CFString.h   [plain text]

 * Copyright (c) 2005 Apple Computer, Inc. All rights reserved.
 * This file contains Original Code and/or Modifications of Original Code
 * as defined in and that are subject to the Apple Public Source License
 * Version 2.0 (the 'License'). You may not use this file except in
 * compliance with the License. Please obtain a copy of the License at
 * and read it before using this
 * file.
 * The Original Code and all software distributed under the License are
 * distributed on an 'AS IS' basis, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER
 * Please see the License for the specific language governing rights and
 * limitations under the License.
/*	CFString.h
	Copyright (c) 1998-2005, Apple, Inc. All rights reserved.


#include <CoreFoundation/CFBase.h>
#include <CoreFoundation/CFArray.h>
#include <CoreFoundation/CFData.h>
#include <CoreFoundation/CFDictionary.h>
#include <CoreFoundation/CFCharacterSet.h>
#include <CoreFoundation/CFLocale.h>
#include <stdarg.h>

#if defined(__cplusplus)
extern "C" {

Please note: CFStrings are conceptually an array of Unicode characters.
However, in general, how a CFString stores this array is an implementation
detail. For instance, CFString might choose to use an array of 8-bit characters;
to store its contents; or it might use multiple blocks of memory; or whatever.
Furthermore, the implementation might change depending on the default
system encoding, the user's language, the OS, or even a given release.

What this means is that you should use the following advanced functions with care:


These functions are provided for optimization only. They will either return the desired
pointer quickly, in constant time, or they return NULL. They might choose to return NULL
for many reasons; for instance it's possible that for users running in different
languages these sometimes return NULL; or in a future OS release the first two might
switch to always returning NULL. Never observing NULL returns in your usages of these
functions does not mean they won't ever return NULL. (But note the CFStringGetCharactersPtr()
exception mentioned further below.)

In your usages of these functions, if you get a NULL return, use the non-Ptr version
of the functions as shown in this example:

  Str255 buffer;
  StringPtr ptr = CFStringGetPascalStringPtr(str, encoding);
  if (ptr == NULL) {
      if (CFStringGetPascalString(str, buffer, 256, encoding)) ptr = buffer;

Note that CFStringGetPascalString() or CFStringGetCString() calls might still fail --- but
that will happen in two circumstances only: The conversion from the UniChar contents of CFString
to the specified encoding fails, or the buffer is too small. If they fail, that means
the conversion was not possible.

If you need a copy of the buffer in the above example, you might consider simply
calling CFStringGetPascalString() in all cases --- CFStringGetPascalStringPtr()
is simply an optimization.

In addition, the following functions, which create immutable CFStrings from developer
supplied buffers without copying the buffers, might have to actually copy
under certain circumstances (If they do copy, the buffer will be dealt with by the
"contentsDeallocator" argument.):


You should of course never depend on the backing store of these CFStrings being
what you provided, and in other no circumstance should you change the contents
of that buffer (given that would break the invariant about the CFString being immutable).

Having said all this, there are actually ways to create a CFString where the backing store
is external, and can be manipulated by the developer or CFString itself:


A "contentsAllocator" is used to realloc or free the backing store by CFString.
kCFAllocatorNull can be provided to assure CFString will never realloc or free the buffer.
Developer can call CFStringSetExternalCharactersNoCopy() to update
CFString's idea of what's going on, if the buffer is changed externally. In these
strings, CFStringGetCharactersPtr() is guaranteed to return the external buffer.

These functions are here to allow wrapping a buffer of UniChar characters in a CFString,
allowing the buffer to passed into CFString functions and also manipulated via CFString
mutation functions. In general, developers should not use this technique for all strings,
as it prevents CFString from using certain optimizations.

/* Identifier for character encoding; the values are the same as Text Encoding Converter TextEncoding.
typedef UInt32 CFStringEncoding;

/* Platform-independent built-in encodings; always available on all platforms.
   Call CFStringGetSystemEncoding() to get the default system encoding.
#define kCFStringEncodingInvalidId (0xffffffffU)
typedef enum {
    kCFStringEncodingMacRoman = 0,
    kCFStringEncodingWindowsLatin1 = 0x0500, /* ANSI codepage 1252 */
    kCFStringEncodingISOLatin1 = 0x0201, /* ISO 8859-1 */
    kCFStringEncodingNextStepLatin = 0x0B01, /* NextStep encoding*/
    kCFStringEncodingASCII = 0x0600, /* 0..127 (in creating CFString, values greater than 0x7F are treated as corresponding Unicode value) */
    kCFStringEncodingUnicode = 0x0100, /* kTextEncodingUnicodeDefault  + kTextEncodingDefaultFormat (aka kUnicode16BitFormat) */
    kCFStringEncodingUTF8 = 0x08000100, /* kTextEncodingUnicodeDefault + kUnicodeUTF8Format */
    kCFStringEncodingNonLossyASCII = 0x0BFF /* 7bit Unicode variants used by Cocoa & Java */
    kCFStringEncodingUTF16 = 0x0100, /* kTextEncodingUnicodeDefault + kUnicodeUTF16Format (alias of kCFStringEncodingUnicode) */
    kCFStringEncodingUTF16BE = 0x10000100, /* kTextEncodingUnicodeDefault + kUnicodeUTF16BEFormat */
    kCFStringEncodingUTF16LE = 0x14000100, /* kTextEncodingUnicodeDefault + kUnicodeUTF16LEFormat */

