draft-ietf-cat-kerberos-pk-init-01.txt   [plain text]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                         Clifford Neuman
draft-ietf-cat-kerberos-pk-init-01.txt                      Brian Tung
Updates: RFC 1510                                                  ISI
expires December 7, 1996                                     John Wray
                                         Digital Equipment Corporation

    Public Key Cryptography for Initial Authentication in Kerberos

0. Status Of this Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft.   Internet-Drafts  are  working
   documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas,
   and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute
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   The distribution of  this  memo  is  unlimited.   It  is  filed  as
   draft-ietf-cat-kerberos-pk-init-01.txt, and expires December 7, 1996.
   Please send comments to the authors.

1. Abstract

   This document defines extensions to the Kerberos protocol  specifi-
   cation  (RFC  1510,  "The  Kerberos  Network Authentication Service
   (V5)", September 1993) to provide a method for using public key
   cryptography during initial authentication.  The method defined 
   specifies the way in which preauthentication data fields and error
   data fields in Kerberos messages are to be used to transport public
   key data. 

2. Motivation

   Public key cryptography presents a means by which a principal may
   demonstrate possession of a key, without ever having divulged this
   key to anyone else.  In conventional cryptography, the encryption key
   and decryption key are either identical or can easily be derived from
   one another.  In public key cryptography, however, neither the public
   key nor the private key can be derived from the other (although the
   private key RECORD may include the information required to generate
   BOTH keys).  Hence, a message encrypted with a public key is private,
   since only the person possessing the private key can decrypt it;
   similarly, someone possessing the private key can also encrypt a
   message, thus providing a digital signature.

   Furthermore, conventional keys are often derived from passwords, so
   messages encrypted with these keys are susceptible to dictionary
   attacks, whereas public key pairs are generated from a pseudo-random
   number sequence.  While it is true that messages encrypted using
   public key cryptography are actually encrypted with a conventional
   secret key, which is in turn encrypted using the public key pair,
   the secret key is also randomly generated and is hence not vulnerable
   to a dictionary attack.

   The advantages provided by public key cryptography have produced a
   demand for its integration into the Kerberos authentication protocol.
   The primary advantage of registering public keys with the KDC lies in
   the ease of recovery in case the KDC is compromised.  With Kerberos as
   it currently stands, compromise of the KDC is disastrous.  All
   keys become known by the attacker and all keys must be changed.  

   If users register public keys, compromise of the KDC does not divulge
   their private key.  Compromise of security on the KDC is still a
   problem, since an attacker can impersonate any user by certifying a
   bogus key with the KDC's private key.  However, all bogus
   certificates can be invalidated by revoking and changing the
   KDC's public key.  Legitimate users have to re-certify their public
   keys with the new KDC key, but the users's keys themselves do not
   need to be changed.  Keys for application servers are conventional
   symmetric keys and must be changed.

   Note: If a user stores his private key, in an encrypted form, on the
   KDC, then he does have to change the key pair, since the private key
   is encrypted using a symmetric key derived from a password (as
   described below), and is therefore vulnerable to dictionary attack.
   Assuming good password policy, however, legitimate users may be
   allowed to use the old password for a limited time, solely for the
   purpose of changing the key pair.  The realm administrator is then
   not forced to re-key all users.

   There are two important areas where public key cryptography will have
   immediate use: in the initial authentication of users registered with
   the KDC or using public key certificates from outside authorities,
   and to establish inter-realm keys for cross-realm authentication.
   This memo describes a method by which the first of these can be done.
   The second case will be the topic for a separate proposal.

   Some of the ideas on which this proposal is based arose during
   discussions over several years between members of the SAAG, the
   IETF-CAT working group, and the PSRG, regarding integration of
   Kerberos and SPX.  Some ideas are drawn from the DASS system, and
   similar extensions have been discussed for use in DCE.  These changes
   are by no means endorsed by these groups.  This is an attempt to
   revive some of the goals of that group, and the proposal approaches
   those goals primarily from the Kerberos perspective.

3. Initial authentication of users with public keys

   This section describes the extensions to Version 5 of the Kerberos
   protocol that will support the use of public key cryptography by
   users in the initial request for a ticket granting ticket.  This
   proposal is based on the implementation already made available;
   nevertheless, we solicit any comments on modifications or additions
   to the protocol description below.

   Roughly speaking, the following changes to RFC 1510 are proposed:
       a.  The KDC's response is encrypted using a random nonce key,
           rather than the user's secret key.
       b.  This random key accompanies the response in a
           preauthentication field, encrypted and signed using the
           public key pairs of the user and the KDC.
   Certificate and message formats are also defined in this section.

