.\" Copyright (c) 1980, 1991, 1993 .\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. .\" .\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without .\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions .\" are met: .\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. .\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright .\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the .\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. .\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software .\" must display the following acknowledgement: .\" This product includes software developed by the University of .\" California, Berkeley and its contributors. .\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors .\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software .\" without specific prior written permission. .\" .\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND .\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE .\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE .\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE .\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL .\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS .\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) .\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT .\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY .\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF .\" SUCH DAMAGE. .\" .\" @(#)intro.3 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/5/93 .\" $FreeBSD: src/share/man/man3/intro.3,v 1.14 2001/08/07 15:48:38 ru Exp $ .\" .Dd June 5, 1993 .Dt INTRO 3 .Os .Sh NAME .Nm intro .Nd introduction to the C libraries .Sh DESCRIPTION This section provides an overview of the C library functions, their error returns and other common definitions and concepts. Most of these functions are available from the C library, .Em libc . .\" (see .\" .Xr libc 3 ) . Other libraries, such as the math library, .Em libm , must be indicated at compile time with the .Fl l option of the compiler. .\" .Pp .\" A subset of the .\" .Xr libc functions .\" are available from Fortran; .\" they are described separately in .\" .Xr intro 3f . .Pp The various libraries (followed by the loader flag): .Bl -tag -width "libc (-lc)" .It Xr libc Pq Fl l Ns Ar c Standard C library functions. .\" (See .\" .Xr libc 3 . ) When using the C compiler .Xr cc 1 , it is not necessary to supply the loader flag .Fl l Ns Ar c for these functions. There are several `libraries' or groups of functions included inside of .Xr libc : the standard .Tn I/O routines, database routines, bit operators, string operators, character tests and character operators, des encryption routines, storage allocation, time functions, signal handling and more. .It Xr libcurses Pq Fl l Ns Ar curses Fl l Ns Ar termcap Terminal independent screen management routines for two dimensional non-bitmap display terminals. (See .Xr ncurses 3 . ) .It Xr libcompat Pq Fl l Ns Ar compat Functions which are obsolete but are available for compatibility with .Bx 4.3 . In particular, a number of system call interfaces provided in previous releases of .Bx have been included for source code compatibility. Use of these routines should, for the most part, be avoided. The manual page entry for each compatibility routine indicates the proper interface to use. .It Xr libkvm Pq Fl l Ns Ar kvm Functions used to access kernel memory are in this library. They can be used against both a running system and a crash dump. (See .Xr kvm 3 . ) .It Xr libl Pq Fl l Ns Ar l The library for .Xr lex 1 . .\" .It Xr libln .It Xr libm Pq Fl l Ns Ar m The math library, .Em libm . The math library is loaded as needed by the Pascal compiler, .\" .Xr pc 1 , but not by the C compiler which requires the .Fl l Ns Ar m flag. (See .Xr math 3 . ) .It Xr libmp Pq Fl l Ns Ar mp .\" .It Xr libom .\" Old math library. .\" .It Xr libplot Pq Fl l Ns Ar plot .\" Device independent plotting functions. .\" (See .\" .Xr plot 3 . ) .\" .It Xr libplotf77 Pq Fl l Ns Ar plotf77 .\" The device independent plotting functions for fortran. .\" (See .\" .Xr plot 3 . ) .\" .It Xr libresolv Pq Fl l Ns Ar resolv .\" Routines for network address resolution. .It Xr libtermcap Pq Fl l Ns Ar termcap The terminal independent operation library package. (See .Xr termcap 3 . ) .\" .It libvt0.a .It Xr liby Pq Fl l Ns Ar y The library for .Xr yacc 1 . .El .Sh FILES .Bl -tag -width /usr/lib/libm_p.a -compact .It Pa /usr/lib/libc.a the C library .It Pa /usr/lib/libc_p.a the C library compiled for profiling .It Pa /usr/lib/libm.a the math library .It Pa /usr/lib/libm_p.a the math library compiled for profiling .El .Sh SEE ALSO .\" .Xr libc 3 , .Xr cc 1 , .Xr ld 1 , .Xr nm 1 , .Xr intro 2 , .Xr math 3 , .Xr stdio 3 .\" .Sh LIST OF FUNCTIONS .\" .Bl -column "strncasecmpxxx" "system" .\" .Sy Name Description .\" .El .Sh HISTORY An .Nm manual appeared in .At v7 .