    kCFStringEncodingUTF32 = 0x0c000100, /* kTextEncodingUnicodeDefault + kUnicodeUTF32Format */
    kCFStringEncodingUTF32BE = 0x18000100, /* kTextEncodingUnicodeDefault + kUnicodeUTF32BEFormat */
    kCFStringEncodingUTF32LE = 0x1c000100 /* kTextEncodingUnicodeDefault + kUnicodeUTF32LEFormat */
} CFStringBuiltInEncodings;

/* CFString type ID */
CFTypeID CFStringGetTypeID(void);

/* Macro to allow creation of compile-time constant strings; the argument should be a constant string.

CFSTR(), not being a "Copy" or "Create" function, does not return a new
reference for you. So, you should not release the return value. This is
much like constant C or Pascal strings --- when you use "hello world"
in a program, you do not free it.

However, strings returned from CFSTR() can be retained and released in a
properly nested fashion, just like any other CF type. That is, if you pass
a CFSTR() return value to a function such as SetMenuItemWithCFString(), the
function can retain it, then later, when it's done with it, it can release it.

At this point non-7 bit characters (that is, characters > 127) in CFSTR() are not 
supported and using them will lead to unpredictable results. This includes escaped
(\nnn) characters whose values are > 127. Even if it works for you in testing, 
it might not work for a user with a different language preference.
#define CFSTR(cStr)  ((CFStringRef) __builtin___CFStringMakeConstantString ("" cStr ""))
#define CFSTR(cStr)  __CFStringMakeConstantString("" cStr "")

/*** Immutable string creation functions ***/

/* Functions to create basic immutable strings. The provided allocator is used for all memory activity in these functions.

/* These functions copy the provided buffer into CFString's internal storage. */
CFStringRef CFStringCreateWithPascalString(CFAllocatorRef alloc, ConstStr255Param pStr, CFStringEncoding encoding);

CFStringRef CFStringCreateWithCString(CFAllocatorRef alloc, const char *cStr, CFStringEncoding encoding);

CFStringRef CFStringCreateWithCharacters(CFAllocatorRef alloc, const UniChar *chars, CFIndex numChars);

/* These functions try not to copy the provided buffer. The buffer will be deallocated 
with the provided contentsDeallocator when it's no longer needed; to not free
the buffer, specify kCFAllocatorNull here. As usual, NULL means default allocator.

NOTE: Do not count on these buffers as being used by the string; 
in some cases the CFString might free the buffer and use something else
(for instance if it decides to always use Unicode encoding internally). 

NOTE: If you are not transferring ownership of the buffer to the CFString
(for instance, you supplied contentsDeallocator = kCFAllocatorNull), it is your
responsibility to assure the buffer does not go away during the lifetime of the string.
If the string is retained or copied, its lifetime might extend in ways you cannot
predict. So, for strings created with buffers whose lifetimes you cannot
guarantee, you need to be extremely careful --- do not hand it out to any
APIs which might retain or copy the strings.
CFStringRef CFStringCreateWithPascalStringNoCopy(CFAllocatorRef alloc, ConstStr255Param pStr, CFStringEncoding encoding, CFAllocatorRef contentsDeallocator);

CFStringRef CFStringCreateWithCStringNoCopy(CFAllocatorRef alloc, const char *cStr, CFStringEncoding encoding, CFAllocatorRef contentsDeallocator);

CFStringRef CFStringCreateWithCharactersNoCopy(CFAllocatorRef alloc, const UniChar *chars, CFIndex numChars, CFAllocatorRef contentsDeallocator);

/* Create copies of part or all of the string.
CFStringRef CFStringCreateWithSubstring(CFAllocatorRef alloc, CFStringRef str, CFRange range);

CFStringRef CFStringCreateCopy(CFAllocatorRef alloc, CFStringRef theString);

/* These functions create a CFString from the provided printf-like format string and arguments.
CFStringRef CFStringCreateWithFormat(CFAllocatorRef alloc, CFDictionaryRef formatOptions, CFStringRef format, ...);

