draft-ietf-cat-kerberos-pk-init-04.txt   [plain text]

INTERNET-DRAFT                                              Brian Tung
draft-ietf-cat-kerberos-pk-init-04.txt                 Clifford Neuman
Updates: RFC 1510                                                  ISI
expires January 31, 1998                                     John Wray
                                         Digital Equipment Corporation
                                                         Ari Medvinsky
                                                           Matthew Hur
                                                 CyberSafe Corporation
                                                      Jonathan Trostle

    Public Key Cryptography for Initial Authentication in Kerberos

0.  Status Of This Memo

    This document is an Internet-Draft.  Internet-Drafts are working
    documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its
    areas, and its working groups.  Note that other groups may also
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    Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
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    The distribution of this memo is unlimited.  It is filed as
    draft-ietf-cat-kerberos-pk-init-04.txt, and expires January 31,
    1998.  Please send comments to the authors.

1.  Abstract

    This document defines extensions (PKINIT) to the Kerberos protocol
    specification (RFC 1510 [1]) to provide a method for using public
    key cryptography during initial authentication.  The methods
    defined specify the ways in which preauthentication data fields and
    error data fields in Kerberos messages are to be used to transport
    public key data.

2.  Introduction

    The popularity of public key cryptography has produced a desire for
    its support in Kerberos [2].  The advantages provided by public key
    cryptography include simplified key management (from the Kerberos
    perspective) and the ability to leverage existing and developing
    public key certification infrastructures.

    Public key cryptography can be integrated into Kerberos in a number
    of ways.  One is to associate a key pair with each realm, which can
    then be used to facilitate cross-realm authentication; this is the
    topic of another draft proposal.  Another way is to allow users with
    public key certificates to use them in initial authentication.  This
    is the concern of the current document.

    One of the guiding principles in the design of PKINIT is that
    changes should be as minimal as possible.  As a result, the basic
    mechanism of PKINIT is as follows:  The user sends a request to the
    KDC as before, except that if that user is to use public key
    cryptography in the initial authentication step, his certificate
    accompanies the initial request, in the preauthentication fields.

    Upon receipt of this request, the KDC verifies the certificate and
    issues a ticket granting ticket (TGT) as before, except that instead
    of being encrypted in the user's long-term key (which is derived
    from a password), it is encrypted in a randomly-generated key.  This
    random key is in turn encrypted using the public key from the
    certificate that came with the request and signed using the KDC's
    private key, and accompanies the reply, in the preauthentication

    PKINIT also allows for users with only digital signature keys to
    authenticate using those keys, and for users to store and retrieve
    private keys on the KDC.

    The PKINIT specification may also be used for direct peer to peer
    authentication without contacting a central KDC. This application
    of PKINIT is described in PKTAPP [4] and is based on concepts
    introduced in [5, 6]. For direct client-to-server authentication,
    the client uses PKINIT to authenticate to the end server (instead
    of a central KDC), which then issues a ticket for itself.  This
    approach has an advantage over SSL [7] in that the server does not
    need to save state (cache session keys).  Furthermore, an
    additional benefit is that Kerberos tickets can facilitate
    delegation (see [8]).

3.  Proposed Extensions

    This section describes extensions to RFC 1510 for supporting the
    use of public key cryptography in the initial request for a ticket
    granting ticket (TGT).

    In summary, the following changes to RFC 1510 are proposed:

        --> Users may authenticate using either a public key pair or a
            conventional (symmetric) key.  If public key cryptography is
            used, public key data is transported in preauthentication
            data fields to help establish identity.
        --> Users may store private keys on the KDC for retrieval during
            Kerberos initial authentication.

    This proposal addresses two ways that users may use public key
    cryptography for initial authentication.  Users may present public
    key certificates, or they may generate their own session key,
    signed by their digital signature key.  In either case, the end
    result is that the user obtains an ordinary TGT that may be used for
    subsequent authentication, with such authentication using only
    conventional cryptography.

