don't
call it "make.log" because files with this name are automatically
deleted during the initial "cleaning" stage of the build.

The build can take several hours on older systems, and may take as lit-
tle as an hour on the faster systems that are available today. On UNIX
and UNIX-like systems you may want to run it in the background and keep
a watch on the output. For example:

     % make World >& world.log &
     % tail -f world.log

If something goes wrong, the easiest thing is to correct the problem and
start over again, i.e. typing "make World".

3.7.1.	UNIX and UNIX-like systems

Check your vendor-specific .cf file; if it doesn't have BootstrapCFlags
that apply to your version of the operating system then type (in csh):

     % make World >& world.log

Otherwise type (in csh):

     % make World BOOTSTRAPCFLAGS="value" >& world.log

None of the supported operating systems need to use BOOTSTRAPCFLAGS.

3.7.2.	Microsoft Windows NT

On NT, make certain your Path, Include, and Lib environment variables
are set accordingly. For example here we use the command line compiler
in VC++ 4.0 Standard Edition, which is installed in C:\MSDEVSTD. To
setup the environment type:

     > set Path=old-path;C:\MSDEVSTD\bin;C:\path-to-RmTreeCmd
     > set Include=C:\MSDEVSTD\include
     > set Lib=C:\MSDEVSTD\lib

Then to build, at the prompt, type:

     C:\> nmake World.Win32 > world.log

3.8.  Installing X

After the build has successfully completed you can install the software
by typing the following as root:

     % make install >& install.log

or on Microsoft Windows NT

     C:\> nmake install > install.log

Again, you might want to run this in the background and use tail to
watch the progress.

You can install the manual pages by typing the following as root:

     % make >& man.log

3.9.  Shared Libraries

The version number of some of the shared libraries has been changed.  On
SunOS 4, which supports minor version numbers for shared libraries, pro-
grams linked with the R6.6 libraries will use the new libraries with no
special action required.

On most other modern operating systems the version portion of the
library name, i.e. "6.1" portion of "" is a string. Even if
it's only one character long, e.g. "1" (as in it's still a
string. This string uniquely identifies and distinguishes one version of
the library from another. Even though all the libraries in this release
are compatible with the libraries from previous releases, and there's
otherwise no reason to change the version string, we do it to identify
which source release the libraries were built from.

An old program that was linked with won't run if you
delete and install in its place. In gen-
eral on these systems you have the following choices:

1.   Keep the old versions of the libraries around.

2.   Relink all applications with the new libraries.

3.   Create a symlink using the old name which points to the new name.

     For example, to have programs that were linked against libX- use, make this symlink:

	  % cd $ProjectRoot/lib
	  % ln -s

On some distributions of Linux the run-time loader is broken -- requir-
ing that the library's internal SONAME match the filename -- and the
symlink solution won't work. We recommend that you get a new run-time
loader which is not broken or recompile your run-time loader to not
require that the SONAME match.

3.10.  Setting Up xterm

If your /etc/termcap and /usr/lib/terminfo databases do not have correct
entries for xterm, use the sample entries provided in the directory
xc/programs/xterm/. System V users may need to compile and install the
terminfo entry with the tic utility.

Since each xterm will need a separate pseudoterminal, you need a reason-
able number of them for normal execution. You probably will want at
least 32 on a small, multiuser system. On most systems, each pty has two
devices, a master and a slave, which are usually named
/dev/tty[pqrstu][0-f] and /dev/pty[pqrstu][0-f]. If you don't have at
least the "p" and "q" sets configured (try typing "ls /dev/?ty??"), you
should have your system administrator add them.  This is commonly done
by running the MAKEDEV script in the /dev directory with appropriate

3.11.  Starting Servers Automatically at System Boot

The xfs and xdm programs are designed to be run automatically at system
startup. Please read the manual pages for details on setting up configu-
ration files; reasonable sample files are in xc/programs/xdm/config/ and

Since xfs can serve fonts over the network, you do not need to run a
font server on every machine with an X display. You should start xfs
before xdm, since xdm may start an X server which is a client of (depen-
dent on) the font server.

3.11.1.  On BSD-based systems using /etc/rc or /etc/rc.local

If your system uses an /etc/rc or /etc/rc.local file at boot time, you
can usually enable these programs by placing the following at or near
the end of the file:

     if [ -f $ProjectRoot/bin/xfs ]; then
	     $ProjectRoot/bin/xfs & echo -n ' xfs'

     if [ -f $ProjectRoot/bin/xdm ]; then
	     $ProjectRoot/bin/xdm; echo -n ' xdm'

On later versions of FreeBSD the preferred way of doing this is to cre-
ate the directory $ProjectRoot/etc/rc.d. Add this directory to the
local_startup variable defined in /etc/rc.conf, and then create short
scripts in this directory to start xfs and xdm.

If you are unsure about how system boot works, or if your system does
not use /etc/rc, consult your system administrator for help.