CFStringRef CFStringCreateWithFormatAndArguments(CFAllocatorRef alloc, CFDictionaryRef formatOptions, CFStringRef format, va_list arguments);

/* Functions to create mutable strings. "maxLength", if not 0, is a hard bound on the length of the string. If 0, there is no limit on the length.
CFMutableStringRef CFStringCreateMutable(CFAllocatorRef alloc, CFIndex maxLength);

CFMutableStringRef CFStringCreateMutableCopy(CFAllocatorRef alloc, CFIndex maxLength, CFStringRef theString);

/* This function creates a mutable string that has a developer supplied and directly editable backing store.
The string will be manipulated within the provided buffer (if any) until it outgrows capacity; then the
externalCharactersAllocator will be consulted for more memory. When the CFString is deallocated, the
buffer will be freed with the externalCharactersAllocator. Provide kCFAllocatorNull here to prevent the buffer
from ever being reallocated or deallocated by CFString. See comments at top of this file for more info.
CFMutableStringRef CFStringCreateMutableWithExternalCharactersNoCopy(CFAllocatorRef alloc, UniChar *chars, CFIndex numChars, CFIndex capacity, CFAllocatorRef externalCharactersAllocator);

/*** Basic accessors for the contents ***/

/* Number of 16-bit Unicode characters in the string.
CFIndex CFStringGetLength(CFStringRef theString);

/* Extracting the contents of the string. For obtaining multiple characters, calling
CFStringGetCharacters() is more efficient than multiple calls to CFStringGetCharacterAtIndex().
If the length of the string is not known (so you can't use a fixed size buffer for CFStringGetCharacters()),
another method is to use is CFStringGetCharacterFromInlineBuffer() (see further below).
UniChar CFStringGetCharacterAtIndex(CFStringRef theString, CFIndex idx);

void CFStringGetCharacters(CFStringRef theString, CFRange range, UniChar *buffer);

/*** Conversion to other encodings ***/

/* These two convert into the provided buffer; they return false if conversion isn't possible
(due to conversion error, or not enough space in the provided buffer). 
These functions do zero-terminate or put the length byte; the provided bufferSize should include
space for this (so pass 256 for Str255). More sophisticated usages can go through CFStringGetBytes().
These functions are equivalent to calling CFStringGetBytes() with 
the range of the string; lossByte = 0; and isExternalRepresentation = false; 
if successful, they then insert the leading length of terminating zero, as desired.
Boolean CFStringGetPascalString(CFStringRef theString, StringPtr buffer, CFIndex bufferSize, CFStringEncoding encoding);

Boolean CFStringGetCString(CFStringRef theString, char *buffer, CFIndex bufferSize, CFStringEncoding encoding);

/* These functions attempt to return in O(1) time the desired format for the string.
Note that although this means a pointer to the internal structure is being returned,
this can't always be counted on. Please see note at the top of the file for more
ConstStringPtr CFStringGetPascalStringPtr(CFStringRef theString, CFStringEncoding encoding);	/* May return NULL at any time; be prepared for NULL */

const char *CFStringGetCStringPtr(CFStringRef theString, CFStringEncoding encoding);		/* May return NULL at any time; be prepared for NULL */

const UniChar *CFStringGetCharactersPtr(CFStringRef theString);					/* May return NULL at any time; be prepared for NULL */

/* The primitive conversion routine; allows you to convert a string piece at a time
   into a fixed size buffer. Returns number of characters converted. 
   Characters that cannot be converted to the specified encoding are represented
   with the byte specified by lossByte; if lossByte is 0, then lossy conversion
   is not allowed and conversion stops, returning partial results.
   Pass buffer==NULL if you don't care about the converted string (but just the convertability,
   or number of bytes required). 
   maxBufLength indicates the maximum number of bytes to generate. It is ignored when buffer==NULL.
   Does not zero-terminate. If you want to create Pascal or C string, allow one extra byte at start or end. 
   Setting isExternalRepresentation causes any extra bytes that would allow 
   the data to be made persistent to be included; for instance, the Unicode BOM.
CFIndex CFStringGetBytes(CFStringRef theString, CFRange range, CFStringEncoding encoding, UInt8 lossByte, Boolean isExternalRepresentation, UInt8 *buffer, CFIndex maxBufLen, CFIndex *usedBufLen);

/* This one goes the other way by creating a CFString from a bag of bytes.
This is much like CFStringCreateWithPascalString or CFStringCreateWithCString,
except the length is supplied explicitly. In addition, you can specify whether
the data is an external format --- that is, whether to pay attention to the
BOM character (if any) and do byte swapping if necessary
CFStringRef CFStringCreateWithBytes(CFAllocatorRef alloc, const UInt8 *bytes, CFIndex numBytes, CFStringEncoding encoding, Boolean isExternalRepresentation);