   This proposal will allow users either to use keys registered directly
   with the KDC, or to use keys already registered for use with X.509,
   PEM, or PGP, to obtain Kerberos credentials.  These credentials can
   then be used, as before, with application servers supporting Kerberos.
   Use of public key cryptography will not be a requirement for Kerberos,
   but if one's organization runs a KDC supporting public key, then users
   may choose to be registered with a public key pair, instead of the
   current secret key.

   The application request and response between Kerberos clients and
   application servers will continue to be based on conventional
   cryptography, or will be converted to use user-to-user
   authentication.  There are performance issues and other reasons
   that servers may be better off using conventional cryptography.
   For this proposal, we feel that 80 percent of the benefits of
   integrating public key with Kerberos can be attained for 20 percent
   of the effort, by addressing only initial authentication. This
   proposal does not preclude separate extensions.

   With these changes, users will be able to register public keys, only
   in realms that support public key, and they will then only be able
   to perform initial authentication from a client that supports public key,
   although they will be able to use services registered in any realm.
   Furthermore, users registered with conventional keys will be able
   to use any client.

   This proposal addresses three ways in which users may use public key
   cryptography for initial authentication with Kerberos, with minimal
   change to the existing protocol.  Users may register keys directly
   with the KDC, or they may present certificates by outside certification
   authorities (or certifications by other users) attesting to the
   association of the public key with the named user.  In both cases,
   the end result is that the user obtains a conventional ticket
   granting ticket or conventional server ticket that may be used for
   subsequent authentication, with such subsequent authentication using
   only conventional cryptography.

   Additionally, users may also register a digital signature key with
   the KDC.  We provide this option for the licensing benefits, as well
   as a simpler variant of the initial authentication exchange.  However,
   this option relies on the client to generate random keys.

   We first consider the case where the user's key is registered with
   the KDC.

3.1 Definitions

   Before we proceed, we will lay some groundwork definitions for
   encryption and signatures.  We propose the following definitions
   of signature and encryption modes (and their corresponding values
   on the wire):

       #define ENCTYPE_SIGN_MD5_RSA      0x0011

       #define ENCTYPE_ENCRYPT_RSA_PRIV  0x0021
       #define ENCTYPE_ENCRYPT_RSA_PUB   0x0022

   allowing further modes to be defined accordingly.

   In the exposition below, we will use the notation E (T, K) to denote
   the encryption of data T, with key (or parameters) K.

   If E is ENCTYPE_SIGN_MD5_RSA, then

       E (T, K) = {T, RSAEncryptPrivate (MD5Hash (T), K)}


       E (T, K) = RSAEncryptPrivate (T, K)

   Correspondingly, if E is ENCTYPE_ENCRYPT_RSA_PUB, then

       E (T, K) = RSAEncryptPublic (T, K)

3.2 Initial request for user registered with public key on KDC 

   In this scenario it is assumed that the user is registered with a
   public key on the KDC.  The user's private key may be held by the
   user, or it may be stored on the KDC, encrypted so that it cannot be
   used by the KDC.

3.2.1 User's private key is stored locally

   If the user stores his private key locally, the initial request to
   the KDC for a ticket granting ticket proceeds according to RFC 1510,
   except that a preauthentication field containing a nonce signed by
   the user's private key is included.  The preauthentication field
   may also include a list of the root certifiers trusted by the user.

           rootCert[0]         SEQUENCE OF OCTET STRING,
           signedAuth[1]       SignedPKAuthenticator

   SignedPKAuthenticator ::= SEQUENCE {
           authent[0]          PKAuthenticator,
           authentSig[1]       Signature

   PKAuthenticator ::= SEQUENCE {
           cksum[0]            Checksum OPTIONAL,
           cusec[1]            INTEGER,
           ctime[2]            KerberosTime,
           nonce[3]            INTEGER,
           kdcRealm[4]         Realm,
           kdcName[5]          PrincipalName

   Signature ::= SEQUENCE {
           sigType[0]          INTEGER,
           kvno[1]             INTEGER OPTIONAL,
           sigHash[2]          OCTET STRING

   Notationally, sigHash is then

       sigType (authent, userPrivateKey)

   where userPrivateKey is the user's private key (corresponding to the
   public key held in the user's database record).  Valid sigTypes are
   thus far limited to the above-listed ENCTYPE_SIGN_MD5_RSA; we expect
   that other types may be listed (and given on-the-wire values between
   0x0011 and 0x001f).