    Section 3.1 provides definitions to help specify message formats.
    Section 3.2 and 3.3 describe the extensions for the two initial
    authentication methods.  Section 3.4 describes a way for the user to
    store and retrieve his private key on the KDC, as an adjunct to the
    initial authentication.

3.1.  Definitions

    The extensions involve new encryption methods; we propose the
    addition of the following types:

        dsa-sign                                8
        rsa-priv                                9
        rsa-pub                                 10
        rsa-pub-md5                             11
        rsa-pub-sha1                            12

    The proposal of these encryption types notwithstanding, we do not
    mandate the use of any particular public key encryption method.

    The extensions involve new preauthentication fields; we propose the
    addition of the following types:

        PA-PK-AS-REQ                            14
        PA-PK-AS-REP                            15
        PA-PK-AS-SIGN                           16
        PA-PK-KEY-REQ                           17
        PA-PK-KEY-REP                           18

    The extensions also involve new error types; we propose the addition
    of the following types:

        KDC_ERR_CLIENT_NOT_TRUSTED              62
        KDC_ERR_KDC_NOT_TRUSTED                 63
        KDC_ERR_INVALID_SIG                     64
        KDC_ERR_KEY_TOO_WEAK                    65

    In many cases, PKINIT requires the encoding of an X.500 name as a
    Realm.  In these cases, the realm will be represented using a
    different style, specified in RFC 1510 with the following example:


    For a realm derived from an X.500 name, NAMETYPE will have the value
    X500-ASN1-BASE64.  The full realm name will appear as follows:


    where Base64 is an ASCII encoding of binary data as per RFC 1521,
    and DistinguishedName is the ASN.1 encoding of the X.500
    Distinguished Name from the X.509 certificate.

    Similarly, PKINIT may require the encoding of an X.500 name as a
    PrincipalName.  In these cases, the name-type of the principal name
    shall be set to NT-X500-PRINCIPAL, and the name-string shall be set
    as follows:


    as described above.

    [Similar description needed on how realm names and principal names
    are to be derived from PGP names.]

3.1.1.  Encryption and Key Formats

    In the exposition below, we use the terms public key and private
    key generically.  It should be understood that the term "public
    key" may be used to refer to either a public encryption key or a
    signature verification key, and that the term "private key" may be
    used to refer to either a private decryption key or a signature
    generation key.  The fact that these are logically distinct does
    not preclude the assignment of bitwise identical keys.

    All additional symmetric keys specified in this draft shall use the
    same encryption type as the session key in the response from the
    KDC.  These include the temporary keys used to encrypt the signed
    random key encrypting the response, as well as the key derived from
    Diffie-Hellman agreement.  In the case of Diffie-Hellman, the key
    shall be produced from the agreed bit string as follows:

        * Truncate the bit string to the appropriate length.
        * Rectify parity in each byte (if necessary) to obtain the key.

    For instance, in the case of a DES key, we take the first eight
    bytes of the bit stream, and then adjust the least significant bit
    of each byte to ensure that each byte has odd parity.

    RFC 1510, Section 6.1, defines EncryptedData as follows:

        EncryptedData ::= SEQUENCE {
            etype               [0] INTEGER,
            kvno                [1] INTEGER OPTIONAL,
            cipher              [2] OCTET STRING
                                    -- is CipherText

    RFC 1510 suggests that ciphertext is coded as follows:

        CipherText ::= ENCRYPTED SEQUENCE {
            confounder          [0] UNTAGGED OCTET STRING(conf_length)
            check               [1] UNTAGGED OCTET STRING(checksum_length)
            msg-seq             [2] MsgSequence,
            pad                 [3] UNTAGGED OCTET STRING(pad_length)

    The PKINIT protocol introduces several new types of encryption.
    Data that is encrypted with a public key will allow only the check
    optional field, as it is defined above. This type of the checksum
    will be specified in the etype field, together with the encryption

    In order to identify the checksum type, etype will have the
    following values:


    In the case that etype is set to rsa-pub, the optional 'check'
    field will not be provided.