/* Convenience functions String <-> Data. These generate "external" formats, that is, formats that
   can be written out to disk. For instance, if the encoding is Unicode, CFStringCreateFromExternalRepresentation()
   pays attention to the BOM character (if any) and does byte swapping if necessary.
   Similarly CFStringCreateExternalRepresentation() will always include a BOM character if the encoding is
   Unicode. See above for description of lossByte.
CFStringRef CFStringCreateFromExternalRepresentation(CFAllocatorRef alloc, CFDataRef data, CFStringEncoding encoding);	/* May return NULL on conversion error */

CFDataRef CFStringCreateExternalRepresentation(CFAllocatorRef alloc, CFStringRef theString, CFStringEncoding encoding, UInt8 lossByte);	/* May return NULL on conversion error */	

/* Hints about the contents of a string
CFStringEncoding CFStringGetSmallestEncoding(CFStringRef theString);	/* Result in O(n) time max */

CFStringEncoding CFStringGetFastestEncoding(CFStringRef theString);	/* Result in O(1) time max */

/* General encoding info
CFStringEncoding CFStringGetSystemEncoding(void);		/* The default encoding for the system; untagged 8-bit characters are usually in this encoding */

CFIndex CFStringGetMaximumSizeForEncoding(CFIndex length, CFStringEncoding encoding);	/* Max bytes a string of specified length (in UniChars) will take up if encoded */

/*** FileSystem path conversion functions ***/

/* Extract the contents of the string as a NULL-terminated 8-bit string appropriate for passing to POSIX APIs.  The string is zero-terminated. false will be returned if the conversion results don't fit into the buffer.  Use CFStringGetMaximumSizeOfFileSystemRepresentation() if you want to make sure the buffer is of sufficient length.
Boolean CFStringGetFileSystemRepresentation(CFStringRef string, char *buffer, CFIndex maxBufLen) AVAILABLE_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_4_AND_LATER;

/* Get the upper bound on the number of bytes required to hold the file system representation for the string. This result is returned quickly as a very rough approximation, and could be much larger than the actual space required. The result includes space for the zero termination. If you are allocating a buffer for long-term keeping, it's recommended that you reallocate it smaller (to be the right size) after calling CFStringGetFileSystemRepresentation(). 
CFIndex CFStringGetMaximumSizeOfFileSystemRepresentation(CFStringRef string) AVAILABLE_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_4_AND_LATER;

/* Create a CFString from the specified zero-terminated POSIX file system representation.  If the conversion fails (possible due to bytes in the buffer not being a valid sequence of bytes for the appropriate character encoding), NULL is returned.
CFStringRef CFStringCreateWithFileSystemRepresentation(CFAllocatorRef alloc, const char *buffer) AVAILABLE_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_4_AND_LATER;

/*** Comparison functions. ***/

/* Find and compare flags; these are OR'ed together as compareOptions or searchOptions in the various functions. 
   This typedef doesn't appear in the functions; instead the argument is CFOptionFlags. 
typedef enum {	
    kCFCompareCaseInsensitive = 1,	
    kCFCompareBackwards = 4,		/* Starting from the end of the string */
    kCFCompareAnchored = 8,		/* Only at the specified starting point */
    kCFCompareNonliteral = 16,		/* If specified, loose equivalence is performed (o-umlaut == o, umlaut) */
    kCFCompareLocalized = 32,		/* User's default locale is used for the comparisons */
    kCFCompareNumerically = 64		/* Numeric comparison is used; that is, Foo2.txt < Foo7.txt < Foo25.txt */
} CFStringCompareFlags;	

/* The main comparison routine; compares specified range of the first string to (the full range of) the second string.
   locale == NULL indicates canonical locale.
   kCFCompareNumerically, added in 10.2, does not work if kCFCompareLocalized is specified on systems before 10.3
   kCFCompareBackwards and kCFCompareAnchored are not applicable.
CFComparisonResult CFStringCompareWithOptions(CFStringRef theString1, CFStringRef theString2, CFRange rangeToCompare, CFOptionFlags compareOptions);

/* Comparison convenience suitable for passing as sorting functions.
   kCFCompareNumerically, added in 10.2, does not work if kCFCompareLocalized is specified on systems before 10.3
   kCFCompareBackwards and kCFCompareAnchored are not applicable.
CFComparisonResult CFStringCompare(CFStringRef theString1, CFStringRef theString2, CFOptionFlags compareOptions);