   The format of each certificate depends on the particular
   service used.  (Alternatively, the KDC could send, with its reply,
   a sequence of certifications (see below), but since the KDC is likely
   to have more certifications than users have trusted root certifiers,
   we have chosen the first method.)  In the event that the client
   believes it already possesses the current public key of the KDC,
   a zero-length root-cert field is sent.

   The fields in the signed authenticator are the same as those
   in the Kerberos authenticator; in addition, we include a client-
   generated nonce, and the name of the KDC.  The structure is itself
   signed using the user's private key corresponding to the public key
   registered with the KDC.

   Typically, preauthentication using a secret key would not be included,
   but if included it may be ignored by the KDC.  (We recommend that it
   not be included: even if the KDC should ignore the preauthentication,
   an attacker may not, and use an intercepted message to guess the
   password off-line.)

   The response from the KDC would be identical to the response in RFC 1510,
   except that instead of being encrypted in the secret key shared by the
   client and the KDC, it is encrypted in a random key freshly generated
   by the KDC (of type ENCTYPE_ENC_CBC_CRC).  A preauthentication field
   (specified below) accompanies the response, optionally containing a
   certificate with the public key for the KDC (since we do not assume
   that the client knows this public key), and a package containing the
   secret key in which the rest of the response is encrypted, along with
   the same nonce used in the rest of the response, in order to prevent
   replays.  This package is itself encrypted with the private key of the
   KDC, then encrypted with the public key of the user.

           kdcCert[0]          SEQUENCE OF Certificate,
           encryptShell[1]     EncryptedData, -- EncPaPkAsRepPartShell
                                              -- encrypted by encReplyTmpKey
           encryptKey[2]       EncryptedData  -- EncPaPkAsRepTmpKey
                                              -- encrypted by userPubliKey

   EncPaPkAsRepPartShell ::= SEQUENCE {
           encReplyPart[0]     EncPaPkAsRepPart,
           encReplyPartSig[1]  Signature -- encReplyPart
                                         -- signed by kdcPrivateKey

   EncPaPkAsRepPart ::= SEQUENCE {
           encReplyKey[0]      EncryptionKey,
           nonce[1]            INTEGER

   EncPaPkAsRepTmpKey ::= SEQUENCE {
           encReplyTmpKey[0]   EncryptionKey

   Notationally, assume that encryptPack is encrypted (or signed) with
   algorithm Ak, and that encryptShell is encrypted with algorithm Au.
   Then, encryptShell is

       Au (Ak ({encReplyKey, nonce}, kdcPrivateKey), userPublicKey)

   where kdcPrivateKey is the KDC's private key, and userPublicKey is the
   user's public key.

   The kdc-cert specification is lifted, with slight modifications,
   from v3 of the X.509 certificate specification:

   Certificate ::= SEQUENCE {
           version[0]          Version DEFAULT v1 (1),
           serialNumber[1]     CertificateSerialNumber,
           signature[2]        AlgorithmIdentifier,
           issuer[3]           PrincipalName,
           validity[4]         Validity,
           subjectRealm[5]     Realm,
           subject[6]          PrincipalName,
           subjectPublicKeyInfo[7] SubjectPublicKeyInfo,
           issuerUniqueID[8]   IMPLICIT UniqueIdentifier OPTIONAL,
           subjectUniqueID[9]  IMPLICIT UniqueIdentifier OPTIONAL,
           authentSig[10]      Signature

   The kdc-cert must have as its root certification one of the certifiers
   sent to the KDC with the original request.  If the KDC has no such
   certification, then it will instead reply with a KRB_ERROR of type
   KDC_ERROR_PREAUTH_FAILED.  If a zero-length root-cert was sent by the
   client as part of the PA-PK-AS-ROOT, then a correspondingly zero-length
   kdc-cert may be absent, in which case the client uses its copy of the
   KDC's public key.

   Upon receipt of the response from the KDC, the client will verify the
   public key for the KDC from PA-PK-AS-REP preauthentication data field,
   The certificate must certify the key as belonging to a principal whose
   name can be derived from the realm name.  If the certificate checks
   out, the client then decrypts the EncPaPkAsRepPart using the private
   key of the user, and verifies the signature of the KDC.  It then uses
   the random key contained therein to decrypt the rest of the response,
   and continues as per RFC 1510.  Because there is direct trust between
   the user and the KDC, the transited field of the ticket returned by
   the KDC should remain empty. (Cf. Section 3.3.)

3.2.2. Private key held by KDC

   Implementation of the changes in this section is OPTIONAL.

   When the user's private key is not carried with the user, the user may
   encrypt the private key using conventional cryptography, and register
   the encrypted private key with the KDC.  The MD5 hash of the DES key
   used to encrypt the private key must also be registered with the KDC.