    Data that is encrypted with a private key will not use any optional
    fields. PKINIT uses private key encryption only for signatures,
    which are encrypted checksums. Therefore, the optional check field
    is not needed.

3.2.  Standard Public Key Authentication

    Implementation of the changes in this section is REQUIRED for
    compliance with PKINIT.

    It is assumed that all public keys are signed by some certification
    authority (CA).  The initial authentication request is sent as per
    RFC 1510, except that a preauthentication field containing data
    signed by the user's private key accompanies the request:

                                -- PA TYPE 14
        signedAuthPack          [0] SignedAuthPack
        userCert                [1] SEQUENCE OF Certificate OPTIONAL,
                                    -- the user's certificate chain
        trustedCertifiers       [2] SEQUENCE OF PrincipalName OPTIONAL
                                    -- CAs that the client trusts

    SignedAuthPack ::= SEQUENCE {
        authPack                [0] AuthPack,
        authPackSig             [1] Signature,
                                    -- of authPack
                                    -- using user's private key

    AuthPack ::= SEQUENCE {
        pkAuthenticator         [0] PKAuthenticator,
        clientPublicValue       [1] SubjectPublicKeyInfo OPTIONAL
                                    -- if client is using Diffie-Hellman

    PKAuthenticator ::= SEQUENCE {
        kdcName                 [0] PrincipalName,
        kdcRealm                [1] Realm,
        cusec                   [2] INTEGER,
                                    -- for replay prevention
        ctime                   [3] KerberosTime,
                                    -- for replay prevention
        nonce                   [4] INTEGER

    Signature ::= SEQUENCE {
        signedHash              [0] EncryptedData
                                    -- of type Checksum

    Checksum ::= SEQUENCE {
        cksumtype               [0] INTEGER,
        checksum                [1] OCTET STRING
    }   -- as specified by RFC 1510

    SubjectPublicKeyInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
        algorithm               [0] AlgorithmIdentifier,
        subjectPublicKey        [1] BIT STRING
                                    -- for DH, equals
                                    -- public exponent (INTEGER encoded
                                    -- as payload of BIT STRING)
    }   -- as specified by the X.509 recommendation [9]

    AlgorithmIdentifier ::= SEQUENCE {
        algorithm               [0] ALGORITHM.&id,
                                    -- for DH, equals
                                    -- dhKeyAgreement
                                    -- ({iso(1) member-body(2) US(840)
                                    -- rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-3(3)
                                    -- 1})
        parameters              [1] ALGORITHM.&type
                                    -- for DH, is DHParameter 
    }   -- as specified by the X.509 recommendation [9]

    DHParameter ::= SEQUENCE {
        prime                   [0] INTEGER,
                                    -- p
        base                    [1] INTEGER,
                                    -- g
        privateValueLength      [2] INTEGER OPTIONAL

    Certificate ::= SEQUENCE {
        certType                [0] INTEGER,
                                    -- type of certificate
                                    -- 1 = X.509v3 (DER encoding)
                                    -- 2 = PGP (per PGP specification)
        certData                [1] OCTET STRING
                                    -- actual certificate
                                    -- type determined by certType

    The PKAuthenticator carries information to foil replay attacks,
    to bind the request and response, and to optionally pass the
    client's Diffie-Hellman public value (i.e. for using DSA in
    combination with Diffie-Hellman).  The PKAuthenticator is signed
    with the private key corresponding to the public key in the
    certificate found in userCert (or cached by the KDC).

    In the PKAuthenticator, the client may specify the KDC name in one
    of two ways:

        * The Kerberos principal name krbtgt/<realm_name>@<realm_name>,
          where <realm_name> is replaced by the applicable realm name.
        * The name in the KDC's certificate (e.g., an X.500 name, or a
          PGP name).