/* CFStringFindWithOptions() returns the found range in the CFRange * argument; you can pass NULL for simple discovery check.
   If stringToFind is the empty string (zero length), nothing is found.
   Ignores the kCFCompareNumerically option.
Boolean CFStringFindWithOptions(CFStringRef theString, CFStringRef stringToFind, CFRange rangeToSearch, CFOptionFlags searchOptions, CFRange *result);

/* CFStringCreateArrayWithFindResults() returns an array of CFRange pointers, or NULL if there are no matches.
   Overlapping instances are not found; so looking for "AA" in "AAA" finds just one range.
   Post 10.1: If kCFCompareBackwards is provided, the scan is done from the end (which can give a different result), and
      the results are stored in the array backwards (last found range in slot 0).
   If stringToFind is the empty string (zero length), nothing is found.
   kCFCompareAnchored causes just the consecutive instances at start (or end, if kCFCompareBackwards) to be reported. So, searching for "AB" in "ABABXAB..." you just get the first two occurrences.
   Ignores the kCFCompareNumerically option.
CFArrayRef CFStringCreateArrayWithFindResults(CFAllocatorRef alloc, CFStringRef theString, CFStringRef stringToFind, CFRange rangeToSearch, CFOptionFlags compareOptions);

/* Find conveniences; see comments above concerning empty string and options.
CFRange CFStringFind(CFStringRef theString, CFStringRef stringToFind, CFOptionFlags compareOptions);

Boolean CFStringHasPrefix(CFStringRef theString, CFStringRef prefix);

Boolean CFStringHasSuffix(CFStringRef theString, CFStringRef suffix);

	@function CFStringGetRangeOfComposedCharactersAtIndex
	Returns the range of the composed character sequence at the specified index.
	@param theString The CFString which is to be searched.  If this
                		parameter is not a valid CFString, the behavior is
	@param theIndex The index of the character contained in the
			composed character sequence.  If the index is
			outside the index space of the string (0 to N-1 inclusive,
			where N is the length of the string), the behavior is
	@result The range of the composed character sequence.
CF_EXPORT CFRange CFStringGetRangeOfComposedCharactersAtIndex(CFStringRef theString, CFIndex theIndex);

	@function CFStringFindCharacterFromSet
	Query the range of the first character contained in the specified character set.
	@param theString The CFString which is to be searched.  If this
                		parameter is not a valid CFString, the behavior is
	@param theSet The CFCharacterSet against which the membership
			of characters is checked.  If this parameter is not a valid
			CFCharacterSet, the behavior is undefined.
	@param range The range of characters within the string to search. If
			the range location or end point (defined by the location
			plus length minus 1) are outside the index space of the
			string (0 to N-1 inclusive, where N is the length of the
			string), the behavior is undefined. If the range length is
			negative, the behavior is undefined. The range may be empty
			(length 0), in which case no search is performed.
	@param searchOptions The bitwise-or'ed option flags to control
			the search behavior.  The supported options are
			kCFCompareBackwards andkCFCompareAnchored.
			If other option flags are specified, the behavior
                        is undefined.
	@param result The pointer to a CFRange supplied by the caller in
			which the search result is stored.  Note that the length
                        of this range could be more than If a pointer to an invalid
			memory is specified, the behavior is undefined.
	@result true, if at least a character which is a member of the character
			set is found and result is filled, otherwise, false.
CF_EXPORT Boolean CFStringFindCharacterFromSet(CFStringRef theString, CFCharacterSetRef theSet, CFRange rangeToSearch, CFOptionFlags searchOptions, CFRange *result);

/* Find range of bounds of the line(s) that span the indicated range (startIndex, numChars),
   taking into account various possible line separator sequences (CR, CRLF, LF, and Unicode LS, PS).
   All return values are "optional" (provide NULL if you don't want them)
     lineStartIndex: index of first character in line
     lineEndIndex: index of first character of the next line (including terminating line separator characters)
     contentsEndIndex: index of the first line separator character
   Thus, lineEndIndex - lineStartIndex is the number of chars in the line, including the line separators
         contentsEndIndex - lineStartIndex is the number of chars in the line w/out the line separators
void CFStringGetLineBounds(CFStringRef theString, CFRange range, CFIndex *lineBeginIndex, CFIndex *lineEndIndex, CFIndex *contentsEndIndex); 

/*** Exploding and joining strings with a separator string ***/

CFStringRef CFStringCreateByCombiningStrings(CFAllocatorRef alloc, CFArrayRef theArray, CFStringRef separatorString);	/* Empty array returns empty string; one element array returns the element */

CFArrayRef CFStringCreateArrayBySeparatingStrings(CFAllocatorRef alloc, CFStringRef theString, CFStringRef separatorString);	/* No separators in the string returns array with that string; string == sep returns two empty strings */