   We provide this option with the warning that storing the private key
   on the KDC carries the risk of exposure in case the KDC is compromised.
   If a suffiently good password is chosen to encrypt the key, then this
   password can be used for a limited time to change the private key.
   If the user wishes to authenticate himself without storing the private
   key on each local disk, then a safer, albeit possibly less practical,
   alternative is to use a smart card to store the keys.

   When the user's private key is stored on the KDC, the KDC record
   will also indicate whether preauthentication is required before
   returning the key (we recommend that it be required).  If such
   preauthentication is required, when the initial request is received,
   the KDC will respond with a KRB_ERROR message, with msg-type set
   to KDC_ERR_PREAUTH_REQUIRED, and e-data set to:

           kdcCert[0]          SEQUENCE OF Certificate

   The kdc-cert field is identical to that in the PA-PK-AS-REP
   preauthentication data field returned with the KDC response, and must
   be validated as belonging to the KDC in the same manner.

   Upon receipt of the KRB_ERROR message with a PA-PK-AS-INFO field, the
   client will prompt the user for the password that was used to
   encrypt the private key, derive the DES key from that password,
   and calculate the MD5 hash H1 of the DES key.  The client then sends
   a request to the KDC, which includes a timestamp and a
   client-generated random secret key that will be used by the KDC
   to super-encrypt the encrypted private key before it is returned
   to the client.  This information is sent to the KDC in a subsequent
   AS_REQ message in a preauthentication data field:

           encHashShell[0]     EncryptedData -- EncPaPkAsReqShell

   EncPaPkAsReqShell ::= SEQUENCE {
           encHashPart[0]      EncryptedData -- EncPaPkAsReqPart

   EncPaPkAsReqPart ::= SEQUENCE {
           encHashKey[0]       EncryptionKey,
           nonce[1]            INTEGER

   The EncPaPkAsReqPart is first encrypted with a DES key K1, derived
   by string_to_key from the hash H1 (with null salt), then encrypted
   again with the KDC's public key from the certificate in the
   PA-PK-AS-INFO field of the error response.

   Notationally, if encryption algorithm A is used for DES encryption,
   and Ak is used for the public key encryption, then enc-shell is

       Ak (A ({encHashKey, nonce}, K1), kdcPublicKey)

   Upon receipt of the authentication request with the PA-PK-AS-REQ, the
   KDC verifies the hash of the user's DES encryption key by attempting
   to decrypt the EncPaPkAsReqPart of the PA-PK-AS-REQ.  If decryption
   is successful, the KDC generates the AS response as defined in
   RFC 1510, but additionally includes a preauthentication field of type
   PA-PK-USER-KEY.  (This response will also be included in response to
   the initial request without preauthentication if preauthentication is
   not required for the user and the user's encrypted private key is
   stored on the KDC.)

           encUserKeyPart[0]   EncryptedData -- EncPaPkUserKeyPart

   EncPaPkUserKeyPart ::= SEQUENCE {
           encUserKey[0]       OCTET STRING,
           nonce[1]            INTEGER

   Notationally, if encryption algorithm A is used, then enc-key-part is

       A ({encUserKey, nonce}, enc-hash-key)

   (where A could be null encryption).

   This message contains the encrypted private key that has been
   registered with the KDC by the user, as encrypted by the user,
   optionally super-encrypted with the enc-hash-key from the PA-PK-AS-REQ
   message if preauthentication using that method was provided (otherwise,
   the EncryptedData should denote null encryption).  Note that since
   H1 is a one-way hash, it is not possible for one to decrypt the
   message if one possesses H1 but not the DES key that H1 is derived
   from.  Because there is direct trust between the user and the
   KDC, the transited field of the ticket returned by the KDC should
   remain empty.  (Cf. Section 3.3.)

3.3. Clients with a public key certified by an outside authority

   Implementation of the changes in this section is OPTIONAL.

   In the case where the client is not registered with the current KDC,
   the client is responsible for obtaining the private key on its own.
   The client will request initial tickets from the KDC using the TGS
   exchange, but instead of performing pre-authentication using a
   Kerberos ticket granting ticket, or with the PA-PK-AS-REQ that is used
   when the public key is known to the KDC, the client performs
   preauthentication using the preauthentication data field of type

           userCert[0]         SEQUENCE OF OCTET STRING,
           signedAuth[1]       SignedPKAuthenticator

   where the user-cert specification depends on the type of certificate
   that the user possesses.  In cases where the service has separate
   key pairs for digital signature and for encryption, we recommend
   that the signature keys be used for the purposes of sending the
   preauthentication (and deciphering the response).