    Note that the first case requires that the certificate name and the
    Kerberos principal name be bound together (e.g., via an X.509v3

    The userCert field is a sequence of certificates, the first of which
    must be the user's public key certificate. Any subsequent
    certificates will be certificates of the certifiers of the user's
    certificate.  These cerificates may be used by the KDC to verify the
    user's public key.  This field may be left empty if the KDC already
    has the user's certificate.

    The trustedCertifiers field contains a list of certification
    authorities trusted by the client, in the case that the client does
    not possess the KDC's public key certificate.

    Upon receipt of the AS_REQ with PA-PK-AS-REQ pre-authentication
    type, the KDC attempts to verify the user's certificate chain
    (userCert), if one is provided in the request.  This is done by
    verifying the certification path against the KDC's policy of
    legitimate certifiers.  This may be based on a certification
    hierarchy, or it may be simply a list of recognized certifiers in a
    system like PGP.

    If verification of the user's certificate fails, the KDC sends back
    an error message of type KDC_ERR_CLIENT_NOT_TRUSTED.  The e-data
    field contains additional information pertaining to this error, and
    is formatted as follows:

            method-type         [0] INTEGER,
                                    -- 1 = cannot verify public key
                                    -- 2 = invalid certificate
                                    -- 3 = revoked certificate
                                    -- 4 = invalid KDC name
            method-data         [1] OCTET STRING OPTIONAL
        } -- syntax as for KRB_AP_ERR_METHOD (RFC 1510)

    The values for the method-type and method-data fields are described
    in Section 3.2.1.

    If trustedCertifiers is provided in the PA-PK-AS-REQ, the KDC
    verifies that it has a certificate issued by one of the certifiers
    trusted by the client.  If it does not have a suitable certificate,
    the KDC returns an error message of type KDC_ERR_KDC_NOT_TRUSTED to
    the client. 

    If a trust relationship exists, the KDC then verifies the client's
    signature on PKAuthenticator.  If that fails, the KDC returns an
    error message of type KDC_ERR_INVALID_SIG.  Otherwise, the KDC uses
    the timestamp in the PKAuthenticator to assure that the request is
    not a replay.   The KDC also verifies that its name is specified in
    the PKAuthenticator.

    If the clientPublicValue field is filled in, indicating that the
    client wishes to use Diffie-Hellman key agreement, then the KDC
    checks to see that the parameters satisfy its policy.  If they do
    not (e.g., the prime size is insufficient for the expected
    encryption type), then the KDC sends back an error message of type
    KDC_ERR_KEY_TOO_WEAK.  Otherwise, it generates its own public and
    private values for the response.

    The KDC also checks that the timestamp in the PKAuthenticator is
    within the allowable window.  If the local (server) time and the
    client time in the authenticator differ by more than the allowable
    clock skew, then the KDC returns an error message of type

    Assuming no errors, the KDC replies as per RFC 1510, except as
    follows:  The user's name in the ticket is as represented in the
    certificate, unless a Kerberos principal name is bound to the name
    in the certificate (e.g., via an X.509v3 extension).  The user's
    realm in the ticket shall be the name of the Certification
    Authority that issued the user's public key certificate.

    The KDC encrypts the reply not with the user's long-term key, but
    with a random key generated only for this particular response.  This
    random key is sealed in the preauthentication field:

                                -- PA TYPE 15
        encSignedReplyKeyPack   [0] EncryptedData,
                                    -- of type SignedReplyKeyPack
                                    -- using the temporary key
                                    -- in encTmpKey
        encTmpKeyPack           [1] EncryptedData,
                                    -- of type TmpKeyPack
                                    -- using either the client public
                                    -- key or the Diffie-Hellman key
                                    -- specified by SignedDHPublicValue
        signedKDCPublicValue    [2] SignedKDCPublicValue OPTIONAL
                                    -- if one was passed in the request
        kdcCert                 [3] SEQUENCE OF Certificate OPTIONAL,
                                    -- the KDC's certificate chain