/*** Parsing non-localized numbers from strings ***/

SInt32 CFStringGetIntValue(CFStringRef str);		/* Skips whitespace; returns 0 on error, MAX or -MAX on overflow */

double CFStringGetDoubleValue(CFStringRef str);	/* Skips whitespace; returns 0.0 on error */

/*** MutableString functions ***/

/* CFStringAppend("abcdef", "xxxxx") -> "abcdefxxxxx"
   CFStringDelete("abcdef", CFRangeMake(2, 3)) -> "abf"
   CFStringReplace("abcdef", CFRangeMake(2, 3), "xxxxx") -> "abxxxxxf"
   CFStringReplaceAll("abcdef", "xxxxx") -> "xxxxx"
void CFStringAppend(CFMutableStringRef theString, CFStringRef appendedString);

void CFStringAppendCharacters(CFMutableStringRef theString, const UniChar *chars, CFIndex numChars);

void CFStringAppendPascalString(CFMutableStringRef theString, ConstStr255Param pStr, CFStringEncoding encoding);

void CFStringAppendCString(CFMutableStringRef theString, const char *cStr, CFStringEncoding encoding);

void CFStringAppendFormat(CFMutableStringRef theString, CFDictionaryRef formatOptions, CFStringRef format, ...);

void CFStringAppendFormatAndArguments(CFMutableStringRef theString, CFDictionaryRef formatOptions, CFStringRef format, va_list arguments);

void CFStringInsert(CFMutableStringRef str, CFIndex idx, CFStringRef insertedStr);

void CFStringDelete(CFMutableStringRef theString, CFRange range);

void CFStringReplace(CFMutableStringRef theString, CFRange range, CFStringRef replacement);

void CFStringReplaceAll(CFMutableStringRef theString, CFStringRef replacement);	/* Replaces whole string */

/* Replace all occurrences of target in rangeToSearch of theString with replacement.
   Pays attention to kCFCompareCaseInsensitive, kCFCompareBackwards, kCFCompareNonliteral, and kCFCompareAnchored.
   kCFCompareBackwards can be used to do the replacement starting from the end, which could give a different result.
     ex. AAAAA, replace AA with B -> BBA or ABB; latter if kCFCompareBackwards
   kCFCompareAnchored assures only anchored but multiple instances are found (the instances must be consecutive at start or end)
     ex. AAXAA, replace A with B -> BBXBB or BBXAA; latter if kCFCompareAnchored
   Returns number of replacements performed.
CFIndex CFStringFindAndReplace(CFMutableStringRef theString, CFStringRef stringToFind, CFStringRef replacementString, CFRange rangeToSearch, CFOptionFlags compareOptions);


/* This function will make the contents of a mutable CFString point directly at the specified UniChar array.
   It works only with CFStrings created with CFStringCreateMutableWithExternalCharactersNoCopy().
   This function does not free the previous buffer.
   The string will be manipulated within the provided buffer (if any) until it outgrows capacity; then the
     externalCharactersAllocator will be consulted for more memory.
   See comments at the top of this file for more info.
void CFStringSetExternalCharactersNoCopy(CFMutableStringRef theString, UniChar *chars, CFIndex length, CFIndex capacity);	/* Works only on specially created mutable strings! */

/* CFStringPad() will pad or cut down a string to the specified size.
   The pad string is used as the fill string; indexIntoPad specifies which character to start with.
     CFStringPad("abc", " ", 9, 0) ->  "abc      "
     CFStringPad("abc", ". ", 9, 1) -> "abc . . ."
     CFStringPad("abcdef", ?, 3, ?) -> "abc"

     CFStringTrim() will trim the specified string from both ends of the string.
     CFStringTrimWhitespace() will do the same with white space characters (tab, newline, etc)
     CFStringTrim("  abc ", " ") -> "abc"
     CFStringTrim("* * * *abc * ", "* ") -> "*abc "
void CFStringPad(CFMutableStringRef theString, CFStringRef padString, CFIndex length, CFIndex indexIntoPad);

void CFStringTrim(CFMutableStringRef theString, CFStringRef trimString);

void CFStringTrimWhitespace(CFMutableStringRef theString);

void CFStringLowercase(CFMutableStringRef theString, CFLocaleRef locale);

void CFStringUppercase(CFMutableStringRef theString, CFLocaleRef locale);

void CFStringCapitalize(CFMutableStringRef theString, CFLocaleRef locale);
void CFStringLowercase(CFMutableStringRef theString, const void *localeTBD); // localeTBD must be NULL on pre-10.3

void CFStringUppercase(CFMutableStringRef theString, const void *localeTBD); // localeTBD must be NULL on pre-10.3

void CFStringCapitalize(CFMutableStringRef theString, const void *localeTBD); // localeTBD must be NULL on pre-10.3

