.\" $Darwin$ .\" .\" Copyright (c) 1999-2002 Apple Computer, Inc. All rights reserved. .\" .\" @APPLE_LICENSE_HEADER_START@ .\" .\" The contents of this file constitute Original Code as defined in and .\" are subject to the Apple Public Source License Version 1.1 (the .\" "License"). You may not use this file except in compliance with the .\" License. Please obtain a copy of the License at .\" http://www.apple.com/publicsource and read it before using this file. .\" .\" This Original Code and all software distributed under the License are .\" distributed on an "AS IS" basis, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER .\" EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AND APPLE HEREBY DISCLAIMS ALL SUCH WARRANTIES, .\" INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION, ANY WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, .\" FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR NON-INFRINGEMENT. Please see the .\" License for the specific language governing rights and limitations .\" under the License. .\" .\" @APPLE_LICENSE_HEADER_END@ .\" .Dd August 29, 2008 .Dt SHM_OPEN 2 .Os Darwin .Sh NAME .Nm shm_open .Nd open a shared memory object .Sh SYNOPSIS .Fd #include <sys/mman.h> .Ft int .Fo shm_open .Fa "const char *name" .Fa "int oflag" .Fa "..." .Fc .Pp The parameter "mode_t mode" is optional. .Sh DESCRIPTION The shared memory object referenced by .Fa name is opened for reading and/or writing as specified by the argument .Fa oflag and the file descriptor returned to the calling process. The returned file descriptor will be the lowest non-open file descriptor for the calling process, and is not shared with any other processes, as it is a new file descriptor. The new file descriptor will have the .Dv FD_CLOEXEC flag set. Repeated calls to .Nm shm_open with the same string value for .Fn name will return a file descriptor referring to the same shared memory object, provided that the object has not been unlinked by a call to .Fn shm_unlink . The .Fa oflag argument may indicate the file is to be created if it does not exist (by specifying the .Dv O_CREAT flag), in which case the file is created with mode .Fa mode as described in .Xr chmod 2 and modified by the process' umask value (see .Xr umask 2 ) . .Pp The value of .Fa oflag is formed by .Em or Ns 'ing the following values: .Pp .Bd -literal -offset indent -compact O_RDONLY open for reading only O_RDWR open for reading and writing O_CREAT create object if it does not exist O_EXCL error if create and object exists O_TRUNC truncate size to 0 .Ed .Pp Exactly one of .Dv O_RDONLY or .Dv O_RDWR must be specified. .Pp If .Dv O_TRUNC is specified and the file exists, the file is truncated to zero length. If .Dv O_EXCL is set with .Dv O_CREAT and the file already exists, .Fn shm_open returns an error. This may be used to implement a simple exclusive access locking mechanism. .Pp If successful, .Fn shm_open returns a non-negative integer, termed a file descriptor. It returns -1 and sets .Va errno on failure. The file pointer used to mark the current position within the memory object is set to the beginning of the object. .Pp When a new shared memory object is created it is given the owner and group corresponding to the effective user and group of the calling process. There is no visible entry in the file system for the created object in this implementation. .Pp When a shared memory object is created, it persists until it it unlinked and all other references are gone. Objects do not persist across a system reboot. .Pp The system imposes a limit on the number of file descriptors open simultaneously by one process. .Xr Getdtablesize 2 returns the current system limit. .Sh ERRORS The named object is opened unless: .Bl -tag -width Er .It Bq Er EACCES The required permissions (for reading and/or writing) are denied for the given flags. .It Bq Er EACCES .Dv O_CREAT is specified, the object does not exist, and permission to create the object is denied. .It Bq Er EEXIST .Dv O_CREAT and .Dv O_EXCL were specified and the object exists. .It Bq Er EINTR The .Fn shm_open operation was interrupted by a signal. .It Bq Er EINVAL The .Fn shm_open operation is not supported. .It Bq Er EMFILE The process has already reached its limit for open file descriptors. .It Bq Er ENAMETOOLONG .Fa name exceeded the name size limit. This is currently .Dv PSHMNAMLEN characters (defined in .In sys/posix_shm.h ) , but this may change in the future. .It Bq Er ENFILE The system file table is full. .It Bq Er ENOENT .Dv O_CREAT is not set and the named object does not exist. .It Bq Er ENOSPC .Dv O_CREAT is specified, the file does not exist, and there is insufficient space available to create the object. .El .Sh SEE ALSO .Xr chmod 2 , .Xr close 2 , .Xr getdtablesize 2 , .Xr mmap 2 , .Xr shm_unlink 2 , .Xr umask 2 .Sh HISTORY .Fn shm_open is specified in the POSIX Realtime Extension (1003.1b-1993/1003.1i-1995).