    SignedReplyKeyPack ::= SEQUENCE {
        replyKeyPack            [0] ReplyKeyPack,
        replyKeyPackSig         [1] Signature,
                                    -- of replyEncKeyPack
                                    -- using KDC's private key

    ReplyKeyPack ::= SEQUENCE {
        replyKey                [0] EncryptionKey,
                                    -- used to encrypt main reply
        nonce                   [1] INTEGER
                                    -- binds response to the request
                                    -- must be same as the nonce
                                    -- passed in the PKAuthenticator

    TmpKeyPack ::= SEQUENCE {
        tmpKey                  [0] EncryptionKey,
                                    -- used to encrypt the
                                    -- SignedReplyKeyPack
    SignedKDCPublicValue ::= SEQUENCE {
        kdcPublicValue          [0] SubjectPublicKeyInfo,
                                    -- as described above
        kdcPublicValueSig       [1] Signature
                                    -- of kdcPublicValue
                                    -- using KDC's private key

    The kdcCert field is a sequence of certificates, the first of which
    must be the KDC's public key certificate.  Any subsequent
    certificates will be certificates of the certifiers of the KDC's
    certificate.  The last of these must have as its certifier one of
    the certifiers sent to the KDC in the PA-PK-AS-REQ.  These
    cerificates may be used by the client to verify the KDC's public
    key.  This field is empty if the client did not send to the KDC a
    list of trusted certifiers (the trustedCertifiers field was empty).
    Since each certifier in the certification path of a user's
    certificate is essentially a separate realm, the name of each
    certifier shall be added to the transited field of the ticket.  The
    format of these realm names is defined in Section 3.1 of this
    document.  If applicable, the transit-policy-checked flag should be
    set in the issued ticket.

    The KDC's certificate must bind the public key to a name derivable
    from the name of the realm for that KDC.  For an X.509 certificate,
    this is done as follows.  The certificate will contain a
    distinguished X.500 name contains, in addition to other attributes,
    an extended attribute, called principalName, with the KDC's
    principal name as its value (as the text string
    krbtgt/<realm_name>@<realm_name>, where <realm_name> is the realm
    name of the KDC):

        principalName ATTRIBUTE ::= {
            WITH SYNTAX PrintableString(SIZE(1..ub-prinicipalName))
            EQUALITY MATCHING RULE  caseExactMatch
            ORDERING MATCHING RULE  caseExactOrderingMatch
            SINGLE VALUE            TRUE
            ID                      id-at-principalName

        ub-principalName INTEGER ::= 1024

        id-at OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {joint-iso-ccitt(2) ds(5) 4}

        id-at-principalName OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {id-at 60}

    where ATTRIBUTE is as defined in X.501, and the matching rules are
    as defined in X.520.

    [Still need to register principalName.]

    [Still need to discuss what is done for a PGP certificate.]

    The client then extracts the random key used to encrypt the main
    reply.  This random key (in encPaReply) is encrypted with either the
    client's public key or with a key derived from the DH values
    exchanged between the client and the KDC.

3.2.1.  Additional Information for Errors

    This section describes the interpretation of the method-type and
    method-data fields of the KDC_ERR_CLIENT_NOT_TRUSTED error.

    If method-type=1, the client's public key certificate chain does not
    contain a certificate that is signed by a certification authority
    trusted by the KDC.  The format of the method-data field will be an
    ASN.1 encoding of a list of trusted certifiers, as defined above:

        TrustedCertifiers ::= SEQUENCE OF PrincipalName

    If method-type=2, the signature on one of the certificates in the
    chain cannot be verified.  The format of the method-data field will
    be an ASN.1 encoding of the integer index of the certificate in

        CertificateIndex ::= INTEGER
                             -- 0 = 1st certificate,
                             -- 1 = 2nd certificate, etc

    If method-type=3, one of the certificates in the chain has been
    revoked.  The format of the method-data field will be an ASN.1
    encoding of the integer index of the certificate in question:

        CertificateIndex ::= INTEGER
                             -- 0 = 1st certificate,
                             -- 1 = 2nd certificate, etc

    If method-type=4, the KDC name or realm in the PKAuthenticator does
    not match the principal name of the KDC.  There is no method-data
    field in this case.