	@typedef CFStringNormalizationForm
	This is the type of Unicode normalization forms as described in
	Unicode Technical Report #15.
typedef enum {
	kCFStringNormalizationFormD = 0, // Canonical Decomposition
	kCFStringNormalizationFormKD, // Compatibility Decomposition
	kCFStringNormalizationFormC, // Canonical Decomposition followed by Canonical Composition
	kCFStringNormalizationFormKC // Compatibility Decomposition followed by Canonical Composition
} CFStringNormalizationForm;

	@function CFStringNormalize
	Normalizes the string into the specified form as described in
	Unicode Technical Report #15.
	@param theString  The string which is to be normalized.  If this
		parameter is not a valid mutable CFString, the behavior is
	@param theForm  The form into which the string is to be normalized.
		If this parameter is not a valid CFStringNormalizationForm value,
		the behavior is undefined.
CF_EXPORT void CFStringNormalize(CFMutableStringRef theString, CFStringNormalizationForm theForm);

/* Perform string transliteration.  The transformation represented by transform (see below for the full list of transforms supported) is applied to the given range of string, modifying it in place. Only the specified range will be modified, but the transform may look at portions of the string outside that range for context. NULL range pointer causes the whole string to be transformed. On return, range is modified to reflect the new range corresponding to the original range. reverse indicates that the inverse transform should be used instead, if it exists. If the transform is successful, true is returned; if unsuccessful, false. Reasons for the transform being unsuccessful include an invalid transform identifier, or attempting to reverse an irreversible transform.
Boolean CFStringTransform(CFMutableStringRef string, CFRange *range, CFStringRef transform, Boolean reverse) AVAILABLE_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_4_AND_LATER;

/* Transform identifiers for CFStringTransform()
CF_EXPORT const CFStringRef kCFStringTransformStripCombiningMarks AVAILABLE_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_4_AND_LATER;
CF_EXPORT const CFStringRef kCFStringTransformToLatin AVAILABLE_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_4_AND_LATER;
CF_EXPORT const CFStringRef kCFStringTransformFullwidthHalfwidth AVAILABLE_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_4_AND_LATER;
CF_EXPORT const CFStringRef kCFStringTransformLatinKatakana AVAILABLE_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_4_AND_LATER;
CF_EXPORT const CFStringRef kCFStringTransformLatinHiragana AVAILABLE_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_4_AND_LATER;
CF_EXPORT const CFStringRef kCFStringTransformHiraganaKatakana AVAILABLE_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_4_AND_LATER;
CF_EXPORT const CFStringRef kCFStringTransformMandarinLatin AVAILABLE_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_4_AND_LATER;
CF_EXPORT const CFStringRef kCFStringTransformLatinHangul AVAILABLE_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_4_AND_LATER;
CF_EXPORT const CFStringRef kCFStringTransformLatinArabic AVAILABLE_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_4_AND_LATER;
CF_EXPORT const CFStringRef kCFStringTransformLatinHebrew AVAILABLE_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_4_AND_LATER;
CF_EXPORT const CFStringRef kCFStringTransformLatinThai AVAILABLE_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_4_AND_LATER;
CF_EXPORT const CFStringRef kCFStringTransformLatinCyrillic AVAILABLE_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_4_AND_LATER;
CF_EXPORT const CFStringRef kCFStringTransformLatinGreek AVAILABLE_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_4_AND_LATER;
CF_EXPORT const CFStringRef kCFStringTransformToUnicodeName AVAILABLE_MAC_OS_X_VERSION_10_4_AND_LATER;

/*** General encoding related functionality ***/

/* This returns availability of the encoding on the system
Boolean CFStringIsEncodingAvailable(CFStringEncoding encoding);

/* This function returns list of available encodings.  The returned list is terminated with kCFStringEncodingInvalidId and owned by the system.
const CFStringEncoding *CFStringGetListOfAvailableEncodings(void);

/* Returns name of the encoding; non-localized.
CFStringRef CFStringGetNameOfEncoding(CFStringEncoding encoding);

/* ID mapping functions from/to Cocoa NSStringEncoding.  Returns kCFStringEncodingInvalidId if no mapping exists.
UInt32 CFStringConvertEncodingToNSStringEncoding(CFStringEncoding encoding);

CFStringEncoding CFStringConvertNSStringEncodingToEncoding(UInt32 encoding);

/* ID mapping functions from/to Microsoft Windows codepage (covers both OEM & ANSI).  Returns kCFStringEncodingInvalidId if no mapping exists.
UInt32 CFStringConvertEncodingToWindowsCodepage(CFStringEncoding encoding);