   The authenticator is the one used from the exchange in section 3.2.1,
   except that it is signed using the private key corresponding to
   the public key in the user-cert.

   The KDC will verify the preauthentication authenticator, and check the
   certification path against its own policy of legitimate certifiers.
   This may be based on a certification hierarchy, or simply a list of
   recognized certifiers in a system like PGP.

   If all checks out, the KDC will issue Kerberos credentials, as in 3.2,
   but with the names of all the certifiers in the certification path
   added to the transited field of the ticket, with a principal name
   taken from the certificate (this might be a long path for X.509, or a
   string like "John Q. Public <jqpublic@company.com>" if the certificate
   was a PGP certificate.  The realm will identify the kind of
   certificate and the final certifier as follows:


   as in PGP/<endorser@company.com>.

3.4. Digital Signature

   Implementation of the changes in this section is OPTIONAL.

   We offer this option with the warning that it requires the client
   process to generate a random DES key; this generation may not
   be able to guarantee the same level of randomness as the KDC.

   If a user registered a digital signature key pair with the KDC,
   a separate exchange may be used.  The client sends a KRB_AS_REQ as
   described in section 3.2.2.  If the user's database record
   indicates that a digital signature key is to be used, then the
   KDC sends back a KRB_ERROR as in section 3.2.2.

   It is assumed here that the signature key is stored on local disk.
   The client generates a random key of enctype ENCTYPE_DES_CBC_CRC,
   signs it using the signature key (otherwise the signature is
   performed as described in section 3.2.1), then encrypts the whole with
   the public key of the KDC.  This is returned with a separate KRB_AS_REQ
   in a preauthentication of type

           signedKey[0]        EncryptedData -- PaPkAsSignedData

   PaPkAsSignedData ::= SEQUENCE {
           signedKeyPart[0]    SignedKeyPart,
           signedKeyAuth[1]    PKAuthenticator

   SignedKeyPart ::= SEQUENCE {
           encSignedKey[0]     EncryptionKey,
           nonce[1]            INTEGER

   where the nonce is the one from the request.  Upon receipt of the
   request, the KDC decrypts, then verifies the random key.  It then
   replies as per RFC 1510, except that instead of being encrypted
   with the password-derived DES key, the reply is encrypted using
   the randomKey sent by the client.  Since the client already knows
   this key, there is no need to accompany the reply with an extra
   preauthentication field.  Because there is direct trust between
   the user and the KDC, the transited field of the ticket returned
   by the KDC should remain empty.  (Cf. Section 3.3.)

4. Preauthentication Data Types

   We propose that the following preauthentication types be allocated
   for the preauthentication data packages described in this draft:

       #define KRB5_PADATA_ROOT_CERT     17  /* PA-PK-AS-ROOT */
       #define KRB5_PADATA_PUBLIC_REP    18  /* PA-PK-AS-REP */
       #define KRB5_PADATA_PUBLIC_REQ    19  /* PA-PK-AS-REQ */
       #define KRB5_PADATA_PRIVATE_REP   20  /* PA-PK-USER-KEY */
       #define KRB5_PADATA_PUBLIC_EXT    21  /* PA-PK-AS-EXT-CERT */
       #define KRB5_PADATA_PUBLIC_SIGN   22  /* PA-PK-AS-SIGNED */

5. Encryption Information

   For the public key cryptography used in direct registration, we used
   (in our implementation) the RSAREF library supplied with the PGP 2.6.2
   release.  Encryption and decryption functions were implemented directly
   on top of the primitives made available therein, rather than the
   fully sealing operations in the API.

6. Compatibility with One-Time Passcodes

   We solicit discussion on how the use of public key cryptography for initial
   authentication will interact with the proposed use of one time passwords
   discussed in Internet Draft <draft-ietf-cat-kerberos-passwords-00.txt>.

7. Strength of Encryption and Signature Mechanisms

   In light of recent findings on the strengths of MD5 and various DES
   modes, we solicit discussion on which modes to incorporate into the
   protocol changes.

8. Expiration

   This Internet-Draft expires on December 7, 1996.

9. Authors' Addresses

   B. Clifford Neuman
   USC/Information Sciences Institute
   4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001
   Marina del Rey, CA 90292-6695

   Phone: 310-822-1511
   EMail: bcn@isi.edu

   Brian Tung
   USC/Information Sciences Institute
   4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001
   Marina del Rey, CA 90292-6695

   Phone: 310-822-1511
   EMail: brian@isi.edu

   John Wray
   Digital Equipment Corporation
   550 King Street, LKG2-2/Z7
   Littleton, MA 01460

   Phone: 508-486-5210
   EMail: wray@tuxedo.enet.dec.com