3.3.  Digital Signature

    Implementation of the changes in this section are OPTIONAL for
    compliance with PKINIT.

    We offer this option with the warning that it requires the client to
    generate a random key; the client may not be able to guarantee the
    same level of randomness as the KDC.

    If the user registered, or presents a certificate for, a digital
    signature key with the KDC instead of an encryption key, then a
    separate exchange must be used.  The client sends a request for a
    TGT as usual, except that it (rather than the KDC) generates the
    random key that will be used to encrypt the KDC response.  This key
    is sent to the KDC along with the request in a preauthentication
    field, encrypted with the KDC's public key:

                                -- PA TYPE 16
        encSignedRandomKeyPack  [0] EncryptedData,
                                    -- of type SignedRandomKeyPack
                                    -- using the key in encTmpKeyPack
        encTmpKeyPack           [1] EncryptedData,
                                    -- of type TmpKeyPack
                                    -- using the KDC's public key
        userCert                [2] SEQUENCE OF Certificate OPTIONAL
                                    -- the user's certificate chain

    SignedRandomKeyPack ::= SEQUENCE {
        randomkeyPack           [0] RandomKeyPack,
        randomkeyPackSig        [1] Signature
                                    -- of keyPack
                                    -- using user's private key

    RandomKeyPack ::= SEQUENCE {
        randomKey               [0] EncryptionKey,
                                    -- will be used to encrypt reply
        randomKeyAuth           [1] PKAuthenticator
                                    -- nonce copied from AS-REQ

    If the KDC does not accept client-generated random keys as a matter
    of policy, then it sends back an error message of type
    KDC_ERR_KEY_TOO_WEAK.  Otherwise, it extracts the random key as

    Upon receipt of the PA-PK-AS-SIGN, the KDC decrypts then verifies
    the randomKey.  It then replies as per RFC 1510, except that the
    reply is encrypted not with a password-derived user key, but with
    the randomKey sent in the request.  Since the client already knows
    this key, there is no need to accompany the reply with an extra
    preauthentication field.  The transited field of the ticket should
    specify the certification path as described in Section 3.2.

3.4.  Retrieving the User's Private Key from the KDC

    Implementation of the changes described in this section are OPTIONAL
    for compliance with PKINIT.

    When the user's private key is not stored local to the user, he may
    choose to store the private key (normally encrypted using a
    password-derived key) on the KDC.  In this case, the client makes a
    request as described above, except that instead of preauthenticating
    with his private key, he uses a symmetric key shared with the KDC.

    For simplicity's sake, this shared key is derived from the password-
    derived key used to encrypt the private key, in such a way that the
    KDC can authenticate the user with the shared key without being able
    to extract the private key.

    We provide this option to present the user with an alternative to
    storing the private key on local disk at each machine where he
    expects to authenticate himself using PKINIT.  It should be noted
    that it replaces the added risk of long-term storage of the private
    key on possibly many workstations with the added risk of storing the
    private key on the KDC in a form vulnerable to brute-force attack.

    Denote by K1 the symmetric key used to encrypt the private key.
    Then construct symmetric key K2 as follows:

        * Perform a hash on K1.
        * Truncate the digest to Length(K1) bytes.
        * Rectify parity in each byte (if necessary) to obtain K2.