CFStringEncoding CFStringConvertWindowsCodepageToEncoding(UInt32 codepage);

/* ID mapping functions from/to IANA registery charset names.  Returns kCFStringEncodingInvalidId if no mapping exists.
CFStringEncoding CFStringConvertIANACharSetNameToEncoding(CFStringRef theString);

CFStringRef  CFStringConvertEncodingToIANACharSetName(CFStringEncoding encoding);

/* Returns the most compatible MacOS script value for the input encoding */
/* i.e. kCFStringEncodingMacRoman -> kCFStringEncodingMacRoman */
/*	kCFStringEncodingWindowsLatin1 -> kCFStringEncodingMacRoman */
/*	kCFStringEncodingISO_2022_JP -> kCFStringEncodingMacJapanese */
CFStringEncoding CFStringGetMostCompatibleMacStringEncoding(CFStringEncoding encoding);

/* The next two functions allow fast access to the contents of a string, 
   assuming you are doing sequential or localized accesses. To use, call
   CFStringInitInlineBuffer() with a CFStringInlineBuffer (on the stack, say),
   and a range in the string to look at. Then call CFStringGetCharacterFromInlineBuffer()
   as many times as you want, with a index into that range (relative to the start
   of that range). These are INLINE functions and will end up calling CFString only 
   once in a while, to fill a buffer.  CFStringGetCharacterFromInlineBuffer() returns 0 if
   a location outside the original range is specified.
#define __kCFStringInlineBufferLength 64
typedef struct {
    UniChar buffer[__kCFStringInlineBufferLength];
    CFStringRef theString;
    const UniChar *directBuffer;
    CFRange rangeToBuffer;		/* Range in string to buffer */
    CFIndex bufferedRangeStart;		/* Start of range currently buffered (relative to rangeToBuffer.location) */
    CFIndex bufferedRangeEnd;		/* bufferedRangeStart + number of chars actually buffered */
} CFStringInlineBuffer;

#if defined(CF_INLINE)
CF_INLINE void CFStringInitInlineBuffer(CFStringRef str, CFStringInlineBuffer *buf, CFRange range) {
    buf->theString = str;
    buf->rangeToBuffer = range;
    buf->directBuffer = CFStringGetCharactersPtr(str);
    buf->bufferedRangeStart = buf->bufferedRangeEnd = 0;

CF_INLINE UniChar CFStringGetCharacterFromInlineBuffer(CFStringInlineBuffer *buf, CFIndex idx) {
    if (buf->directBuffer) {
	if (idx < 0 || idx >= buf->rangeToBuffer.length) return 0;
        return buf->directBuffer[idx + buf->rangeToBuffer.location];
    if (idx >= buf->bufferedRangeEnd || idx < buf->bufferedRangeStart) {
	if (idx < 0 || idx >= buf->rangeToBuffer.length) return 0;
	if ((buf->bufferedRangeStart = idx - 4) < 0) buf->bufferedRangeStart = 0;
	buf->bufferedRangeEnd = buf->bufferedRangeStart + __kCFStringInlineBufferLength;
	if (buf->bufferedRangeEnd > buf->rangeToBuffer.length) buf->bufferedRangeEnd = buf->rangeToBuffer.length;
	CFStringGetCharacters(buf->theString, CFRangeMake(buf->rangeToBuffer.location + buf->bufferedRangeStart, buf->bufferedRangeEnd - buf->bufferedRangeStart), buf->buffer);
    return buf->buffer[idx - buf->bufferedRangeStart];

/* If INLINE functions are not available, we do somewhat less powerful macros that work similarly (except be aware that the buf argument is evaluated multiple times).
#define CFStringInitInlineBuffer(str, buf, range) \
    do {(buf)->theString = str; (buf)->rangeToBuffer = range; (buf)->directBuffer = CFStringGetCharactersPtr(str);} while (0)

#define CFStringGetCharacterFromInlineBuffer(buf, idx) \
    (((idx) < 0 || (idx) >= (buf)->rangeToBuffer.length) ? 0 : ((buf)->directBuffer ? (buf)->directBuffer[(idx) + (buf)->rangeToBuffer.location] : CFStringGetCharacterAtIndex((buf)->theString, (idx) + (buf)->rangeToBuffer.location)))

#endif /* CF_INLINE */

/* Rest of the stuff in this file is private and should not be used directly
/* For debugging only
   Use CFShow() to printf the description of any CFType;
   Use CFShowStr() to printf detailed info about a CFString
void CFShow(CFTypeRef obj);

void CFShowStr(CFStringRef str);

/* This function is private and should not be used directly */
CFStringRef  __CFStringMakeConstantString(const char *cStr);	/* Private; do not use */

#if defined(__cplusplus)