3.11.2.  On Linux systems

Most Linux distributions have an /etc/inittab entry specifically for
xdm. Depending on your distribution this may be run-level three, four,
or five. To use xdm, edit /etc/inittab and find the line which contains
initdefault and change it from 2 to the appropriate run-level

You Linux distribution may already have a script to start xdm at a par-
ticular run-level. For example on S.u.S.E. Linux 5.0 there is the file
/sbin/init.d/xdm, and the symlink /sbin/init.d/rc3.d/S30xdm which points
to /sbin/init.d/xdm. Change /sbin/init.d/xdm to use $Project-
Root/bin/xdm. You can use the xdm script as a model write an xfs script.
Depending on your Linux distribution you may find these files in
/etc/init.d instead of /sbin/init.d.

3.11.3.  On Digital Unix, HPUX 10, and SVR4 systems

Most systems run xdm by default at some particular run-level of the sys-
tem. There is a master init.d file and a run-level symlink rc?.d that
points to the master init.d file:

 Operating System    rc?.d symlink	      init.d file

 Digital Unix 4.0    /sbin/rc3.d/S95xlogin    /sbin/init.d/xlogin
 HPUX 10.20	     /sbin/rc3.d/S800xdm      /sbin/init.d/xdm
 Solaris 2.[0-4]
 Solaris 2.5	     /etc/rc3.d/S99xdm	      /etc/init.d/xdm.rc
 Solaris 2.6	     /etc/rc2.d/S99dtlogin    /etc/init.d/dtlogin
 IRIX 6.2	     /etc/rc2.d/S98xdm	      /etc/init.d/xdm
 Unixware	     /etc/rc2.d/S69xdm	      /etc/init.d/xdm

In general you can edit the init.d file to use $ProjectRoot/bin/xdm. You
can use the xdm file as a model to write an /etc/rc?.d/S??xfs file to
start xfs. Some systems may already have files to start xfs. Starting in
Solaris 2.5 Sun uses inetd to start xfs -- you should remove the xfs
entries from /etc/inetd.conf and /etc/services before adding xfs to the
run-level files.

3.11.4.  On Unix System V-based systems

On systems with a /etc/inittab file, you can edit this file to add the


3.12.  Using OPEN LOOK applications

You can use the X11R6.x Xsun server with OPEN LOOK applications; but you
must pass the -swapLkeys flag to the server on startup, or the OPEN LOOK
Undo, Copy, Paste, Find, and Cut keys may not work correctly. For exam-
ple, to run Sun's OpenWindows 3.3 desktop environment with an X11R6
server, use the command:

     % openwin -server $ProjectRoot/bin/Xsun -swapLkeys

The keysyms reported by keys on the numeric keypad have also changed
since X11R5; if you find that OpenWindows applications do not respond to
keypad keys and cursor control keys when using an R6 server, you can
remap the keypad to generate R5 style keysyms using the following
xmodmap commands:

     keysym Pause = F21
     keysym Print = F22
     keysym Break = F23
     keysym KP_Equal = F24
     keysym KP_Divide = F25
     keysym KP_Multiply = F26
     keysym KP_Home = F27
     keysym KP_Up = Up
     keysym KP_Prior = F29
     keysym KP_Left = Left
     keycode 100 = F31
     keysym KP_Right = Right
     keysym KP_End = F33
     keysym KP_Down = Down
     keysym KP_Next = F35
     keysym KP_Insert = Insert
     keysym KP_Delete = Delete

3.13.  Rebuilding after Patches

Eventually you are going to make changes to the sources, for example by
applying any public patches that may be released or to fix any bugs you
may have found.

If only source files are changed, rebuild by going to the base of your
source tree xc and typing:

     % make >& make.log

If there are imake configuration file changes, the best thing to do is

     % make Everything >& every.log

"Everything" is similar to "World" in that it rebuilds every Makefile,
but unlike "World" it does not delete the existing objects, libraries,
and executables, and only rebuilds what is out of date.

3.14.  Formatting the Documentation

The PostScript files in xc/doc/hardcopy can be generated from the
sources in xc/doc/specs. Most of the documentation is in troff using the
-ms macros. The easiest way to format it is to use the Imakefiles pro-

Set the name of your local troff program by setting the variable Trof-
fCmd in xc/config/cf/site.def. Then build the Makefiles:

     cd xc/doc
     make SUBDIRS=specs Makefiles

Finally, go to the directory you are interested in and type "make"
there. This command will generate .PS files. You can also generate text
files by specifying the document name with a .txt extension as a make
target, e.g., "make icccm.txt".

4.  Public Patches

The X.Org Group may from time to time issue public patches for this
release to fix any serious problems that are discovered. Such fixes are
a subset of fixes available to X.Org members. Public patches are avail-
able via anonymous FTP from, or from your
local X mirror site.  Check the site closest to you first.

You can determine which public patches have already been applied to your
source tree by examining the "VERSION" line of xc/bug-report. The source
in the tar files you have may already have some patches applied; you
only need to apply later patches. If you try to apply patches out of
order or apply patches that are already in your tree, patch will tell
you that you have the wrong version and not apply the patch.

Source for the patch program is in xc/util/patch/. The patch program
included on some systems may not support all the options this version
has. If you have problems applying patches, or if you're otherwise in
doubt, use this version.