    The KDC stores K2, the public key, and the encrypted private key.
    This key pair is designated as the "primary" key pair for that user.
    This primary key pair is the one used to perform initial
    authentication using the PA-PK-AS-REP preauthentication field.  If
    he desires, he may also store additional key pairs on the KDC; these
    may be requested in addition to the primary.  When the client
    requests initial authentication using public key cryptography, it
    must then include in its request, instead of a PA-PK-AS-REQ, the
    following preauthentication sequence:

                                -- PA TYPE 17
        signedPKAuth            [0] SignedPKAuth,
        trustedCertifiers       [1] SEQUENCE OF PrincipalName OPTIONAL,
                                    -- CAs that the client trusts
        keyIDList               [2] SEQUENCE OF Checksum OPTIONAL
                                    -- payload is hash of public key
                                    -- corresponding to desired
                                    -- private key
                                    -- if absent, KDC will return all
                                    -- stored private keys

    SignedPKAuth ::= SEQUENCE {
        pkAuth                  [0] PKAuthenticator,
        pkAuthSig               [1] Signature
                                    -- of pkAuth
                                    -- using the symmetric key K2

    If a keyIDList is present, the first identifier should indicate
    the primary private key.  No public key certificate is required,
    since the KDC stores the public key along with the private key.
    If there is no keyIDList, all the user's private keys are returned.

    Upon receipt, the KDC verifies the signature using K2.  If the
    verification fails, the KDC sends back an error of type
    KDC_ERR_INVALID_SIG.  If the signature verifies, but the requested
    keys are not found on the KDC, then the KDC sends back an error of
    type KDC_ERR_PREAUTH_FAILED.  If all checks out, the KDC responds as
    described in Section 3.2, except that in addition, the KDC appends
    the following preauthentication sequence:

                                -- PA TYPE 18
        encKeyRep               [0] EncryptedData
                                    -- of type EncKeyReply
                                    -- using the symmetric key K2

    EncKeyReply ::= SEQUENCE {
        keyPackList             [0] SEQUENCE OF KeyPack,
                                    -- the first KeyPair is
                                    -- the primary key pair
        nonce                   [1] INTEGER
                                    -- binds reply to request
                                    -- must be identical to the nonce
                                    -- sent in the SignedAuthPack

    KeyPack ::= SEQUENCE {
        keyID                   [0] Checksum,
        encPrivKey              [1] OCTET STRING

    Upon receipt of the reply, the client extracts the encrypted private
    keys (and may store them, at the client's option).  The primary
    private key, which must be the first private key in the keyPack
    SEQUENCE, is used to decrypt the random key in the PA-PK-AS-REP;
    this key in turn is used to decrypt the main reply as described in
    Section 3.2.

4.  Logistics and Policy

    This section describes a way to define the policy on the use of
    PKINIT for each principal and request.

    The KDC is not required to contain a database record for users
    that use either the Standard Public Key Authentication or Public Key
    Authentication with a Digital Signature.  However, if these users
    are registered with the KDC, it is recommended that the database
    record for these users be modified to include three additional flags
    in the attributes field.

    The first flag, use_standard_pk_init, indicates that the user should
    authenticate using standard PKINIT as described in Section 3.2.  The
    second flag, use_digital_signature, indicates that the user should
    authenticate using digital signature PKINIT as described in Section
    3.3.  The third flag, store_private_key, indicates that the user
    has stored his private key on the KDC and should retrieve it using
    the exchange described in Section 3.4.

    If one of the preauthentication fields defined above is included in
    the request, then the KDC shall respond as described in Sections 3.2
    through 3.4, ignoring the aforementioned database flags.  If more
    than one of the preauthentication fields is present, the KDC shall
    respond with an error of type KDC_ERR_PREAUTH_FAILED.

    In the event that none of the preauthentication fields defined above
    are included in the request, the KDC checks to see if any of the
    above flags are set.  If the first flag is set, then it sends back
    an error of type KDC_ERR_PREAUTH_REQUIRED indicating that a
    preauthentication field of type PA-PK-AS-REQ must be included in the

    Otherwise, if the first flag is clear, but the second flag is set,
    then the KDC sends back an error of type KDC_ERR_PREAUTH_REQUIRED
    indicating that a preauthentication field of type PA-PK-AS-SIGN must
    be included in the request.

    Lastly, if the first two flags are clear, but the third flag is set,
    then the KDC sends back an error of type KDC_ERR_PREAUTH_REQUIRED
    indicating that a preauthentication field of type PA-PK-KEY-REQ must
    be included in the request.

5.  Dependence on Transport Mechanisms

    Certificate chains can potentially grow quite large and span several
    UDP packets; this in turn increases the probability that a Kerberos
    message involving PKINIT extensions will be broken in transit.  In
    light of the possibility that the Kerberos specification will
    allow TCP as a transport mechanism, we solicit discussion on whether
    using PKINIT should encourage the use of TCP.

6.  Bibliography

    [1] J. Kohl, C. Neuman.  The Kerberos Network Authentication Service
    (V5).  Request for Comments 1510.

    [2] B.C. Neuman, Theodore Ts'o. Kerberos: An Authentication Service
    for Computer Networks, IEEE Communications, 32(9):33-38.  September

    [3] A. Medvinsky, M. Hur.  Addition of Kerberos Cipher Suites to
    Transport Layer Security (TLS).

    [4] A. Medvinsky, M. Hur, B. Clifford Neuman.  Public Key Utilizing
    Tickets for Application Servers (PKTAPP).

    [5] M. Sirbu, J. Chuang.  Distributed Authentication in Kerberos
    Using Public Key Cryptography.  Symposium On Network and Distributed
    System Security, 1997.

    [6] B. Cox, J.D. Tygar, M. Sirbu.  NetBill Security and Transaction 
    Protocol.  In Proceedings of the USENIX Workshop on Electronic
    Commerce, July 1995.

    [7] Alan O. Freier, Philip Karlton and Paul C. Kocher.  The SSL
    Protocol, Version 3.0 - IETF Draft. 

    [8] B.C. Neuman, Proxy-Based Authorization and Accounting for 
    Distributed Systems.  In Proceedings of the 13th International 
    Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, May 1993.

    [9] ITU-T (formerly CCITT) Information technology - Open Systems
    Interconnection - The Directory: Authentication Framework
    Recommendation X.509 ISO/IEC 9594-8

7.  Acknowledgements

    Sasha Medvinsky contributed several ideas to the protocol changes
    and specifications in this document.  His additions have been most

    Some of the ideas on which this proposal is based arose during
    discussions over several years between members of the SAAG, the IETF
    CAT working group, and the PSRG, regarding integration of Kerberos
    and SPX.  Some ideas have also been drawn from the DASS system.
    These changes are by no means endorsed by these groups.  This is an
    attempt to revive some of the goals of those groups, and this
    proposal approaches those goals primarily from the Kerberos
    perspective.  Lastly, comments from groups working on similar ideas
    in DCE have been invaluable.

8.  Expiration Date

    This draft expires January 31, 1997.

9.  Authors

    Brian Tung
    Clifford Neuman
    USC Information Sciences Institute
    4676 Admiralty Way Suite 1001
    Marina del Rey CA 90292-6695
    Phone: +1 310 822 1511
    E-mail: {brian, bcn}@isi.edu

    John Wray
    Digital Equipment Corporation
    550 King Street, LKG2-2/Z7
    Littleton, MA 01460
    Phone: +1 508 486 5210
    E-mail: wray@tuxedo.enet.dec.com

    Ari Medvinsky
    Matthew Hur
    CyberSafe Corporation
    1605 NW Sammamish Road Suite 310
    Issaquah WA 98027-5378
    Phone: +1 206 391 6000
    E-mail: {ari.medvinsky, matt.hur}@cybersafe.com

    Jonathan Trostle
    Novell Corporation
    Provo UT
    E-mail: jtrostle@novell.com